Newest Nuculars News Notes

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1977 5% to 40% mixed energy, with the public involved. Back in the day the real concerns of proliferation. Then uising those fears and disasters as a argument against the abundant energy. The first speaker talk about vigilance and completelky agree dont use the cheapest things on nuclear, and quit looking to cut corners on the process.

Gerald W Brown.

Im pissy but im on the case.
Fuckin politicians destroy everything thats good followed by general scumbags.
Take something thats amazing, and use fears to make it work for another purpose.
Cut every corner, syphon every last penny and resource.
Imagine a science world where lowest bidder wasnt a thing.
guess it partially worked for space tech. Gus Grissom, Challenger.
All the nuclear disasters are concerning learning from em, holding governments accountable.
I cant believe some of the things that have transpired on this planet regarding nuclear.
Yet despite all that I believe in a future with nuclear tech benefiting humankind.
Already looks corrupt as fuck with SNC and the libs. Do you really want these people fiddling with nuclear safety protocols.
Or, would you rather it out of their hands.
Look at Ontario, and the Chief engineer, they did them wrong.
now the future I see SMRs as being beneficial to some remote areas here in Canada.
Space. Make it deliverable on a truck, have a fleet of trucks.
That could be usefull for military operations.
In 2015, a year after the new premier won her first election, auditor general Bonnie Lysyk issued a scathing report that suggested Ontarians had paid $37 billion more for power than they should have between 2006 and 2014, partly because the province had allowed exorbitant prices for wind, solar and other alternative energy sources.
Vic Fedeli, the Tories’ finance critic, alleged that many of the current government’s policies have benefited donors to the Liberal party.

“This government has been using Hydro One as their play thing to raise money for the Liberal party,” he said Wednesday. “This has been a cash machine for the Liberals for far too long.”

lol 37 billion more for power.

Thats almost like the coal, and elk river destruction.
Teck Resources, which posted profits of $6.1 billion in 2017, was the single largest donor to the BC Liberal party. The practice of corporate political donations has since been phased out in B.C.

What fraudsters.
under the guise of students and the environment.
Just some 50s research. Chalk river zeep.

This headline,
Thorium headlines stories similar to a candu bundle.

National resources mobilization act. 61 years ago, conscripted. About 2500. Theres some crazy war cartoons.

Ok 1957
200 MW NRU,.

1960s SLOWPOKES, and the China commercial slowpokemodel of their own.

More 50’s 1951 first cobalt 60 treatment Ontario.
Uranium Boom in the 50s.
Photos, and archive of chalk river.
Speech coal, CNA director from 40 years ago. Nice defict and coal still. Led astray by all talk no action wasting government.
Lol the one job available where you need 5 years experience lobbying parliamentarians.
I love this; energy would be to cheap to meter..

Since Im reasearching 50s theres a duck and cover movie sure I can find on youtube.
Has a jingle.

Atomic parties drink till dawn watch the nuclear blast. Take a quick shower, duck, and cover.

Some Kodak discoveries, interesting. Wine forgeries. Paint. carbon dating. Fogging of photographic papers Webb JH.
Seeking more 60s but learning more about Marie Curie
Marie, and Pierre Curie discovered polonium, and radium 1898

The gram of radium

Or the box atleast, the gram of radium costs 100000 $ at the time.
Its at the currie museum France, they have a road named after them.

Ok the museum is cool, and all im back focused on the 60s.
Specifically canada and nuclear tech in the 60s.

This one talking about power demonstration NPD. Accident at Chalk river ’52. Shows a cool pic of the rector in 1966
Nov Federal Food and Drug Directorate approved irradiation of potatoes for human consumption. {I&I}
Kariachi Kanuup plant. Pakistan.
Theres mega time line on this link.
Its a story about india and uranium
Ok here 1956 ottawa and india agree to the , 1974 bomb. Cameco corp uranium, restarted in april 2015. china expected to build 150 reactors of the the next 20 years and here theyre suggesting SNC try to get a piece of 50 reactors. What the hell have they been doing since 2017. Talking about investements and reactorws we could had, cause now, mega debt, no reactor.
‘Continuing to invest.’ Continuing to train wreck more like. Im not seeing any recommendations being followed. Long term investments. We are at a government crossroads more like in 2021. With proroghing during parliament this gov doesnt care about nuclear. More like the bare minimum with a story oh we looked at some papers once this month, and delay for another 2. “improve candian expertise after ignoring it since the 70’s 80s I read the chief engineer paper. Why am I not seeing that ? Lawrence Mcauley been in government since 1986.

ok cool, boring..
lol thias didnt age well build on the trust and relationships that have been established in Chinese market. Shoulda been focused on Canada. I just searched if hed have anything to do with nuclear no. Minister of VAC priorities lol. Its almost as if the chief engineer report thrown in the trash and politicians instead followed their own ambitions.
They didnt design and build the reactor so could cut every corner and rip off the tax payer. Its liek with the money involved should pay for itself, clean up wastes, wages, maintenance, unforeseen circumstances funds. CEO bonuses. Thats my opinion power generation should be a business within itself for the people not for profit. We coulda had jobs and energy, instead getting faty bureaucracy and giving CEOs massive paychecks, and cuttings all the safety and upgrades. Greed. And then these people turns around and say other countries cant have free nuclear. Man if the government was smart with that R&D would be boundless wealth.
It appears in no simple way Ontario overspent on green investments causing the cheap power to be the most overpriced. So why not invest other different money into the green energy. then its the taxpayers paying for bureaucratic errors.

Anyways more on the 60’s
More 60s tech.

NIA and CNA friends since the 60s.
Here I am reading about Diefenbaker, criminal defence. Stance on apartheid.
Diefenbaker interesting about the nuclear weapons and a nation we coulda had em, I think in retrospect quickly people are proud of non nuclear weapons choice. Atleast that debate. Nevertheless Bormac misssiles entered Canada 63 phased out 72

69 trudeau signs non proliferation 1970

also declared non viable system. Its air defence capable of delivering missile warhead. How effective really. Funny to read these HOC statements and debate, but the rteal threat was the growing stockpile, Canada acting as middle pawm for allies. The author writes about tension, its like Kruchev and the missiles in Cuba, and pressures from allies to act in a certain way.
some 62, political.
heres more timeline

Rolphton 62 Firts energy to the grid.
Here talking about some numbers of the generation between 60s if anyone cares, then some growth between 1960 – 1974 low growth 75-94.
oil crisis 73-74
Aloueettee satellite and surving unexpected artificial radiation belt.

Chalk River Laboratories, the latter of which produces a large share of the world’s medical radioisotopes. Other examples of Canadian technology-based science include the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory and the Canadian Light Source in Saskatoon.
60s timeline of some other events.

Outer space treaty. 67

Start some 70s
Re coal and energy from the 70s
This is from a qualified reactor guy.
This author talks about funding taken from nuclear for solar.
Like i see some benefit to solar, especially that nasa solar.

Note that in the 1970s, we were taught in grade school that there would be another (pollution-induced) Ice Age**** and we were told the science was settled then too-but what was the result? A policy that focused at least initially on coal power generation. The inherent contradiction is now plain today; will we see a similar process take place again? Will we face the best predictions for climate available from science-with a push to do exactly what it is we know intuitively will hurt the worst?

Anyways I get it, less corporation. It talks about conservationism, Its odd to me cause cause coal an issue here.
Obninsk upgrade 1973, does isotopes studies decay not super important re 70s.

The first large RBMK (1,000 MW – high-power channel reactor) started up at Sosnovy Bor near Leningrad in 1973, and in the Arctic northwest a VVER with a rated capacity of 440 MW began operating. This was superseded by a 1000 MWe version which became a standard design.In Kazakhstan the world’s first commercial prototype fast neutron reactor (the BN-350) started up in 1972 with a design capacity of 135 MWe (net), producing electricity and heat to desalinate Caspian seawater. In the USA, UK France and Russia a number of experimental fast neutron reactors produced electricity from 1959, the last of these closing in 2009

Many reactor orders from the 1970s were cancelled. The uranium price dropped accordingly.
1970s and 1980s, however, growth slowed.
Demand for electricity decreased and concern
grew over nuclear issues, such as reactor
safety, waste disposal, and other environmental considerations.

1974 The first 1,000-megawatt-electric nuclear
powerplant goes into service – Commonwealth
Edison’s Zion 1 Plant.

1979 March 28. The worst accident in U.S.
commercial reactor history occurs at the
Three Mile Island nuclear power station near
Harrisburg, Pennsylvania. The accident is
caused by a loss of coolant from the reactor
core due to a combination of mechanical
malfunction and human error
Some stats on the 20 yr construction time period, starting in the 70s coming online in the 90’s
Some stats on safe than coal and fossil fuels

The French La Hague reprocessing facility has operated commercially since 1976 and is responsible for half the world’s reprocessing as of 2010

A fire caused 5–10 million dollars worth of damage to New York’s Indian Point Energy Center in 1971.[312] The arsonist turned out to be a plant maintenance worker.

82 protesty at swiss reactor, theres a split between Alvin Weinburg,
Hans Bethe
Anyways bascially at this point also going with the RMK
prior predictions were gonna have some reactors for business and home communities.

More protests in the 70’s
A large anti-nuclear demonstration was held on May 6, 1979, in Washington D.C., when 125,000 people[38] including the Governor of California, attended a march and rally against nuclear power.[39] In New York City on September 23, 1979, almost 200,000 people attended a protest against nuclear power

Ralph nader interview

In 1952, President Truman set up a Materials Policy Commission, which reported, made up of business, labor, and other blue ribbon people. And it recommended that the country go solar, and that by 1975 three-quarters of all homes would be solarized.

The politics of waste and disposal and evacuation plans, that government couldnt answer.
California Energy Commission announced not to approve nuclear plants further unless the utilities could specify fuel and waste disposal costs and by late 1970s, over thirty states had passed regulation legislation dealing with nuclear waste.
3 mile gave creedance to the claims.

Nice 70s link.
March 30 – The first Poseidon submarine-launched ballistic missiles are introduced by the U.S.
May 18 – India sets off a low-yield device (8 kilotons) under Rajasthan desert.

South africa testing some quiet tests too.
70’s nuclear tech still.
This one goes, 70s;
1970 nuclear non proliferation treaty signed can now share atomic tech
74 bomb
83 bomb
Scientists and timelines.

Some personal computers be coming out in 1975.
Some stats on CT and MRI difference between Xray,
1900s xray and cathode tube experiments. 1895 Wilhelm Roentgen

Illinois energy prof. Chernobyl video
Containment building on the ‘western reactors’ Candu Deuterium.
Sarcophagus Chernobyl.
The cost of that building/ containment.
Wow super informative.
Chance of Fission over speed of the neutron.
The moderator used to slow the neutron thats the HW
Ok so i know nothing of fission, as the prof says I know everything lol.
Hydrogen same size, cant put gas in it. It he means the 1 proton 1 electron so the neurons bump into it, and slow down.
Best moderator is the size of a neutron.
H2O good
Carbon graphite not quite as good as water.
Purpose boil water steam electricity.
I see so the fission is the chain reaction. Chance of that event drops like a log graph when the moderator is removed.

Ok next the RBMK reactor, Its rods in carbon pillar, reaction controlled by the rods placement.
ANyways I understand they dip the fuel rods in, they space it out and thats operating a water electricity system too.
Quite interesting actually.
Ok Chernobyl scheduled shutdown coming up for the refueling activities.
Wow this guy wanted to test out a safety system. Thats ironically bad. But basicallly when you remove thee Fuel the RBMK reactions continues is kinda what im picking up.
Fukushima, they had diesel and battery backups.
Chernobyl it was a test to see how much steam they could geenerate after turning off the reactor and see if it could still run the safety systems. Jjst in case the diese gens didnt kick in etc.
Shut down middle of the night.
Instead of going to about halfway like they wanted to it went really below that.
Talking about xenon poisoning afetr the power shiuts down its hard to get it going till those isotopes dissipate, cant turn it back on for three days.
Dampening field on the reaction, and they kept trying to get it going. Becomes uncontrolled chain reaction. Mega heat. The heat destroyed the carbon and water, Huge chemical explosion blew the roof off. And all those fission products went into country side. Human error with a wrong button on a early RBMK reactor doing experiments probably not the greatest experiments.
Scientists saw this isnt no slight detectable fallout from a nuclear blast years ago, this contents of an entire reactor. That must have been shocking to see. Wow safety systems for other reactors going off from outside substance. Firefighters fatalities. Not a nuclear exlosion, it was a chemical explosion.
Aftermath dumping sand and lead. The volunteers for sarcophaghus under reactor. Thats some heroics, get ur dose of radiation, and onto the next guy. Built the building first.
Cant happen in the world again. No one uses the graphite, now theres containment buildings.
The profs argument use the physics not humans to keep us safe. The tamper proof failsafes in essence. Worst accident ever.

Corium is substance only found during meltdown.
86 sarcophagus.

This time its the Fukushima.

MArch 11 2011
Comiung up on anniversary. (10 yrs)
Huge amount of casualties.
Massive earthquake off shore, tidal wave 40 meters high.
4 reactors at Fukushima. Prof talks about the containment building.
They take the top off the reactor vessel, bring the crane lift the fuel out, drop the spent fuel in pool, outside the containment building..
Ok surrounded by blast panels, in case of event in spent fuel pool hydrogen builds up boom the panel drop away, no damage to reactor.
Its dividing still. What is the neutrons ?
Hmm ok safety control rods, opposite of a fuel rod.
Ok the reactor shuts down; the radioactive substances still dividing there.
Gives off heat, heat not at 100%.
Spent fuel, starts draining pumps activate diesel gets washed away from tidal wave.
Water on the spent fuel and core becomes concern. Media says blow up, but the structures in a way doing what theyre supposed to with the evolving hydrogen. The Fukushima doses are clearly lower than Chernobyl.

Its march 11, 2021.
10 year anniversary of fukushima. Im not commenting out of respect for the persished, seems like the next article saying it was preventable. Yea clearly different than Chernobyl

I guess why is one disaster in a completely different system linked together. Three mile, chernobyl, fukushima.
Im learning more about the older one. Three mile island. Great power you gotta respect that reactor. Im hearing about how the management decline the extra reccomended wall height

Ok Im watching movies.
1: illinois energy prof on TMI started
2: how TMI ended
3: learning about Radiation dosages.

4: gonna watcha 45 min doc on TMI.
Its just called the Three mile Island Documentary.
March 28 1979 middle of night.
Pensylvania Harrisburgh.
3 people in charge of unit 2.
Trying to unclog a filter.
Sci fi reference, Ray Bradbury
Often the time accident happens.
some water gets in the pipe.
The alarms start going off, the operators dont know whats happening. The reactor comp sense water, thats bad for the pressures in a complex system auto shuts, off. But thats the system thats also cooling the reactor shut down. (not a good thing). So a clog with a air filter, and trying to blow it out with compressed air hose. Caused this. Ok meanwhile the pressure building up inside reactor, drops the control rods to end reaction. Wow ok the pressure release valve safety system, opens as intended, then doesnt close properly. However the light blinks off letting the operator know its closed (error ligth) Still open. so the light says signal got send not obeyed. Compounding human errors, oh the physics will work all the time. Dont trust the humans, that how to play nuclear safely. Oh no, so the coolat supposed to stay (interior) gushing out everywhere without anyones knowledge. the perfect energy source, built 20 years prior. Back to the too cheap to meter electricity cough Ontario scam. Talk about more excitement regarding Nuclear after world events in 1973.
The 1973 oil crisis began in October 1973 when the members of the Organization of Arab Petroleum Exporting Countries proclaimed an oil embargo. The embargo was targeted at nations perceived as supporting Israel during the Yom Kippur War.[1] The initial nations targeted were Canada, Japan, the Netherlands, the United Kingdom and the United States with the embargo also later extended to Portugal, Rhodesia and South Africa. By the end of the embargo in March 1974,[2] the price of oil had risen nearly 300%, from US$3 per barrel to nearly $12 globally; US prices were significantly higher. The embargo caused an oil crisis, or “shock”, with many short- and long-term effects on global politics and the global economy.[3] It was later called the “first oil shock”, followed by the 1979 oil crisis, termed the “second oil shock”.

This how the Embargoes goes. Figthing a war, friend of your enemy cant have gas or toilet paper in Cubas case. Pawns getting punished in chess. Now evben pawns are combatants. In a word its attrition. So I can see the point of the USA wanting to be independent of that. Cut back on sales. Now its EV cars. Nuclear revolution. * 1974 43 total plants in USA, 104 on the way. Metropolitan edison company, were the managers. Founded 1917 still exists. Im sorry after meltdown failure, should probably be bankrupt. Consequences to nuclear market. Company went through great lengths to tell nearby residents the tech was safe. As a viewer just interesting to see these sights before I was born. There will never be an accident. because backups and backups.
Accidently still happening. None of instruments, measured the coolant in reactor. Going solid with water filling he reactor, no where to go. Lots of false indication .
5 am day one. Control room filling with workers now. After a while the workers start doubting the readings theyre getting on the panels. Ok another critical error, the turn off the reactor pumps to prevent it from going solid. It was a mistake but they were fooled by the readings and doing theyre best. Ok the reactor melting creating that corium nuclear metal lava burning through containments and earth. Just learning about what type of containment can hold corium.
China sydrome where the nuclear waste all the way to china cant stop it.
As operator not knowing whats happening.
Valve open 2 hours, quarte or a million pounds of coolant escaped and evaporated. No one before had ever been in situation before. New alarm radiation in contgrol room. That aint good. General emergency. Everything is under control lol. Doesnt sound like it.
10:17 am.
Press and genie outta the bottle radiation.
Met ed deceptive. –
I cant believe these fuckers, theyre liek we dont have to tell you everything were doing as the reporters taking in radiation.
15 hours later restart pumps.
Ok finally they say get water in those pumps, cool that reactor. Mega consequences with mistakes in the machine era.

March 28th 28 hrs later.
Some one has to go get a sample to measure the radioactivity in the water. No one wants to, Itds important so they can see if the chain reaction will start again. Because of some leaking by the rods area, now there radioactivity in the water. The chain reaction issue. Foreman Ed Howser.

No Body Contamination

Mr. Houser said that he had been assured by various metering systems that there was no contamination of his body. He wonders what the effect of his exposure to radiation might be in 20 or 30 years, but he insists that he is “not really concerned.”

Since the accident, he has given a lot of thought to the nuclear power pro. gram and has lost no faith. “I believe in nuclear power 100 percent,” he said. He has faith in the Metropolitan Edison Company, in the Nuclear Regulatory Commission, in the people who work with him, in the regulations that say four rem is a dose of radiation he can live with.

His only concern at the moment, he said, is that the names of his two children should appear in print. His Baughter, Renee, is 4 years old. His son, Steve, turned 10 this last Saturday, celebrating his birthday on the last day of the first quarter of the calendar year.

Damn, so this guys sees the rems bouncing off the dosimeter, checking the coolant supposed to be clear instead the beaker is yellow fizzing and vibrating in his hands. They reeally knew they had issues.
Civilians get no messages. Haunting.
Vent gas into atmosphere.
Atomic commission in washington, theyre like we feel like 2 blind men making decsions in the dark, the truth of the reactor was still in a dangerous positions and still very much a threat. Its like people making critical decisions based on lack of info, misleading info, no info. Thats scary.
Evacuate or not.
March 30. Day 3.
Leave 5 mile radius.
Well I found some cheap houses. Rigth next to reactor. Seems like you can get some Ok value for your dollar. In Ontario, next to our reactor, prices are astronomical.
Wow just hearing this guy talk about the panic in town and going to the school to pick up your kid. Is pretty scary. All the price of energy. Goldsboro abandoned. One house TV was still one, just up and left. The origional Black friday.

Fades into the public trust of TMI, lost very quickly. The radiation spiolling into the Teenage mutant ninja turtles, a childhood fave.
Day 4.
The press asking querstions about their own safety and whether they should report or run. No authority they could trust sense. Flying blind. Damn. the president is concerned hes a trained engineer. Ex president Jimmy Carter, whoa hes a Navy veteran nuclear submarine program. Thats amazing. He takes contreol of the situation and has a person on the ground reporting directly to him. Harold Denton, and Jimmy carter. The mood starts to change. NRC.
Harry Denton, resaasuring public figure with the accurate info.
The hydrogen pressure might burst the top.
The president on his way.
Wasnt safe for the president but he went anyways. The president a nuclear engineer im sorry thats freakin amazing!
April 1
Day 5 president landing in. They get to work right away on the Hydrogen dispute. The presidential car litterally driving across the tracks towards the reactor. Tours the plant.
Restore public confidence. So he and his wife are seen in the control room.
Meanwhile another very important meeting happening with some chemical calculations. In office trailer. They calculate find the error. They do have days to hours,days maybe weeks before the hydrogen bubble would burst.
The plan; the hydrogen can be released gradually, the reactor can be slowly shut down.
No one died.
Talking about machines changes of state, (the most likely time for accident)
OK moves to talking about Chernobyl.
This one the top blows.. Not gonna comment on it. thee test experiment, and the xenon poisonings.
The narator talking about blowing the lid off the containment building I dont think Chernobyl had the conatinment hence the sarcophagus afterwards.And thewe corium photo that cost that guy his life. If your a reactor operator you might be called for a heroic one time task. Some heroics from those people. RIP. Another ghost town. Never farm again. coulda happened at TMI.
Some scary statistics.
The buildings still there. The aftermath. Most radiation contained only partial meltdown. Changes in the NRC. tour of the new site and changes they made since TMI.
Wow and the cooling towers remain like a battlefield monument. I would visit that site, and especially if you are to study nuclear power. and wisdom and knowledge are diffferent.
Unit 1 still generating power. Lots of people moved away.

Wow that was amazing video.
watching ‘the prof’ Illinois energy prof best youtube channel.
Its a geographic advantages place for a plant.
Importance of the turning point for nuclear power usa.
The plant itself, almost new, started 20 years prior no. Anything 20 years old fairly new no. Id say.
Commercial failure too. thats important. cost 4 bil to make.
My opinion again its like the finance world is broken with nuclear. I cant predict the next nuclear catastrophe. 2 extremes, “even good shit fails sometimes” plane crashes. The right to repair type shit, as in sometimes your cellphone laptops fail. Then its like household kitchen things quality diminishing compared to the 50’s like garlic cheese grater things. Also tech evolves. Nasa on the moon with nuclear things before this. So the engineering improves, im actually pretty pleased the amount of cool things learning second time through. Its liek any number of things between the engineer specs to the operation could cause catastrophic problems.
The prof; yes its a economic failure that one, so 4bn not paid yet to build, asset to -1 billion.
Talking about thte building and containment.
Defense in depth. Its like a engineering work of art masterpiece, especially if it works then. The rods melting, the vessel melting, hence meltdown. TMI is gen 2. some water over the reactor even when off.
How ?
Signing off on 1.routine maintenance. Its like yea looks good. Why bother oiling thing etc its brand new lol.
Watergun pump hammer demo; the pump breaks, thats awesome.
2. Back up pumps. TMI the valves were shut on the backup pumps, “someone” thats unfortunate.
TMI no water in reactor. Pressure ^
Pressure too high 3.relief valve. Auto shut off.
4. SCRAM acronym Safety control Rod Ax Man “Activation Mechanism”
Referring the Chicago stadium Fermi and the chain reaction. There you have it the ax man, to cut a manilla rope into the reaction to stop it.
Cadmium nitrate (concentrate) to pour over incase of emergency 49 Scientists present.
The Chianti fiasco all signed by the participants. Could you imagine wine at school. After some nuclear testing lol.
Norman Hillberry the original Ax man.
And another name coming up its Arthur Compton.
Could do an entire Chicago Tour of these places.
.After the war, Compton became Chancellor of Washington University in St. Louis. During his tenure, the university formally desegregated its undergraduate divisions, named its first female full professor, and enrolled a record number of students after wartime veterans returned to the United States.

Some fascinating people.
Compton told Conant. (James B Conant.) Acid base chemistry guy. Scientific method and just some of the nuclear world legends, and most qualified people.
Gen 3 all good convection.
Gen II no. Reactor scram, going from 3000MW to 60MW again with the stuck relief valve sending wrong signal.
Emergency core coolant system
2 min into accident. Water to reactor. They turn off the ECCS, indication that relief valve is closed. Why pump water in
8 mins open back up pump. tHink theyre in good shape.
They didnt know relief valve was stuck open. Cue coffee scene.
1hr 40 min later. Water running out, heat and hydrogen gas type explosions could occur. because the water running out, its gonna get dry hot melt.

Next video these are mega informative, and a little self research.
Im gonna watch a few more about specific things. This ends up being a .doc I could use several times.
Nuclear for tyros; which is alot less crazy than it sounds. Kinda funny.
More TMI end.
So yes I know a bit of what happened near the end already from the history doc but I wanna hear the Profs synopsis.
Its the tank that they thought was closed was actually still open, now overflowing.
The cold water they turn back on cracks the fuel rods.

#6. Rod crack containment.
And the fraction of gas released dillution was no major disaster.

Next vid, Radiation doses
Neat size charts comparing the actual dose its helpful to get an idea of the known guidelines. LD 50-30 50% of population die within 30 days. at the bottom of the chart
Data supports the threshold dosage.
Story about radium girls and xray skin decay from the 1920s , background radiation.
Gotta queue up the what we learned,
MArch 12 2021
Its been 10 years plus a day sine Fukushima.
I have sweet thesis I got. Its about the psychohistory , and nucleics. since Psychohistory is sci-fi, but the problems to nuclear are human made, trust physics not humans.
Just gotta put that one together better. In a way that suits the content.

Ok back to the video.
Engineer on site all the time.
Proof positive diagnostic.
They did it to the air industry.

Gen 3, passive safety.
Convection of air.
Dont need the constant water.
Even without electricity can cool reactor.
Types of reactor and the gen IV
More after math
Ah yes had queue, so figure do as much nuclear now, next time got to revisit ill have something.

Ok learning about energy the process of re arranging bonds into a more stable state.
1- H2+O2->H2O
1.1 need to balance; 2H2+O2–> 2H2O
2. H-H H-H , O=O
2.1 after spark.
2.2 H2O H2O

another ex.
CH4+2O2 –> CO2 + 2H2O

Nuclear bonds,
Hydrogen, 1 proton 1 electron,
heavy water, deuterium, 1 proton 1 neutron, still heavier. isotopes/
Tritium 1 proton, 2 neutrons
wow combining D + T with alot of energy would make Helium isotope: He^4 + an extra neutron.
Makes the helium, 2 proton 2 neutron and one extra neutron bouncing off
rearrange the bonds, the helium tremendously more stable then the D or T
Sun; making helium of hydrogen. rearrangements.
Sun is a nuclear furnace. Heat is a result, also that magnetic force.

Nellis solar power plant generaters 25% power to base from wiki
Cresent dunes different tech. “solar thermal” like a 5 year failure that one still interesting.

Sun -> food lol.
photosynthis, to other things, using energy from sun. biomass

sun drive winds.

Hydro power, rain from sun.
More basics, I enjoy these videos. Bay of Fundy and some tidal forces.
Neat, this place in France that generates electricity with tide its called.
Thats amazing, and clever. Its called Rance tidal power

Cool the binding chart, most stable is Iron and nickel fusion goes up
fission goes left.
how to get lighter elements big bang.
elements spin out, you get a solar system. Progression to the most stable elements
geothermal, Old faithfull.

_Energy from chemistry
Alcohol burns to make new substances.
Then, 1 calorie brings 1 gram of water up 1 degree.
Big mac 650 cals. different kind. Kcal. 1000 chem calories = 1 food calorie.
1 cal 4.1868 J

balancing the methanol.
chart with numbers, Enthalpies
He added a + 1/2 O2 when balancing lol.
Solving it for the amount of energy used in reaction. 161.6kcal = q

exploding bamboo in fires leads to fireworks
with color metals

_ Nuclear fission
Taking uranium and making it to more stable to Iron. releasing energy.

Thats the D+T makes helium + free neutron. , thats fusion
The well technique. Use the nucleus binding energy per nucleon.
differences between nuclear, and chemical energy. different units.
factor labor.
Theres a calc to compare em.
2 million x more powerfull

OK cool new day.
Just some of that quick review that table.
Average binding energy per nucleon.
The table midway down there.
Fusion goes up, fission goes back.
Learning about some reaction chemical vs nuclear in Kilocalories.
The amount you can learn from nuclear bonds.
Moving along This be some learning slash entertainment.
Learning about sound bells especially. Bells on campus thats interesting. Bell making jobs lol. The bell song player thats cool.

_ Measure up
BTU, British Thermal Unit. 1 pound of water up 1 degree F. Then Calorie, 1 gram of water up 1 degree Celsius, food cals are Kcals.
Joule. standard 1 cal = 4.1868 Joules.
‘1 quad’ is 10^15 BTU
Electron volt. 1.6x 10^-19 Joules = 1 eV
Get ur numbers from the Enthalpies of formation at 25C . Put a number on the ‘stability’
Is basically what Im seeing. THe well technique You got a well and the amount of energy its gonna take to get the men (*electrons) out of the well. Methanol burning.
Then the 100 proof was a nice touch.

_How is it used
Buildings, industry , transport
Thats a punchline, you heat things up or you spin it in a circle.
variable sped drive Usefull invention back in the day. I wanna learn quick about that.
Just finding ways to save energy.
Coal gas Nuclear hydro(6.5) wind 4.2 solar a couple tenths of percent.
30s great depression 70’s quadrupule oil prices, oil becoming more valuable political instability. That was in the Three mile doc.
China energy use going up in the 2000s.
E=MC^2 description change in mass. talking about the mass difference from beginning to end with deuterium and tritium , very small mass difference. final results you get in Electron volts thats the energy you get using E=MC^2 “disappearing mass”

Energy around the world

Power = Energy/time Horsepower man power. Firecracker more power.
match vs firecracker about the same energy
Joule is more common.
quad quadrillion BTU billion million.
dont confuse energy with power,
dynamite vs piece of wood vs loaf of bread.
Dynamitee is more power but bread or wood has twice the energy.
BTU usage.
Usa been using about same energy all the time suggesting more efficient use vs world increase, alot more energy for that standard of living. Slope increase Increased standard of living in China with that increased energy is good.
Energy use per person is maybe misleading says the prof. Its Canada with the most energy usage cold. GDP per energy use. Efficiency. Europe more efficient growing less. its a 2012 world consumption use graph im looking at.

_ where does it come from
Its all about being efficient, and improving that as a science.
Brazil Canada Germany all similar energy use.
Nuclear brings more than solar, and wind.
That solar base migth be most efficient solar thing unless its some nasa on mars panels.
They Geysers thats pretty cool.
Whoa, so shooting water in the crevices’ was known to cause some seismic activity.
oil, Nat gas, coal, nuclear

_voice change sound proofing
Higher density of the air, is sound.
Math on music notes. octaves. can divide em out
_2 sound proofing
sounds just like a airgun.
sound barrier, oh yea the compressional waves.
Decibels calculations, logs.
A sound with 160 dB vs 150 dB 10x less power.
130dB about 1000x less power
Dazn boxing happening now I been watchin been aight.. Kyoguchi Aragon, Juan Francisco after.
Sound proofing. Sand walls in this building im seeing.
Recording room to control the outside noise.
Earth quietest place. interesting link for another day
Anyways its all in R&d the material and the angle.

_what goes up.
helium goes mega fast during reaction thats where that energy goes.
Kinetic energy calc (1/2)mv^2
potential energy
rube goldberg device machine kinetic energy

_ whats temp
Motion of molecules on average is temperature.
on average
absolute zero; no motion.
speed of molecules moving in a room calculation v = 510 m/s
lol, this isnt the speed of ‘wind’ its the molecules, a 510 meters per second wind would destroy everything. For whatever reason I find that super humorous.
differences in f (c and k) k just starts at abs 0.
Another one he got me, toucj wood vs metal in the same room youve been sitting in, body warmer than objects. metal more efficient conductor.
Put your hands in a pouch of diamonds feels like ice, cause its conducting the heat away, not electric conductor though. Interesting
Water vs air heat transfer.
Conduction thats touching.
Convection transfer of heat + motion. (hot air balloon)
Radiation, the light that bright fire light wave radiant heat.
3 ways heat is transfered motion of molecules

_Sound getting rid of it.
sounds reflectors sound barriers, Sound absorbtion turning into a little bit of heat.
Noise cancelling headphone summing cancelling out. the opposite sound. creates anti noise. thats sweet lol battery powered ear defenders..

_ Liquid nitrogen.
Thats awesome some liquid nitrogen demos, illustrating the effect on usually soft flexible items like rubber gloves or the rose and theey shatter at low temp.
Wow the baloon, sweet thats a amazing display of Gay-Lussac law, the balloon shrinks in size completely once exposed to the liquid nitrogen.
Amonton’s Law states that the pressure of an ideal gas varies directly with the absolute temperature when the volume of the sample is held constant. P1/T1 = P2/T2 or P/T = k, where k = nR/V.
Another cool link another university youtube Ivee watched recently, this comes from univ Oregon

_ heat engines,
piston on a air cylinder.
auto close to 1/6 efffiency
The mosty efficient
Nicolas Leonard Sadi Carnot 1796-1832
Some of his work helped define entropy.
Oh this guy was taught by Joseph Louis Gay-Lussac, he wrote a book.
Asimov (1982) came up neat.
you dont want the engine to melt
How well did you take the energy to do the work; efficiency.

This one CMI
checking some equipment cool. Fun extra curricular thing. So this university has own airport.
All the specs of a state of the art airport fire truck.
commenting on how safe flying is, I guess compared to my opinion statement while back.

just some cool animations and definitions.
Miles per gallon is definitely something.
oil lubricant cool protect.
seized engine.

rudolph diesel
compresion ratio.
Diesel added in after the air compressed.

new day ___ hybrids
Just did daylight savings wtf. I hate that.
Oil for cars.
Ok hybrids, gas motors doesn’t spin the wheels it charges it up battery.

_Octane other numbers at the pump.
Iso octane
Most stable ways to put 8 carbons together.
Octane has to do with % compression not blowing up spontaneously

_ Electricity what how.
Its the movement of electrons pretty much.
DC one direction
Alt both directions. AC
The jacobs ladder example.
Paper and holes, wow.

The Jacob’s Ladder is a high voltage climbing arc

Watching the spark travel upwards, then with a fold of paper between you can see the spots the electron travelled through the paper amazing.
Steam generator and the rotors.
Generator; is where the magic happens.
Operatees on the principle that the force on a electron, perpendicular both to direction of motion, and to the direction of magnetic field.
Need magnetic field.
Down or upstroke changes the current. wrapping wire around lengthwise around an object rotated in the magnetic field.
More tech how to get that spinning into the wires, you need that spinning contact
Gen, turbine, condenser, pump, heat source.

_Smart grid.
USA power grid, the West, texas and the rest, trying to get grid on smart grid.
2003 one squirrel substation
Largest power outage in recent memory. Self healing power grid. The blackouts.
Profs comment about seeing the data for the energy consumption in your house, kinda cool but useful data for the power company.
Auto repair. The power companies already know when ur having a outage. Some of the issues in our grid, the waves mismatched, gotta go back from AC-> DC then backt o AC and match so its a bit of an issue. Same phase. And, losing energy to radiation on long distance trip through wire. Lunch time.

_Electricity and the electric grid.
Mostly fossil fuels.
The power variation. discussion about solar and wind and the daily energy consumption.
Problems of not in phase. jump skip rope demo, 1 rope vs 2. lots of fossil fuel

_coal who has it wants it, and uses it.
Coal is most abundant fossil resource.
Largest land mass.
All these countries with top 10 coal reserves. These 10 countries have 90 % of the worlds coal.
Its a very unevenly distrusted resource.
China uses most coal, 2012 you got some Russia using natural gas shows how little coal they use.
Strip mining.
Coal dust.
So much coal, so dont destroy the farm to sell it.

_What is coal
That was good break. Baaaaack to it.
Most plentiful resource, industrial fuel.
Gas: 1-4 carbons in a chain.
Liquid 5-12 carbons
Tars 12+ carbon.
Hydro carbons.
The ‘muck in this lake’.
All graded by content.
Nitrogen and sulfur, components for some acid rain.
Water in coal.
remove the sulfur, nitrogen oxides.
Peat bog.
Dead plants, and animals.
decays and compresses.
peat fire.
Ireland dirt that burns.
Brown coal to anthracite,_Alberta Thats when they discovered the hot springs.
Metallurgical coal for the crucibles.
The smoke stack hitting the passengers covered in coal dust.
+ clay is pencil lead.
Then diamonds.

_Shocks n Lighting
plasma ball
Wow 2 quarters you put one on top, and you make a capacitor.
Static hair when you’re going down a slide.
Hair gains a a charge, and repels itself.
Air breaks down at near 3000 volts per mm.
static or live wire shock.
Ionized charge super heated air, lighting.
Demonstration on realeasing a big charge 12000 + volts to a ground, making lighting.
Another demo of a soda can within a coil, and a discharge crushing the soda can.
Ice crystals go up, water goes down, you get a charge.
Bottom cloud is negative, top positive, makes it own electric field.
Cloud to cloud lightning.
stepped leader
gets the discharge closer to ground, that connects. like the electric pathway trying to find the ground.
You get a positive leader up from the ground.
tree water going thru it.
dont hide under tree.
ionized path all that charge released.

_ Whats up with the water. in a electric plant.
Taking water, you dont want buildup on the turbine.
Cooling towers nuclear.
Losing effiency power plant vs cars, and heat engines.

_ Up in smoke.
Fly ash.
electro static precipetator.
Metal sheets with a charge. Smoke gets a charge and sticks to metal.
Hammer hits the panel soot falls down into collector.
Now the sulfur.
Sulfur dioxide, turns into sulfur trioxide, SO3 sulphuric acid rain.
Dry acid precipitate, breath it in, making sulphuric acid in your lungs.
Morning dew burning the paint off the cars.
Scrubber to remove the sulfur.
CaCo3 + SO2 –> +CaSO4 +Co2
Gravel and limestone and the carbonate
GEtting rid of sulfur dioxide.
Gas in contact with liquid.
separate out the precipates.

_The uni power plant.
The Abbott power plant.
100 trains.
10 trucks of coal per day.
Bring in the gravel.
the water.
they had coal, and then nat gas, then yea its cheaper them generating their own electricity.

_Burning coal through decades.
Its a combined plant, generates electricity and steam.
Basics of coal burning like the train and the soot covered passenegers.
Alotta air, its the air flow.
Walls made of pipes, water goes in steam comes out.
Air and conveyor.
With crushed coal make the cyclone burner.
Coal dust + air coming trhough a cone pipe.
Heavy parts fallsthough or spins though.
cyclone makes more sulfur tri.

_ combined cycle.
Ok simply instead of using just the gas on the turbine you also use the steam by product 1:12
Couldn’t find a good pic of that. so theres the link.
Nat gas 40% efficiency
Coal to gas, for the purpose of the combined cycle.
How to do that add steam to the coal, or make it wet, cause that will make flammable gasses.
C+H2O –> H2+ CO
How gas can e turned into liquid fuels with the Fiscer Tropsch process
SASOL plant
That plant largest emiter of fossil fuel unless this other plant starts up. reading on the wiki,.
From a chemistry point of view liquifying coal.
Natural gas better.

_who produces who consumes nat gas.
Liquified nat gas, cost money.
Canada produce more than consumes. Same with Qatar.
1/3 produced from hydraulic fracking.
Nat gas burns completely.

_ Lasers
Electrical signal.
motor, on a hairspring.
change the reflection.
change the landing reflection. dual mirrors.

_ Solar cells magic.
Semiconductor silicon.
Silicon lattice structure.
Something with light makes electricity in the lattice.
doping 1/10000
using the light.
intrinsic Si
electric field.
electron diffusion,
depletion region
Photon makes a bond, ntype. delpeted zone,
ooh electron feeels a force this way, the ion feeels attraction the other way., movement of charge is electricity.
(put the phosphorus on top of silica.
wow spinning fan demo from a ligth bulb.
Actual solar cell picture and description.
Carizo plain and Topaz solar farm, can see from space.

_New day Already pissed off at the teacher. Youre the reason Im fuckin mad already. Its like good fucking grief Why the fuck do you think I asked on the 10th!

Back to the ‘real’ Chem class.

_ Biofuels biomass
making fuel from Corn, add yeast.
Alcohol actually kills yeast.
Alcohol boils lower. So use your flask and coil, boils off only the alcohol.
The first vapor that comes out alcohol.
wood alcohol makes you go blind.
twice distilled 95% alcohol everclear.
Not good enough for car, still has that 5% water.
Last steps to dry out the water chemical process for the removal of the water for biofuel.

_ Hydraulic fracturing Fracking
Tremendous extra amount of resources.
Trying to get methane.
Methane most friendly environment fossil gas.
Price is cheaper supply is more.
Baby ultrasound, and fracking things in common.
To position the drill precisely.
Gas is found in porous rocks. Sometimes not pourous, like shale
Getting more out of your hole.
ok I see the gist of it, its a L shaped drill hole following alog the methane layer.
Yea probably pump in the fracking fluid, the gas comes out.
Surface run off and the drinking water.
Casing and protection for the surface water.
Demo of a firecracker under 2 steel plates.
Miny explosions in the pipe.
Next put the water and sand and pressure down hole.
Hydraulic fracture.
So the sand props those fissures open and the gas and fluid is pumped back out.
8 empire state buildings deep.

_Salt ponds
Hmm learning something new solar pond.
Liner black.
Salt water.
Super saturated salt water.
Hot water rises.
Cooler salt chunks fall to bottom with convection.
Gradually start pouring in freshwater.
Make a gradient layer freshwater on top of salt.
No convection in the gradient.
Almost boiling hot.
Run a pipe through the salt area.
Cold in hot out.
Dont mix the layers.
Dont get cloudy water.
Every year or so drain and reestablish.

_Fracking, and environment myth and reality. Gotta do math class [x]
Fracking fluid, water sand.
Emulsions in the water.
ok solution, 90% water, 9.5 % sand
0.5 %
You dont want to drink this fluid.
3 mil gallons of water to frack one well.
Its a small percentage of water all the wells.
Some places are really scarce for water, so when they bring in those resources theyre like oh you cant use that water for that could go to our crops.
Reusing fracking water.
pollution from fracking originally.
If one were to dump the water into the stream or spray on the ground.
The waste water occurrences are rare now, investigated fined shut down.
Not at the peak when fracking started.
Economics drives the new innovations.
Dont drink water that catches fire. Thanks prof lol
Has nothing to do with fracking.
Methanee in the water, one student says oh yea my water is on fire all the time. lol
Texas and pensylvania leaders in gross withdrawls from shale wells Is a updated link.
Prof suggests that the explosion’s causes more seismic tremor in between fracs.
Suggests its good to have mini earthquakes instead the big release of pressure.
More energy better specially for the billions in the underdeveloped world , more refrigeration more safe clean reliable electricity. Higher standard of life, more productive, more opportunity to feed their families. Nuclear and solar research can provide new sources, but fossil fuels dominate.
Try to make them available inexpensive and clean. Nat gas produces less CO2 than any other fossil fuel.
Inspections are the way and doing it properly the first time.

_Passive solar
solar thermal
Magnifying glass and fire.
Molten salt.
Run water through that you get steam.
Design a house to use the solar better.
Use the sun to stay warm.
If you live northern hemisphere have it face south.
The ratio for window and facing south and the overhang.
Cause the winter time, you want the sun to shine in the house.
Summer time you want that overhang to stay cool.
south side window.
called a trombe wall.
Absorbs during day, warms at night.
Solar water heaters.
Heating pool with solar.
solar cooking.
Solar roast lol.

_Theres always a cost// The madness continues!
Its wind power.
Starts with economics.
So ive heard Casper “landfill,” those photos are pretty bad its, dirt getting piled up on thousands of blades.
So some capital analysis.
The windmills supposed to be cheap to make.
Creating 1MW megawatt, 1 million watt
Ask for a bank loan, interest and payback, 30 yrs for the example.
5% interest on 1.2 million , 60000 $ payments
Property owner rent 8k
Maintenance, 5k.
Sum 73k each year to run the windmill.
Wind is variable
Power = k (speed)^3
Ok hes saying 25% efficiency.
Hours in a year calc.
Need a utility delivery company.
73k to run it, yearly, 77 k electricity sold if everything goes right. So thats a 4k profit per year.
Theres a USA government producer bonus, would add up to like an extra 0.022/ Kwhr, extra 49k.
It would be nice if the government took on all that risk. and the whopping 4k profits lol.
End of 2014 those tax credits were removed.(producer price bonus)
Each time Congress has allowed the production tax credit to expire, wind power development has slowed as investors wait for the credit to be restored. Each year it is renewed, development has expanded. The tax credit expired at the end of 2012, bringing wind power development activity to a near halt. A short term, one-year policy was enacted at the beginning of 2013 which provides a tax credit to projects under construction by the end of 2013 and completed before the end of 2014.[90] The PTC was first introduced in 1992.[91] When it was allowed to expire, development dropped 93%, 73%, and 77% the following year.

So without government subsidy the things would take 300 years to pay off. And they typically last 10-20. Prices drived down by competition.
Depending on the price of energy maybe make some more profit.

_ Blowing in the wind
Winds come from uneven solar on the earth.
Also rotation.
The wind on the surface laggin behind the rotation.
How wind would be if earth was cylinder.
Equator wind from east to west.
Hell yea sweet link,38.25,872
Windiest spot by San Fran.
Polar easterlies and westerlies.
Rotating windmills makes it so direction doesnt matter.
Power= (constant)(speed of wind)^3
5^3 vs 10^3
Ok cool i found some
California ridge energy center Il.
Just looking on the google earth and taking advantage of that windy place.

_ Cost of sunshine.
Economics of the solar panels.
phosphorus on the silacate.
Amount of sun in vs energy coming out.
Holy the amount of styles of solar cells, from 1% efficiency to 46% many producers, Boeing, spire, soltec, spectro lab.
World record cells.
Midrange 20% pretty good.
More innovations by the years cheaper
$ per peak what
Duration of the solar cell panel.
How long is the guarantee waranty. 20 years.
Nice conversion calc on the video, 20 years service into $/kw per hour.
Cheapest places in USA for solar power.
Building types, and building code Usa Vs Germany
Basically in USA custom solar all custom more expensive.
Germany every installation the same, much faster less labor costs.

_ Growing stuff to burn
Heating your home, with wood.
Thats not the 2%, energy thats biomass, and wood remnants.
Black liquor, from paper.
Back to corn, the combine.
Growing some intentional grasses for biomass.
This particular grass
Yum salad.
Miscanthus. cool a miscanthus bale house
twice as much mass as coal.
treating biomass for different products.
Same process with corn sugar for the ethanol.

_Fuel cells Hydrogen Economy Its still wind power
20 yrs ago, hydrogen stations. Only waste was water.
Hydrogen doesnt just come outta ground gotta make it from water, and energy.
Cars that use fuel cells.
Simplest fuel cell is the permeable membrane fuel cell.
Coated with a catalyst Pd element.
Hydrogen H2, goig thru palladium 46 H2. 2H+ O reconstituting water.
Ok then as the ion goes thru the electron is captured and you get some energy as hydrogens forced through.
Watching a deme battery burning hydrogen.
the Palladium is important, its really transparent to hydrogen. can move freely.
Hydrogen walks through palladium.
One side, only hydrogen one side only air.
Splits it, the electron goes to electricity, the other side, just making water on the other side.
Electron recconects after the electrical current.
He says imagine using nat gas instead of hydrogen.
CH4 methane; solid oxide fuel cell.
Take the methan add heat you break the bondds get a carbon and 4 H’s
Adding oxygen.
CH4+O2 -> CO2+ 2H2O
Mentions the combined.
This fuel cell, no moving parts 50% efficiency.
Bloom energy. w/ nat gas.
Energy servers at ebay.

_Windmills How things work.
Demo about midwest underground technology turbines, underground power.
The base of the tower is a important factor of construction.
Whoa talk about cranes. (
One commenter: I wish this amount of effort on nuclear.
Anyways neat to see the construction foundation.
In September 2019, Northern Power Systems, Inc (NPS, Inc.) ceased commercial operations in the US…
Anyways seeing inside standing inside gotta be able to get up there to hook up the wires. The numbers arent as good.
Windmill blades be spinnning.

_Whats in windmill
Bernoullis Principle.
Pressure+ (1/2) (density of a fluid(air)) (speed)^2= constant
Thats a good one; Your in a shower, the shower curtain sucks in, because of bernoulis, cause the air gets pushed as the water comes out of the shower. lower pressure with the shower curtain.
Then a plane, and wing cross section.
Since the top surface of an airfoil is curved upwards, the air has to travel a longer distance in the same time as it travels over the wing than beneath it – so the speed has to increase and there is a decrease in pressure above the wing and that causes lift.
Flow direction gets you perpendicular lift.
Not the whole story physics are more complicated.
Change the angle of attack.
Make that the blade of the windmill.
Surface area.
In a circle the radius is gonna determine the power Pie*(r)^2 bigger the area on that blade rotation equivalent to the power.
(The speed)^3 again. in a power equation.
So the speed another huge part of that.
Maintenance im thinking again watching the insides of this.
Going up to each level tightening bolts.
Wow the inside parts of windmill super interesting lots more going on than I thought in that top part.
High speed low torque. 150 mph high fast blades.
Farm windmills Low speed high torque pump water.
Also amazing is the tech to build those structures at sea at different depths.

_How ice rinks work
Dipole moment with the 2 hydrogens 1 oxygen, water expands when freezes.
The crystal structure water makes more space between the molecules than when frozen.
Inside the crystal all polar bonds. +/- on the outside the nano layer, where the crystal ends the molecules just float on top of that lattice structure not connected state.
Really cold ice not as slippery.
Zamboni shaves ice off, and replaces it with water. The coolant system.
Procedure for creating ice rink, graphics etc.
Frank Zamboni inventor of some cool machines.
How zamboni works.

_ Economics of biofuel.
Choices driven by economics.
25kg of corn make 2.7 gallons 100% percent ethanol.
Distill energy cost to boil water alcohol.
Interest loan for a factory for the ethanol.
Other chemicals.
Sell the by-products.
Gas prices USA that ethanol looking pretty cheap.
Gasohol. More effective boost the energy content in your fuel.
Extra oxygen so the emissions aree water.
Extra oxygen molecule is the ethanol
Sugar cane cheaper usually, soybean and corn.
Waste oils in fryers for some biofuels.
70% of same miles before you have to refuel.
On the coast its cheaper by the refinery the gasoline cheaper. (should be) looking at vancouver.

_ What goes in Biofuel.
Biological systems.
More ethanol
most US fuels have the 10% blend
Oh yea the E10 E15 gasolines.
Pure ethanol get you like 70% of the miles before you have to refuel opposed to the gasohol.
Food energy vs securities.
Diesel. Biodiesel
Corn, cant live off corn alone.
Soy bean better more nutritious.
Soybean oil with the cold press of the soybeans.
Strain your oil if you got it out of a fryer.
Watching a demo on soybean oil
pottasium hydroxide, (lye) to the oil. depending on the PH.
biodiesel calculator.
add the lye to oil. adjust the pg to just the rights amount.
Next Methyl alcohol. CH3OH (dont drink making fuel for trucks, not distilling drinks lol
Soybean oil+ lye + heat + Methyl alcohol(add slow), exothermic reaction.
2 products; first diesel fuel second glycerin
Makes a 2 layer liquid.
Proper setup has a drain.
Top is diesel, bottom glycerin.
What is gasoline octane, C-C-C-C-C-C-C-C each of those branches Hydrogen bond.
Diesel pretty stable, gasoline volatile
Diesels C10H22 or C12H26 heavier.
Ringed carbon molecules
Ok 6 carbons in a ring, each other is a double bond Adding some Methyl(CH3)’s to the outside ring xylene
Coke fuel coal.
Just many uses and desirable, did I see polyester uses.

_How beer is made
starch to sugar, enzyme reaction.
using the cusp later to filter.
soaks in hoty water seperates, just take the liquid sugary.
add hops. hydrocarbons breakk down makes complex beers.
the wort cooled down, add yeast culture.
yeast busy converting sugars to ethanol and CO2
Withtout the yeast youd just have a sugary drink that ‘didnt do anything’
Grain and water, the enzyme wash.
Then next step drain liquids, wort.
the solids have some nutritional value for pigs or cow mixed in with feed.
Boil add hops next
Next start cooling it next tank is a fermentation tank add yeast, has a venting valve to let the CO2 escape.
Its a V shaped cylindrical vessel. has a exhaust pipe at the top, hasa jacket with glycol and water, for heat transfer purposes.
Carbonation. cold room.
Make kegs.
The taxes.
Distilling in barrels that were on fire.
That was interesting.

I see the light at the end of the tunnel More nuclear stuff coming up then Ill be done this energy course can always refer back to this stockpile that ive learnt.
I justified the learning its exactly on the subject. I know some ethanol things not exactly in the project, Its important to me to have the general crash course Ive been lacking. So im taking this opportunity now. Heres some nuclear now.

_ Nuclear power and the future: how to be allowed to build.
USA power int he 60s starts ramping up almost exponentially.
73 79 oil prices gone up.
73 October Arab embargo.
79 Iran revolution shot up.
Many power plants pulled cause the need dissapated.
After TMI; there was a emphasis on more safety systems.
“EPA” birth in this era.
Also nuclear anti proliferation, and environmentalism.
Double digit interest rates of the 80s no new buildings.
Steps for a plant. Need a construction permit.
Environment Impact (2 sites) The EPA.
If its Nuclear. NRC gets involved too.
(at this point if your coal or nat gas start building.)
If your Nuclear run a preliminary safety analysis report.
Complete mega plan. And the the ASLB board.
Public hearings.
Long process, 1-2 years
if yes go ahead.
4 years construction.
During that time appeal process.
Appeal board
If they win appeal, stop constrcution.
Next is the actual safety analysis, says if you actually build it like you said.
ASLB Public hearings.
Virtually finished reactor without a license.
Can operate low power appeals still
Then can operate full power. all to say can take 8-10 years.
France does it in 4.
Standardized design.
The US process unique design the high interests.
In the 2000’s Renewal for licenses.
The industry and government in USA recognized it was kinda crazy process and with interest not helping, better process.
Founder of sierra club in favor on nuclear.
John Muir and preservation of Yosemite.
Description of the new methods, condenses it to like 5 year construction s1 single public hearing, after the environment after the safety.
Goes on to describe a power plant constructed within both processes.
Tennessee valley authority watts bar power plant unit 2
Dam, and nuclear power. Some nice spots

_ How things work grilling cooking
Nuclear fuel on the way out. ok gotta take a break.[x]
Lol. just having a moment, humans been cooking food since threes been humans.
Prof: “which makes sense cause, if you got a group eating raw everything they die off.”
70 c / 160 F
killing most bacteria. everything dead 212 F bacteria raw egg lol.
Love that Caesar salad dressing too.
Smoking salting descriptions.
Can of water in the meat smoker.
The Pit Barrel Junior Im hooked I want one for camping.
Over 160F to kill bacteria.
Carbs to sugars.
Caramelization from 110 C to 190 C or 230 F to 356F
Translates to good taste.
Sugar cube vs caramel
Too high temp becomes bitter then black.
Ok baking.
Holy crap my class is starting do class[ X]
I was at the baking.
Oh yea so the yeast in the bread eats the sugars makes carbs, and CO2.
Caramelization too, and the bubbles inside are the CO2.
Maillard reaction (complex reaction)
Proteins + carbohydrates heat em you get
Maillaird reaction chain, proteins to sugars more digestible. Indeed complex.
egg goes liquid to solid.
When you cook the proteins falls apart usually.
The egg description is like opening a bunch of packages and those packages are able to connect as solid.
Cook anything enough returns to some elemental carbon.
Oooh I did class, alright light at the end of the tunnel lets go!

_ Nuclear fuel – on the way out After its all over Decommissioning.
Nuclear, operate it long enough inexpensive source of electricity.
Vessel is reactive.
At the end of the reactor life it must be decommissioned taken apart and burried as some low level waste.
Land reuse.
ISFSI Independent spent fuel storage Installation
License terminated.
Shippingport reactor, first commercial reactor in USA
closed in 1982, completely taken apart
Indian point , ended in 72 decomissioned.
Something about the decommissioning fund, every tenth of a penny of electricity sold every sale goes towards the decommissioning.
utilities do it. 300-400 million to take apart.
NRC monitors that, or adjustments could be made.
There was research reactor at University of Illinois. (1960)
Training research education general atomics reactor.
Looking at the water of ths particular reactor.
Decommission this reactor.
In this particular reactor there was some clause that the federal government would take the spent fuel.
Spent fuel rods are the high level waste.
Prof talking about his experience with the dismantling.
Rubbling the concrete.
Takes several years.
Making the building a green field, has asbestos.
Asbestos problems.
No record the reactor was there.
Gets trucked away.
So in this case, it worked.
Decommissioning being paid for every watt you buy.
I guess the issue comes when something like TMI goes down.

_ Contaminated things low level waste. Nucelar fuel, out.
Just getting rid of ppe all in a barrel bury it.
Resin beads.
Attract the metal ions.
In a house you use salt crystal in a conditioning tank to soften water.
The water in a reactor dissolve small pieces of the metallic pipe, if that was to jam up a rotor with some hard water residue after time it could cause some problems.
Neutrons makes things radioactive.
Its just like the water softener for nuclear reactor, taking those ions now , the resin beads are low levels wastes.
How much is there.
Agriculture, makes waste 3000 million tons.
Mining/milling mill tailings, 2000 million tons.
Industry 400 million tons.
Municipal waste. 200 million
Utility coal to ash 100 millions
Radioactive waste( low level) high level is even less.
Radioactive 0.04 million tons.
Place em all in a barrells
Bury it.
4 sites.
No water in these areas.
Could be you need to store this at a water place.
Will have rain, clay barrier and roof.
slope and sod the roof.
Water run off.
Geiger counter is easy to use/measure.
easy to detect large amounts.
Next some medical radioisotopes half lifes betyween 2.6 mins (Iodine-131) to (90 years strontium) cobalt 60 mid-range 5.3 years) source this youtube video
I guess technically one day should be able to cycle it through reclaim that land if it doesnt seep in.

_ Moving waste around.
showing a truck cask for spent fuel
all these protective layers
Showing a rail cask for spent fuel.
Wow watching this vintage video its some testers testing out the design to make it safest.
Wow they crash the truck into a concrete wall with a rocket attached to it!
Wow they see theres no damage in/on the cask so they do it again at 80 mph.
lol, after that they hit it with a train. Rocket powered train colliding into the spent fuel casing.
Of course every test, Jet could crash in it, The fire could burn it.
Its the train cask in a pool of jetfuel.
Burn it for 1.5 hrs. train cask test 1978
Theres a 84 test but not as cool.
The present its safe.
Those were some cool engineered tests. Highlight of my day lol.

_ High level wastes
Nuclear breaking down uranium
92 heaviest naturally occurring element
U-238 isotope
U-235 fissile , it will fission with any energy neutron.
It splits conserving number of neutrons and protons.
Doesnt always go to the same thing.
goes towards middle left of staircase periodic table.
Distribution of fission products.
THose turn into radioactive elements, then into more stable elements.
Its a on going process.
Ok. So sometimes the U-238 is hit with a neutron and goes 92-Np or 94-P or 95-Am or 96-CM
How much material.
Reactor starts with
29 Ton U238
1 ton U235
After 3 years.
U235 goes to 0.35 ton
U238 28 1/2 tons left
+ 0.80 tons of fission products, mish mash of radioactive materials.
Next is Pu 0.23 tons of Pu , Pu239 is for weps , mostly another isotope.
Isotropic separation, and refining, but if you could do that, ‘youd’ be going for the fissionable stuff in the first place so the byproducts aint really what youre looking for to begin with.
Also included is 0.12 ton U236
0.1 ton NP
0.001 ton Am
0.004 ton Cm
whats left in a reactor ^ below the U235 and 0.80 is the bad stuff.
Fuel pellet, pin, rod
long halflifes.
spent fuel pool, for a few years.
Like Fukushima.
GEt rid of the typical container like the train casket.
Fill it up with grout. So if water his its.
1000 ft below surface.
1000 ft above water table. in a desert Yucca mountain nevada CBS vegas.
In Finland building a site to hold all the waste for 100 000 years.
Could send it to the sun lol.
Talking about the nuclear test site. The concerns of driving through town. Dry cask storage right there next to the reactor. Still got valuable isotopes in there to re-use.
Power since 58

_ Natural Nuclear Reactor
U235 Oklo
Whoa we think fermi is the first to create the first fission.
But this Oklo natural reactor. Today U-235=0.7% 0.7B years U-238= 99.3 $ 4.5 B years
2 billion years ago had ~3% at that spot and97% respecively.
3% important to have fission
Moderator to slow reaction down for sustained chain reaction.
Natural reator.
Learning, nature also has a reactor not just man.
Scientists looking for the fission products.
End of decay chain.
Unique isotopses.
These elements shouldnt exist in nature, unless this reaction happened.
Finding their distribution away from the spot they were created gives an idea waste migration over geologic timescales.
They didnt go far.
Okla west Africa.

Watching this Soyuz relocate maneuver live. Just confirmed the docking.
_ economics of reactor
Nuclear fuel on the way in.
Nuclear competitor is the nat gas plant.
Comparing some prices, Im just listening. Maybe write down the final comparison.
AP1000 gen 3 reactor, 5 billion 6 years.
Nat gas plant numbers looking way better than nuclear. math class[X]
Profit line comparing the two.
The cost comparison, I can tell nuclear gonna cost more longer to build, after though can really sell the electricity.
Gas plant already built and accumulation of assets the
Year 13 on this display making finally making a unit, and paid off 6 billion in debt.
The nuclear up on +3 units per year, nat gas at +1 unit per year.
Year 18 Nuclear can surpass natural gas in profits.
Seems like a good idea to build the nuclear under alot of caveats.
Gotta watch out for the pass the buckers, the corner cutters.
The long potential for Nuclear is astounding.
“Many governments dont even look beyond the length of time that theyre in office”.
Gotta have that foresight.
Kinda likee the Vegas thing, at the same time its easy to be like no trains of nuclear stuff in my town, got to work around the public.
Make its own infrastructure I dont know. In the ocean, its more free for all. Or like whose gonna stop you.
And the cities and town. Anyways store the shit but not in my town right. The difference here is theyre trying to take the mountain away, and there its a nuclear test range. Its opposite.

_ football stadium.
Nice the Illinois field, 120 mil expansion for a place thats used 6x a year lol. Not tax funded.
Nice spot for reception lol. Premium seats can drink others no.
Private booths.
Talking about a company thats in tune with the town can use this area to meet people business, network.
Named after ww1 veterans on the columns.
lol state law changed for when the NFL bears came to town cause they were having a remodel.
When Americans want football on the weekend.

_ depleted uranium video.
Whats leftover from nuclear fuel.
Youre enriching.
take 6 units at 0.7% enrich to 1 unit of 3.2%
But what happens to the 5 units ‘leftover’ 0.2
This is for a reactor.
Oh yea uranium even denser.
to make say munitions that penetrate armor.
Wow thats crazy on the wiki page says counterweights for aircraft civilian uses. (dense metal)
Lead and uranium both bad. Dont eat lead or bullets or things on the battle field.
Bullet fragments.
Its like uranium is bad but so is evertyhing else on the battlefield. even the .. W.H.O.
Well what I read seems pretty minor. Im thinking like a big bomb blast on a field, like a ww1 style crater or some artillery over an area, like some battlefields in France would be more scarred then they are.
Theres some advice there on the bottom, how it could get or prevent it from entering the food source. Says it just oxidizes away .
Could do some ion adjustments to ground if it was really bad.

_ Getting the good stuff enrichment, nuclear fuels.
U238 is pretty boring.
U235 is the reactor and sought after type. Not very much 235 naturally.
Reactor fuel U235 3% number, // U238 97%
nuclear bomb 90% u235// 10% U238
the steps are power reactor, research reactor bunch of different countries run the centrifuges.
The gatekeeper is that enrichment tech. Its difficult. Difference of 3 neutrons. huge effort.
There is a USA national lab. Oakridge National lab. Cool.
essentially involves the atomic weight difference and making it a gas.
A diffusion calculation some pressures. this takes years.(1940s)
Now the gas comes in a spinner, the middle gas in tube is lighter.
Thats what the inspectors want to see.

_ Uranium from the ground.
Is there enough.
More plentiful than gold.
not that expensive, sea water contains uranium. Russia Canada Australia.
Seeing some charts for Uranium producers in the World. Canada 2nd, Australia after. Kazahstan first.
The production, there enough. If you use, breeder reactor you get much more cause it uses 238.
U3O8 natural, its radioactive, dont rub it all oveer ur face. and say oooh yellow makeup. Gotta extract it from the sands.
Granite smaller content of uranium.
The sand as it decays, its still bad it turns into Radon.
Another thing, dont use that sand for concrete, higher concentration radiation and radon in those houses.
Mill tailing used, cutting corners.reburry in mine.

_Backstage Theatre; taking a break [X]
This quick video apparently actually relates with Chernobyl and Fukushima.
I guess could draw some comparisons, instead of the acting they produce fusion.
But they have a Seam upholstery shop, machine tool prop shop, stage, floors functionality. Office.
Variables could go wrong.
Interesting thing abut the Krannert theatre is some rehearsal rooms matching stages, so the acoustics are the same.
Costume shop, and inventory.
BAckstage curtain and pulleys above the stage out of sight.
Large backstage area.
Acoustics no speaker, chorus section removing the seats.
That was a sweet theatre tour Lots going on in the background some distance to cover.
I could see some similarities maybe.

_ Health effects Chernobyl.
Chernobyl blast all into the atmosphere.
Yea the scientists in Germany testing with the rain they’re like this is a reactor core.
I watched this one already but whatever.
In Sweden the reactor alarms going off
Cesium 137 in air. IRSN
And the cesium 137 content
Iodine 131
The first responders.
The Thyroid treatment for nuclear.

Fukushima watched that.

Aint nothing but shitty news.

_Xenon can be a problem Nuclear
Ok from what I remember the xenon can kill the chain reaction.
Chernobyl shutting down causing some xenon poisoning in the reactor.
Its the kind of poisoning that stops a nuclear reactor.
Reactor is a giant neutron dance, the uranium gives off neutrons, the water hits the neutron, if the neutron goes slow enough its chance its chance of fission get larger It will hit another uranium it fissions and off come some more neutrons.
In a bomb is different than reactor, the bomb doesnt even need a moderator so many neutrons. Its a fast fission and the add up extremely fast tremendous release of energy.
In the reactor. Its more of a sustained chain for the energy. Some neutrons bounce outside the radiator, some neutrons absorbed in the control rods. It wouldnt work without the moderator.
Where does Xenon come from Xe 135. Is really good at absorbing neutrons. With Xenon introduced, could be difficult to stop chain reaction.
Xenon is coming from, absorbing the neutrons.
When that neutron hits N -> U235 | Fission products + extra neutrons. (0.3% of time the collision produces some Xe135) 6.35% making Iodine135
Iodine radioactive, I 135 -> Xe135+ Beta and neutrino
Beta decay .
So the Iodine 135 beta decays to Xe135 in about 6.6 hrs.
the graphic shows the xenon waiting for the reactor to stop, to poison it. Every time theres a chain reaction making stuff that leads to xenon.
Explanation here, the Xenon 135 is also radioactive. Beta decays to CS 125 + B in 9.1 hours. Cesium 135 long lived isotopes.
Second part of explanation the Xenon 135 actually absorbing N^1 0 + Xe 135 Makes Xenon 136 stable isotope.
Yea Chernobyl the shut off, the xenon goes way up, since the chain reaction stopped, then also the Xenon neutron eaters stopped. 60 hr xenon poisoning in the reactor
If you ever turn off the reactor you cant turn it back on for another 3 days.
If you keep adding the fuel thee reactivity is going way up in the case of Chernobyl try to get back to started. Accidently turned it off and trying to start it again.
Thats the cardinal rule if you turn it off you gotta wait 3 days, at Chernobyl they waited an hour. Disastrous effect. The reactivity dip wwith xenon.
Its called the iodine pit.
Contrary to all the rules at Chernobyl they werent seeing what they wanted so they pulled all the control rods out. Tipped it over the edge , into uncontrolled run away reaction.

What you can do with MRI
This when you drink the chalk solution, and get scanned?
Its the university of Illinois.
Its searching for Hydrogen ions.
So basically what im hearing the hemoglobin contain Iron, surrounded by some oxygens, when the brain is thinking or doing a biological task the oxygens are busy so the Iron in Hemoglobin can be affected by the Magnetic resonance field _ into imaging MRI.
He also talked about another tesla scanner for animals. More power.
Everything from fitness to asking questions distractedness, what happens at the front of the brain trying to work on a task with no distraction.
Talking about brain slices. lol
Holy the tech, its superconductors, cooled with liquid helium.
MRI quench if the magnets get too hot. Just makes a gas plume.
Wires could melt.
Cool measure the viscosity of my brain. Pretty viscous lol.
The Beckman institute singing MRI.
Magnetic field, wow theyre showing a demo roofing nail wrapped in a foam.
Can make you dizzy too by sticking your head in there.
Hmm using the machine to switch the magnetic field, could change youre field of color if done too rapidly . So its done slowly to avoid those sensations.
Color, static, and heat.
Aluminum not attracted to field.
Watching the aluminum fall slower cool.
Its tracking the protons in the water in your brain.
2-3 mil magnets costs.
The MRI proof tv. No rogue transmitters.
Its a siemens machine.
The gas cryo room.
Images from animals and other things that have been imaged.

Learnt about TMI already.
_ Movie theatres in the modern age.
This is awesome that it comes up on the list.
I love movies right now.
During covid last year I seen Spongebob I was pretty stoked.
Now theatres are closed here atleast.
Everything in the digital age.
There are actual ‘film’ theatre still more of a niche thing.
70 mm film with a forklift lol.
Limited places to see that still. Might be interesting one day.
Economics of a theatre its not the ticket sale % Its the popcorn, and the soda.
The new 3d tech. Imax projector per eye.
the glasses polarize, the lens picks up the angle makes the 3d effect.
or the far away effect. If one of the projectors cut off it would be like covering one eye.
Dont wanna lose an eye then go to a 3d movie.
Wow the actual projector.
Its a trolley with wheels.
Pressurized xenon gas + anode cathode.
Most accurate representation of sunlight.
Its a plasma, the Xenon with the most filled noble gas, and the most electrons, Exciting the xenon gas will produce all the colors in the spectrum.
Imax 6000 watts running bulb. *pressurized Xenon.
Ok the plasma excites the electrons, and atoms. Most electrons add up all the transitions you’ll cover ever color in the color spectrum.
2x projectors.
Every morning recalibrates itself.
Movie plays with sound. I guess just automated with the double projector, and sound.
Old school movies with the film projectionist sleeping and didnt change the film.
All you gotta do is turn it out or trouble shoot. Ad viewing.
Screen is reflective type of vinyl.

_ Big bangs take a break.[‘X]
Fission the biggest bangs; the biggest hair bangs lol.
The reason for the lecture is to distinguish weapons from the reactor power.
Ok back to the U235 comes outta the ground very litte concentration, you need the 3-4% for reactor. You need to quantify that to a 90% concentration for thee weapons is a far jump from the 3-4% needed for reactor.
Takes long time to process.
Critical mass. It would automatically go off.
Sub critical pieces start separate then connect.
Trinity test from a tower.
Hot gasses rushing up mushroom cloud.
Not just nuclear, any explosion big enough will create the mushroom phenomena.
Hiroshima memorial site. Pretty horrifying if you think of those people. Well and the war in general.
Talking about the moments after blast.
Atomic Cannon.
Using the tamper is effective that neutron shell makes it so less mass is required for the reaction desired.
The plutonium and uranium logic.
Bullet style and implosion style. More engineering on the implosion style. With a more porous core then compressed.
China, France, Russia, UK, and USA.
India, Pakistan. 70s
Treaties, cold war over, some advanced countries simply say no we dont need nuclear weapons, could make em but the world polluted with enough of these.
North Korea, one of the latest in the club.
The hydrogen bomb kinda opposite from the fission bomb uses nuclear fusion (reaction in the sun)
Just as tough even tougher , need to start with that implosion. Need that for the temperatures to be high eneough for Tritium and deuterium to fuse.
Put it inside atom bomb.
This fission triggers the fusion.
Hydrogen sequence.
Bikini Atoll.
Tsar bomba.
2 completely different things, controlled fission reaction can generate that power, that uncontrolled fusion devastating.
Yup heres hoping no nuclear annihilation.

_ Whats in reactor.
I have understanding of reactor.
Fuel rod, moderator, control rod, capture.
Boron, it like neutrons, cadmium, Gadolinium first time I ever heard that one.
So the reactor, in the containment building.
The generator.
The cooling tower.
Example reactor.
Clinton Power Station central Illinois.
The resin beats absorbing those iron atoms coming off the pipes.
Theres a pressurized water reactor style, where the reactor circuit water doesn’t even touch the generator water.
Third loop. Safety boost.
Thats a simplified fission
Chance of a fission graph U235 page 7
The static is complicated.
Something for nuclear engineers to figure out.
The cross section show, higher chance of fission with lower speeds (eVs)
Using the moderator and the pressurized, if the moderator leaves the reaction stops.(shuts down if somehow looses coolant.

_ More fission gone fission.
Splitting up of large atoms into smaller ones.
U235 easy to split.
Neutron any speed and it hits the U235
after, splits into 2 pieces, Fission (products1) (Fission products 2) moving really fast.
the pre neutron boost weights more, the after products weight less that means that difference turns into speed.
Fuel pellet gets hot.
Also making 2.45 neutrons. per reaction also fast speeds.
Fission splits up Uranium products and makes extra neutrons.
the 2-3 extra neutrons could go on to create more fissions.
That us the chain reaction.
Slow is better for the chain reaction thats why the moderator there.
Solid Uranium reactor core, thats a bomb.
Or use a moderator.
Water neutrons same kinda mass, shared momentum.
Need something same kinda size, cause bouncing a ping pong ball off a bowling ball isnt really capturing that momentum.
Thats why these types of reactors are safe.
Trust the laws of physics not the scrambling operator.
RMBK Chernobyl Graphite was the coolant.
Whose gonna go reach in and take out that graphite after the meltdown occuring.

_ Food irradiation.
Can remove some molds and mildews.
Makes industrialization of fruits more effective.
Flashlight on rock, when you turn the light off does the rock glow?
Same with food radiation, puts out gamma rays that will kill what you dont want bacteria.
Doesnt turn the food radioactive.
Gamma rays cockraoches like 6-15x more resistant but not as resistant as a fruit fly.
Thats why the fruit flies getting the blast at the station focusing on the breeding. (previous chem assignement)
Basically take the gamma rays, from cesium 137.
Beta decay, emits some 0.6617 mega electron volts, as it decays to next state, emitting that gamma ray. cesium 137 that half life of about 30 years.
Cobalt to nickel. a different type.
Sterilize the bugs and longer shelf life.
chemicals , yummy that fruit looks so delicious just eat it. Wash it.
Irradiate it.
gamma ray spectrometrer
Concerns radicals, destroying proteins.
Hmm black pepper irradiated.
RADURA label, but what about processed foods. Thats fairly interesting still.
In life its best to use all tools.
When your importing food wouldnt you want it to have gone through a standard maybe.
Also the next thing its suggesting; its like you wouldn’t want to gamma ray your whole crop in infantile stage, unless maybe you were doing some atomic gardening.
But, the finished product, Its not growing anymore, its for shelf life.
Its like some choices you have. Some you dont.
Heres this scientist, Nice here a Canadian machine. Gammacell 220 Excel. I think hes wearing a dosimeter. Too bad cant read arabic found an article using that.
lol heres the older model;
The newer model looks really similar. Its a USA company now, a division of Soltera health.
Watching a demo.
Importance of the liquid nitrogen easy to spot differences when frozen.
Nice example of the research happening at the moment in the video is about the efficiency of the medicine after the medicine itself been irradiated. While the patient getting exposed in a radiation treatment.
Space food. Grilled steak in a bag MRE style.
People that have had organ transplant.
Back in soviet days that army irradiated its food. Theres definetly debate, I think its just a tool you could use depending on the situation.
For example, Clostridium botulinum bacteria produce a toxin that causes botulism, a dangerous illness. Food irradiation can control the spread, growth, and survival of the C. botulinum bacteria, but cannot remove the toxin produced by C. botulinum.
Shielding and core, or the irradiation chamber. Fool proof machine.
Special room for this purpose.
Can be safe so be safe lol.

_ What makes something Radioactive.
Yea during that phase its transitioning to another element giving off rays.
What makes radioactive?
It turns into something else, and during that process emits radiation.
Radioactive substances changes to other material/atoms, when it does that emits radiation.
Half life concept.
Got a jar of green radioactive marbles.
if its half life is a year, itll take a year and half of those marbles changed to white marble.

_Background radiation, I seen Carl Sagan do this experiment. cant find it. Might have to watch cosmos again.
Radioactive materials turn into something else, and emit radiation, Alpha, beta gamma rays.
What kind of dose am I getting.
Dose = (Energy absorbed)/ mass
Internation unit. 1 Sv= is alot of radiaiton. 1Sv = Joule absorbed/ kg
1Sv = 100 Rem
1 mRem (natural sources) per day
10muicroSv = 1 mRem
1 micro SV= 0.1 mRem
Then Pie chart updated
natrual and man made. Radon, 320 mRem come from nat sources.
300 mRem from man made medical procedures, stats for USA.
Prof talking about changes in nuclear medicine since the 80s.
Ground 15-20 mR from the ground uranium thorium little bits of radioactive particles.
Stone house emits more radiation.
Internal, potassium in your body 20-25 MRem
Space; cosmic rays, stars exploding. 20-25 ml MRem
Radon ~200 mRem
Mile high you get 75-100 mRem.
Other man made radiation: Ct Scans pretty high.
Then you got some specific tumor treatments, cancer treatments.
100 mRem per year from the government excess does.
Lantern mantles radioactive.
Theres some mantles back in the day dipped in thorium and cerium nitrates.
Consumer goods.
Smoke detector. Smoke detector demo, the alpha particles discharging completes a circuit, the smoke interrupts that causes alarm. Helium nuclei with +2 charge. If smoke gets in the way the alpha particles are stopped very easily.
Dont eat the radioactive piece inside.
Lantern mantle, just wash your hands.
Ytrium Coleman is using now, instead of Thorium.
Potassium chlorids instead of sodium chloride.
Fiestaware uranium glaze.

_ ABC’s of Radiation.
This is sweet I never knew.
R substances emit radiation.
alpha ray
beta ray
gamma rays went the furthests.
alpha ray is just a helium nucleus. (stopped by clothes paper air)
lead 210 changes to mercury 206 in that process
emits a alpha particle.
Beta ray is a electron.
Cathode ray tube. Old TV shooting electon at the (coated? I think sceen)
Those are electrons.
Ok beta rays (electrons) stopped by aluminum foil,and up.
Chlorine 36, not naturally occuring I dont think, cosmogenic. Cosmogenic cool word.
Paper doees nothing.
aluminum thing stopped it.
Finally gamma rays, simply a source of light.
opposite low energy.
This is high end, ultraviolet, xray gamma ray.
So yea the cobalt 60, need lead to protect from.
Light EM radiation, high energy photons.
How to make something radioactive ?
Many radioactive elements were formed when the earth was formed.
Potassium in your body Potassium 40 a particular isotope very long half life Billion + year.
It was created when earth was created.
Other things, humans can turn to radioactive.
You can do that with neutrons.
take Cobalt, stick in reactor and lots of neutrons hit it, it can turn into the isotope cobalt 60. (Now emits more gamma rays)
do chlorine + neutrons, you get thee chlorine 36. (beta)
Do lead + neutrons, you get Lead 210
So to make something radioactive when neutrons hit them, not when radiation hits em.
Alpha ray, shortest. (helium nucleus) gets stopped by paper.
Beta ray second shortest. its electrons, gets stopped by aluminum plate.
gamma ray, stopped by lead plate. Its high energy light. ITs a high energy photon.
The neutron goes through everything but can collide with other neutron sized molecules in some water. parrafin, theyll keep going till they collide with something similar size, hydrogen nucleus. photon.
Ok more instructional: 3 cookies.
cookie alpha
cookie beta
cookies gamma.
You gotta eat one cookie, sit on one cookie, and can throw one outy the window.
ok Ill sit on the helium, eat the elctron
or sit on the electron, eat the helium, and toss out the gamma rays yea final answer.
Eat the gamma source cause 1/2 will go through you Its like taking a xray, goes right through you.
Sit on the alpha emitter cause paper stops its. Its just helium nuclei.
You wouldnt want to sit on the electron without some aluminum pants.
Throw out the electron, or send it to my nearest appliance.
a sit
b throw
g eat

_ Why is sky blue: radiation.
the prism.
Red more toward IR
Green rigth in the middle,
Purples more towards xray gamma ray.
Rainstorms shows the prism.
Droplets of water acting as a prism.
So, not only can a trianglular prism reflect the light so can a water droplet.
Nice 42, degrees answer to the universe life and everything.
Need the sunshine, 42 degrees, an observer, water droplets.
Why the sky the blue, cause the sunset is red.
interesting physics formula,scatering= 1/ (wavelenght) ^4
Blue light higher energy, ~400nm
Red light lower energy infrared, ~ 700nm
Stick figure looking at sunset.
figure in hawaii looking up you see the light thats been scattered the most.
Only at the end when the its a straight line the red light just keeps going straight through atmosphere.
Youre seeing the scattered wavelength,.
The max spectrum is green.
Maybe can see green green flash sunset. Thats cool.
After the red see maybe a bit of green.
Sunset can also act same way if you get the conditions right.

_ Walking on water.
Relates to Hydro power, geothermal energy.
1 Oxygen 2 hydrogens.
1 lone pair on the O
H+ H+
Its polar.
The fact that its polar h+ h+—O: makes it have high surface tension.
The way to enclose that to minimal molecule on the outside is to make a sphere.
Water droplet bouncing upward on trajectory at its highest point.
Water droplets on a lily pad, thats very hydrophobic.
close up lotus leaf with tendrils, its like a water droplet on a bed of nails.
Paper clip floating on water with surface tension.
Bugs feet.
The slightest extra weight will overcome that surface tension.
Now same test with isopropyl alcohol. C3H8O
added a teaspoon of water.
It just wont.
Water bugs.
extremely light.
The bug would sink.
Basilisk can run across water.
The lizard making some big bubbles of air, that dont close up.
Skipping rocks on water.
water skiing barefoot on the water.
Guy walking on swimming pool lol. plexiglass structure.
Walking on ice.

_ home improvements, Hydro power and Geothermal energy.
Energy increases.
Depression, wars, resolution, oil embargoes.
In USA, energy use hasnt increased but GDP has.
Looking at a graph, energy use per dollar of GDP.
from the 50s, to 2010 almost reduced by half.
How does the energy use go down and product go up ?
Can the rest of the world become as efficient.
Where can we get efficiency gains.
-Green architecture.
Looking at cross section of the double paned windows.
R1 single pane. Terrible insulation.
R2 double paned glass.
Argon gas filled window.
Nice inside the window, you can use some infrared proofing.
Low-e glass.
Older buildings heater, and AC on at the same time.
Lights, have become more effective.
The non edison bulb.
You got the compact fluoresent, (1/4) energy same light,
then LEDs. Even less energy more light.
Motors. Variable speed motors, industrial improved.
types of vehicles.
Shift from manufacturing to service. Heavy rail to google.
The energy use kinda plateaud, but the GDP going up.

_ Heat for homes.
Some Geo thermal stuff.
Geothermal loops.
The 10 degree earth temperature.
Not super comfortable but ok way to start.
Well theres some differences on the temp but temp is at a stable temperature.
Use the coil yard system vertical or loop systems.
Frostline, permafrost.
The prof himself has loops.
Bonus in the summer.
Pics of prof energy bills.
If it freezes your in trouble.
Impermeable with clay barries similar to drilling.
Some issues using the electricity back up when its cold.
But yea in the summer time its cool.
Pros, and cons to that system.

_Hot rocks
Steam discussion , electricity.
Discussion of old faithful, and someone saying ooh take this nice geyser and were gonna make a power plant outta that.
Put down water down, turns right into steam.
But cant cool it too much or itll just be rocks.
Volcanic rock. heat it
Cant build to lava too close, if you got a stable place though.
Porous rock.
Theres actual geothermal there, geysers.
Called Geysers , thats definetly interesting never heard of that till now.
Electricity production down.
Iceland Reykjavik.
Using the hot water for the heat not just electricity run the water in the radiator.
Maybe on another planet.

_ Power of water, Hydro, and geothermal.
Tidal energies, dependable.
Gravity calcl, 1/ (distance)2
Difference between , center of moon to, center of earth, and center moon to either poles,

So stronger pull on the closer side, weaker pull on the further side.
Planeet covered in water, watwe can move. bulge towards the moon.
However couple tides.
Bulges and pulls, you get a vacuum. he explains it better , theres rotation and also moon rotates.
Tide advances by an hour, cause the moon rotation.
Average tide is around 1m
Tide can be more dramatic, something like ballasts.
Trap that water. fill up the tanks.
La Rance France was looking at that. 1968
They dam a whole bay. You need the bottle neck.
Ocean creatures or Nutrients get trapped in the pump ?
Ocean currents.
A windmill underwater.
Wave power, like a shake flashlight.
Sea snakes.
The cons the joints really suffer,
and what happens when theres a massive storm and the waves are way crazier.
Theres shore based.
You get the waves or tides into a vaccum space then put a air turbine at the top affected by the water in that space.
Bay of fundy wave power.

_More Hydro power.
Large-scale hydro plant.
How the hydro large scale works, hoover dam.
2000 mw
Francis turbine, most commonly used water turbines today.
3 gorges damn in China thats the newest also uses the Francis turbine./
This one is awesome too.
Three gorges massive engineering project. 22 500 mega watts. 22 or more coal power plants.
Displaced many people.
Free energy, as long as the water lasts.
reservoir takes the land that was used.
One concern is the damn could break. in 66 Hydro dam broke, also in North van the valve just released with no warning.
Wow this 1966 Italy flood.

_ Small scale Hydro.
Hydro is usefull.
small stream, and a watermill house.
Power calc. power = energy/time = ((mass)(height goiing to fall from) (g))/ time
heigth gotta be atleast 2 meters.
Measuring flow velocity.
volume ((l)(w)(d))/d mass/volume
density of water. water 1000kg per m^3
Lol hes in the creek.
Process to actually calculate this stream.
Damming the stream calculate the potential energy.
This particular creek has power 333 watts.
doubtfull to capture all that potential energy no loss.
Need that height for more power 2 m +
Pros, and cons.
wave power demo, make power during day, lights at night.

_Energy from garbage.
Biofuel Biomass.
How about that municipal waste incinerator. Someone took that as band name lol, clever.
Garbage incinerator air pollution.
Quality control.
OK getting a tour of particular waste facility at the waste transfer station University of Illinois
Machine to puncture plastic beverage containers, aluminum cans maybe. So they can drain before being shipped.
Cardboard, up and down.
1200 1400 lbs per bail of paper
Cardboard worth less that paper.
Weighs about the same.
Paper reduction.
This person talking from like 2009 14-15 bails per day to 5 bails a day now.
Aluminum cans in bulk worth quite a bit.
1500 $ a ton at the time of that video.
Ok gotta do the Math class [x]

_ From the well to you.
Its about natural gas. Hey im back had mega math exam
quantum chemical.
Its a story about the fireball from gas plant at quantum chemical corp
Natural gas isnt just methane.
Methane CH4
Ethane C2H6
Propane C3H8
Butane C4H10
String, and circular.
Its someones job to clean that gas coming through pipeline.
So its just methane.
Remove the impurities, deliver only methane.
so because that line 2 was down at the plant.
Usually you can liquify the by-product that the plant takes out of the gas, since it was down they were just burning it off.
They store it.
When Chicago needs gas for winter they take it outta storage.
Some interesting looking buildings.
Thats interesting so they store the gas underground in a old dry well.
Stripped of its thicker hydrocarbons, and pressurized in undergrounds rock formations.
Nicor gas.
Methane doesn’t smell, but gas leak.
Theres a small amount of Ethanethiol , or ethyl mercaptan for that reason so you can smell a gas leak.
High enough gas prices youll explore other optionsd like fracking etc.
Its like harvest gas in Siberia, gas prices would have to be pretty high to go harvest in frozen swamp .

_ How cell phone finds you
oil in action
recent cell phone developments around the planet.
Nokia phone.
Old phone new phone.
Calling someones ceell phone how does it know where you are.
Landline, put in all these country codes and phones.
If you phone can see a cell tower ur on the system.
Your phone has 3 numbers.
ESN number, its in the phone.,
Sim cards is your phone number.
Sid number. Your provider.
control channel.
Trying to find signals from cell towers.
Home, or roaming no service.
registration, MIN and registration.
Mobile telecommunication switching office.
When the phone rings.
Its like a search engine of numbers of towers and satelites within seconds tracks you.
using all the numbers.
Searches database, assigns two frequencies.
Ever talk on the radio, hey JAck how you doing today, -over . lol
Your turn to talk. both cant talk.
Radios only one frequency cell is 2.
band 820-840 MHz
~1900 MHz
As your moving it communicates auto with next tower to switch you.
Phones and traffic.
Chicago traffic
Enterprising software, on data from the speeds cell phones are travelling. people walking travelling walking speed.
The decrease in speed can send signal on map for traffic.

_Oil economics.
Supply and demand.
North sea supply price drop around 1986
2008 prices higher higher crash.
production and demand.
Demand just above production the production finally exceeds the demand.
price is still high.
demand lower prices crash crash.
Saudi and production costs start of north sea, Iran Iraq war ends
Saudi Opec
This is energy course.
Russia Crimea
Just showing the supply demand data can show some interesting things on the economics.

_Pipelines and contreversy.
Cushing Oklahoma.
Thats a Hub and also Houston
The XL pipeline debate shows map.
Accidents on rail, and truck.
Pipes safest.
“It would be wonderful for Canada..”
Its controversial we dont ‘want’ oil nowadays.
It would make gas cheaper. Its for the green argument so that oil prices raise so that green energy becomes more affordable.
Less expensive domestic supply or save it.
It would be the north American supply tar sands.
Canada supposed to in theory be selling that commodity ‘best price’.
Carbon tax.
Rail car, truck, pipeline, not getting to the heart of the issue.
Tar sands the oil sands.
Number of carbon atoms,
1-4 Gaseous
5-13 Liquid
14 or more solid.
heat up the sand enough to make the change from solid to liquid.

_ Oil producers and consumers
Middle east lush and green has made large reserves of oil.
links in the Video Its the EIA
Venezuela tar sands.
Saudi production infrastructure.
Pie chart of some oil reserves, and reasons why.
The oil will continue to go up, and therefore it will be substituted.
Coal vs oil.
USA imports and the effort to reduce.
Saudi Arabia mega production not that much use.
Japan oil importer not much energy resources.
Wow but the gas prices only 22 cents per liter cheaper in Van with a quick look today.
Oil could be subject to the highest bidder.
Volatile prices.

_ Gateway to the heavens
Its a video about the observatory at the Univ Illinois
Built with 15k.
Back in the day was isolate.
Light pollution.
Joel Stebbins
All telescopes built on the ground so jumping wont cause vibration, building built around it.
Rotating chair.
Observatories facing east, im guessing so they get the most exposure and be able to track something for the longest time.
Oh it has to do with weather and traditions.
Its like observing star and the high zoom, and adjustments.
What you can see with telescope.
The earth rotate mechanism.
Star twinkle from atmosphere.
The hubble.
Imagine the network of space telescopes and the radio waves communicating all that data.
The newer imprvoved detailed map of universe, or since last observation.
You’d need some wizardry to communicate that data between one end of say the galaxy to the other.

___ Refining Crude conversion.
Refineries take all the hydrocardons of any lenght and turn them into useful products.
Fractional distillation column.
crude + heat.
You get some butane & propane, petrol, kerosene, diesel, fuel oil.
lube oil parrafin wax, asphalt.
Naphtha cyclic, medium length.
Refineries want to make gasoline. Refineries want just over 50% of the barrel to go to gasoline.
So to do that gotta re-arrange the shorter hydrocarbons.
Take the shorter ones reform em, take the heavier ones break em down.
Next is Kerosene is jet fuel.
Then its Diesel. 15% of the barrel of oil.
Home heat oil.
Car oils, less than 1% becomes lubrication.
Coke from oil.
Refineries are subject to accidents.
Its important to keep oxygen out when your boiling oils way above their ignition point.
Shows a picture of the Puerto Rico plant. But that was storage facility pretty wild picture, just search up som CSB 2009
Something like this photo.
You want to do this, takes a bit of energy dont want to just use the crude in your lamp.

_ How to get even more out.
Pumping up salt water.
Settling tanks.
Water goes back in the well.
Extraction well, and the other wells you pump into.
Using steam or water to push the oil toward the extraction point.
Emulsifier, soap detergent pump it back up then seperate oil and soap.
Or pump molasses down the well.
Sugar with bacteria, as waste creates CO2.
differences between Saudi and USA production and well numbers.

_ How to get it out.
How the oil actually found underground and the story of a rig nearby.
Most wells 2-3 km deep.
Oil collecting in the cavity.
Actual fossils.
Drill through hard rock material coming out.
Mud not water.
Its a pipe, with a casing forcing mud will come out the side.
Mud also cools the drill. Theres cement too.
That porous rock in illinois, used for natural gas storage though even there was no oil.
Does oil spray out like 10 % of times maybe.
Its a pump demo. Primary extraction. YHoull get maybe 1/3 of that oil out.

_ how do you find it
the oil.
1/3 worlds energy come from oil
Plants, and animals falling into salt water environments.
fault line cavities, or traps.
Surveying trucks. Thats cools a throttled pad vibrating truck.
Making 3d map from that shockwave.
the density of rock is known so you can find the division.
Mineral rights, leases the 1/8 usual royalty.
Story about the 50 bucks lease forever.

_ How does oil form
plankton small plants dying in salt water.
Buried under time and pressure.
Most time people see actual crude oil, sadly its on sea birds during a spill.
Gasoline evaporates.
Usually pretty thin.
Fresh water trap, that makes coal.
Natural gas formed same way just lighter hydrocarbons.,

_ what happens when you flush. Waste water.
This facility takes care of 140k people. 7 Billion gallons per year.
From 200 ppm solid waste to 4 ppm
5 steps to process.
Screening debris.
Smell gets better as you go through plant.
Next step bacteria, introduced. Oxygen. Bacteria. The Oxygen blowers is a significant cost.
Mimicking nature.
12 hr turnaround.
Settling, settling bacteria from water.
The bacteria gets recycled to the beginning.
Settling tank.
Its got like a overflow tank.
Converting ammonia to non toxic. Nitryfying bacteria its called.
Water drops down a tank the bugs use it, lots of surface area.
Fitration the R&D the engineering 10th generation.
Deep tunnel Chicago wow thats big tunnel and hole.
Its like a walking through garden hose the size of your house.

___ Effects of global warming
House insurance.
coastal waters.
Floating ice demo. Displaces same water.
Floating Ice vs land mass ice like Greenland and Antarctica. If that melts will raise the sea level.
Tectonic effects, and human effect on sea level.
Crop production up or down. Up in Canada, down in Europe if its too hot.
The Gulf stream bringing warmer temp to Western Europe.
Fresh water introduced to the conveyor belt, interrupts its heat could be a problem.

_ How to cool the planet.
Global warming abatement, reduction.
Too much CO2.
Sulfur dioxide
Block some of the incoming, lets out the heat still.
1883 Krakatowa, and the scream. The skies colored red.(Edvard Munch Norway)
Caused a mini ice age.
Its not a permanent solution.
It is a science thing thats forsure.

_ Kyoto, and Carbon Reduction
Separating the world in zones all agreeing to reduce.
Shows graph GDP, and temperature.
Some places little warmth is good.
CO2 effects on the body.
Occupational limits.
Reducing the carbon producing energy %.
More, and more.

_Earth getting warmer how do we know
temp and CO2 correlation graph.
Ice cores and checking the gasses from thousands of years ago.
General increase in CO2 and temp goes hand in hand.
How much Increase though.
How much can be tolerated, is a bit of a dangerous experiment.

___ Which gasses are bad.
Greenhouse gasses.
CO2 200 300 ppm
Methane more effective at trapping heat and reflecting.
Methane is 18%
CO2 is around half. (sources of greenhouse effects)
Cows digestion.
CFCs really bad for atmosphere.
All those fossil fuels digging it up and setting it on fire.

_ How the greenhouse works.
Trapping heat.
White hot camera.
Energy coming from the sun, = energy radiating from the earth.
Just demo from energy coming off the sun atmosphere, keeping the energy in.
Adding more insulation with CO2
Greenhouse effect made life possible on this planet.
Caused by atmosphere.
Chart about some cloud and reflections. radiating heat %s
clouds and feedback to cool and warm the planet.

_ How things work, what happens to our garbage.
Effects of coal
Its the garbage processing center.
The blue bag visual.
Its offset the budget type of operation.
Its a interesting video.
Metal recycling.
Its the same as the other video except no lecture points.
Shows a few other scenes.

_ Heres the cleaning coal out.
How to get that sulfur dioxide out, that earth cooling poisonous/toxic compound.
Ie Dropping acid.
Coal dust.
Ash gets collected
Fluidized bed modern way to burn coal.
pulverizing it to remove bigger chunk.
upgrading fuel,
fluidizing. Someone had their thinking cap on.
Taking out the ash , SO2 , NOx
Burn some nat gas alongside it.
Everyplant could be come a coal combined gas plant reburner.
Ensuring the carbons are burnt out. You dont want the ash to contain that unburned carbon.
So explanantion continues gas is burning along, still contains thee sulfur dioxide.
Limestone graphite scrubbing reaction on the gas.
CaCO3+ SO2 -> CaSO4
So then you’d get gypsum as by-product, naturally occurring.
You do that reaction on the fly.
Its called sorbent injection.
The ash bin.
Then you do the exhaust water bubbler.
Thats how to get the heavy metals out.
The last part is the scrubber, another water tank with limestone slurry. When you bubble that through you convert SO2 To calcium carbonate CaCo3 im pretty sure. precipitates out as a solid, reaction happened and drained out the bottom. Gets rid epa.
Understanding the science mitigating acid rain.

_ effects of coal , trading smoke works.
EPA vs electricity.
Phasing time.
Cap and trade.
Economic incentive to produce less, than they would have otherwise.
Good example of cooperation says the prof.
Rewarding the producers to make that inveestments.
Sell the credits.
Cap it.
Get money for having credit, others have to pay for the credits.
From 1980 to 2007 reduction in half of the SO2
limit, 1-2lb / per million BTU
2012 80% reduction. EPA
Trading these credits, even environmental groups could scoop up some credits and not trade em. Thats interesting. Economic incentives.
SO2 and CO2 reduction should be the same.
Its not really fair due to the, energy use = CO2
Places like India youre like sorry cant have any more power gotta capo it and pay all this$.
Fair and equitable vs un-intended consequences.
The SO2 solution is from a waste product from the energy.
Not the energy itself.

_ acid rain
Effect of coal acid rain.
Big topic in the 70s
Forests dying, and fish dying in rivers, lung problems, sweet.
Mapping the PH or the rain around thee world.
PH concentration of Hydronium ion. cation.
7.0 is neutral,
6.0 is 10x times more acidic
5.0 is 100x times more acidic
4.0 is 1000x times more acidic, and so on.

Higher #’s are bases.
Again goes up log scale.
8.0 is 10x more base.
9.0 is 100x more base
and so on.
Chart of PH of rain from the 80s
Cant find the exact on the in the video this one seems newer in #s .
The PH levels on the east coast higher.
5.6 is the rainwater.
Rain turns to a carbonic acid.
Hitting CO2 in the atmosphere.
Higher the higher thee PH the rain in those areas could kill some vegetation and if you breathed in that rain could cause you some lung distress over time. Could kill marine life.
Ruining marble sculptures.
That’s why coal designed to turn Carbon dioxide.
And sulfur, to sulfur dioxide
Ash +SO2 + 0.5 02 -> SO3 sulfites on the dust surface.
Dry acid precipitate.
SO3 +H2O(on your lung tissue) –> H2SO4 youve just created sulphirc acid on your lung breating in that dust.
Nitrous oxide produced in some power plant.
Ok demo of sulphuric acid on paper towel just burns and dissolves it.
NOx x is a number 1/2 ,1, 2, 3,
These compunds will do same type of reaction
N2O, (0.5). NO, NO2, NO3 turning into nitric acid.
More on paper demo.
Showing the reaction, thats whats happening you get more acid rain at the Sulfur dioxide production.
Its the calcium carbonate solution. Say you had a lake that evolved, lots of that chalk the sulfur dioxide rain wouldn’t affect it Wow I was actually at this site once. Thats what came up when I searched calcium carbide lake.
Rare earths sciences.
“Why should I buy my coal from really far away?” the prof. Cheaper to get it next door.
Nuclear reaction analysis, you go to the coal analyse it for these rare earths. The signature coal. Then you go to the dead lake pull up some muck at the bottom of lake, analyse it.
See the same rare earth and magnitudes. Unburnt parts of that coal ending up in that lake. Clean air act was passed. Theres a # limit. Limit of sulfur dioxide per energy heat made.

_ Coal and gas plant walkthrough.
Tour of Abbot plant. Watched this one previously.
The burning room is just a room of water tubes.
Stationaries and rotaries.
Immediately connected to the generators.
The burner.
Purify the new water coming in or ruin the turbine blades with scale and buildup.
old vs new technology.
You got the coal and nat gas reburner.
This time skip the water its the hot exhausts.
Then use those gasses to also boil water.
better effieency.
Half the modern plant is dedicated to cleaning the water and scrubbing the gases.
10% of the rock cant burn. fly ash.
Electrostatic precipitators, static charge on the dust.
Heavy metals come out with that ash trap.
Heavy metal recovery goes in the scrubber building.
High sulfur coal to burn cleanly at the abbot plant.
The pollution aspect is half the plant. Just gotta learn those hard lessons.
Making Gypsum. You can touch it lol.
Talking about cant have the whole coal mine drain into the river, or say the headwaters of a river.
This abbot plant, designed to be able to be used byu train and even thaw the train, but more economical by train.
Theres the EPA limit 1.2 Lbs of SO2 per million of BTUs produced.

_Geo engineering possible? desirable?
Planes. What are contrails.
Kerosense, CO2, and water vapour.
Hes saying spraying sulphuric acid lol.
Spray out sulphuric acid as athough experiments.
shows a diameter effective for aeroesols and injection velocities, nozzles, diameter.
Staying up there for years instead of contrails.
Talking about the olympics and adjusting the weather lol.
I get what he means, need a different chemical to cool the planet.
Just to get that degree reduction.
Millions of tons of H2SO4
20 Megatons of SO2 every year. Using AC130s.
Thats the logistic, the cost would be 25-50 billion per year.
Evidence from volcanoes. what could go wrong.
The argumemenmt after developping your whole economy on fossil fuels and telling other they cant. If you dont do it well blow you up.
IF you screwed up the geoengineering you could ruin agriculture for alot of people.
Acid rain problems again. change weather
Ocean acidification.
Ozone depletion.
What if only on the poles. you dont want the ice to melt.
Making clouds from sea water.
Make algea ponds in ocean.
Eats CO2 could be a solution in ocean.
Making Co2 into seashells.

_ Inertial Confinement’s Progress.
How to make fusion ,
Need density, time.
10^14 1/cm^3 confimnet time 1 second.
I dont understand all those calcs yet.
Magnets inertia.
Its a dsicussion of hitting a solid glass globe from 2 directions at the same time.
Thats confinment.
Started with something solid, though.
Inertial confiment fusion.
Its a small sphere, filled wiht a section of frozen deuterium, and tritium.
Hit it from a lazer, hit that suspended glass ball from every direction with laser, but not just any laser most powerfully lasers in the world.
National ignition facility in USA. They can hit and compress for a nanosecond.
Cool the national lab, Livermorium.
I wonder what neat experiments happening now.

___ Computer chips.
As many cell phones as people. If not more.
First integrated circuit.
gopne from 10 cm to 10 nm
10^-1 10^-9
number of transistors on a chip.
Same people keep buying the new products.
Talking about solid state and the layers of atoms required, height of 1 layer of atoms.
Quantum computing.
Functionality of an area doubling.
Single patterning process flow.
Changes its properties only where its exposed.
Like a suntan.
Then you take away the pattern that was exposed or not.
Then its a etch. Eat away the bottom layer without touching the top layer so you get a thin strips.
Then repeat, with wires etc. Patter, etch, deposiut.
Wow showes a photo of the final product looks like some modern architecture. Gonna screen capture cause cant find.

Also electron microscope view of SEM cross section.
Thats amnazing you obviously design it with compouter, but Its just fascinating how complicated, and little it is.
Theres another one of the IBM
Complicated sandwich.
The etch part I guess is basically using a laser to etch onto the chip.
The Moores law, its basically saying the laser doesnt follow the same line as the feature size, so the laser cant continue on that size vs time graph.
MAking the lithography wavelength smaller is really difficult.
Oh they figured it out, you ionize something really high, and the light from the plasma can make that micro ligth source.
Plasma EUV thats amazing new tech.
Interference patterns.
Showing some different methods.
Using plasma to remove the resist. Changing the plasma to etch different products.
New tech atomic layering etching, using a neghative Cl wavelenght or something, and a positiv Ar pushing down in a wave.
Ok thats sweet goes, deposits, Cl, then the AR goes and picks up the Cl and the initialy silicone state.
Hmm new metal and silicon layers also require plasmas.
Pvd sputtering devices. getting that metal coating into smaller and smaller places is that purpose.
very informative.

_ Magnetic fusion.
More things i know nothing about.
limitless fuel no harm to environment.
Wow prof went to princeton lab, its an American college chartered before the American Revolution.
President Carter again with the magnetic fusion act.
Density temperature confinment time.
PLT abd TFTR stalled aroond 1990s
This ITER Tokamak fusion concept
some people think 30-50 years for commercial power.
Fusion device at the profs lab.
Euro project shown the own with link. Break even point, not big enough to make net power.
ITER 2017 – Dec 2025.
Temperature differences.
building takes a while.
nuclear facility so has those standards.
Harnessing he power the sun.
Plasma engineering.

_ What is fusion. How do you get it to work.
Density sun denser than water.
confinment, time.
The sun is a working fusion reactor.
Deuterium, + tritium makes Helium neutron and energy.
Both positively charged. moving fast, after the conenct the neutron and HE moving waaay faster.
Thats where the energy comes from.
Needs radioactive fuel. is a con, and thats pesky neutron.
The vessel becomes radioactive.
Would havee to become robotic for some maintenance.
Shows a probably evolution of fusion reactors.
2050 no tritium or lithium required.
2100 its a boron making helium4 no radioactivity. High thermal efficiency.
Its a work in progress. The technology is the limiting in this case.
Showing like a plasma like a cathode ray, and a magnet and the interferance and confinment of the plasma.
Cylinder with no magnetic field electrons just going wherere.
Adding a direction and magnetic field the electrons are confined within that path, spin around that magnetic field path.
Doing that with a toroidal field coils.
in a real plasma cant hit the certain wall or could melt, so gotta be under control.
Adding another magnetic field, making it a minimum energy state loop.
The sun, solar flare, makes that same twisting shape.
Thats the goal get that loop in a minimum energy state just like the sun.
needs the coils and the twist.
Tokamac makes twist dfifferent.
Tokamac plasma becomes the wire, needs the Iron frame.
Dont totally undertand but theres a difference in how each creates the twist.
Wow this input power to gety it going is like 2 million watts.
its a 70 ton, research education
Its a tube of light.
Vacuum with a little hydrogen.
Methods to start heat the plasma.
then become ionized trapped by magnetic field.
Density temp and confinment.
for a sustained fusion reaction.

_ What is a plasma?
4 states of matter,
Solid, liquid, gas, keeping pumping energy into it breaks the bonds, plasma
Keep adding energy ripps that electron off the proton.
Plasma is the dominant state of matter in the universe. Thats amazing.
The property that you can switch it direction withj a magnet, then using a magnetic field is how to make the fusion reactor work.
Wow has frequency like radio wave.

_ How microwave works
Industrial processes plasmas.
Homeland security neutron probe lol.
Plasma sputtering devices for the computer chip creation.
Microwaves, drying paint, curing plastics, warming food/water.
Generating plasma for different purposes.
Microwave energy channels to create a plasma.
Disassemble microwave.
Lesser power microwave say 50% microwave power.
Just reduces the signal all happens really fast anyways would barely notice.
Needs to up the volatge, transformer and capacitor.
The magnotron.
Talks about the hotspots.
Then the turntable to rotate the food around.
The grape plasma.
Low frequency light waveliengths.
The magnet in the middle, the electrons orbit.
The bars cause the bunching up of the electrons. 2.45 Ghz
Ok so it works because theres water in your food.
Tune the frequency to affect/vibrate the H2O.

_ SUper computers.
how things work the super computers.
Demo video at National Petascale Computing facility.
Bluewater supercomputers.
Building 4.5 years old built specifically for this purpose.
Benchmarks to measure the strengths of the supercomputers.
Cray systems.
Graphics and CPUs .. GPUs vs CPU differences.
The cooling volume, and the actual computer space.
Thats kinda like the scrubbing facilities taking up alot of volume.
Infrastructure. Power or cooling.
Hot day at summer, capacity would be 24 MW could* use that amount.
All the campus uses 80MW
Fusion device 2MW
Planning for energy use.
Passive cooling, to save that energy usage.
LEED certification- Leadership in Energy & Environmental Design. This particular design is gold.
National science foundation pays the bills.
Ok I see a large room with some metal tubes probably guessing thats some water cooling.
Cabninets with cards.
Theyres called blades. Interconnects. Multi core CPU proccesors, the copper is the heatsink, the ram in the middle.
Temp controlled room with the wires.
Makes me think of mainframe.
The other cabinets are, the tape storage. Robot arm to pick out HDS. The tubes are for the water cooling.
Floor infrastructure. Making those connections.
Simulations, for the toughest problems.
Building is semi-tornado proof, earthquake too.

_ Reactors of the future Gen IV
Today we using Gen 3, passive safe.
Convection to cool the heat, not even water. But prety sure they using the mnoderator for the reaction still.
Gen IV desires, trying to do this higher temp, better efficiency. Fixing the downtime problems.
Higher availability.
Gen IV concept instead of using water use the boiling gas already.
High temp gas cooled reactor. ITs a combined cycle on the generator shaft.
Very high temp also using a helium coolant.
Another would be moving molten metal like lead around, or sodium or salt.
Superphenix commercial reactor. sodium cooled fast breeder reactor.
Geniv includes bunch new things, the pebble bed reactor
Pebble bed the pellets have moderator inside.
continuous fuel cycle.
NEw on top cycle out the bottoms
If they all fell into a control rod bed the reaction would stop.
Liquid bed.
Pebble bed reactor scheme. thats the one
New fuels, Thorium cycle, using fuels more completely, containing wastes, the pebbles already in a contained state.

_ Dealing with used fuel. Reprocessing
When you do fission you get some by products the fission products.
The goal in Nuclear energy trying to get that waste to the level of natural radioactivity found in the natural ore.
500 years, time length for thee fission products to decay, sao humans knowledge of engineering other subjects surpasses 500 years.
The problem line is the actinide, the heavier than uranium products. Plutonium neptunium californium Amerecium, long halflifes.
That graph progresses faster. Link If it dont work search “Decay in radioactivity of high level waste.
Reproccesing in a breeder reactor is, youre gonna have to reproccess anyways cause the plutonium is the fuel rearranging that in the reactor.
Plenty of resources now, could use breeder reactors in the future.
Standard light water reactor.
You make plutonium Pu 239, 240, 241, 242 doesnt equal bomb.
Contrast to breeder reactor. That only makes 239, Can maybe = bomb.
Thats a proliferation note.
So far so good on the being able to contain plutonium on the reproccesing.
Isotopic seperation is tech.
France and Pakistan doing reprocessing.
IFR reactor, the heavy metals never leave the containment building.
Neat concept. Argonne nat lab.
Breeder reactor could be really useful later on.
Liquid metal reactor, like the phenix.
The plant demo showing some differences. ITs basically upgrading fuel rods, integral fast reactors.
Thats probably a big feature of the gen 5 reactors.
Taking out those products before they become fuel

_ New content coming soon.
Only 15 vids left.

_How solar cell works
The magic in a solar cell.
How a solar cell works.
Si4 crystal.
History, someone, placing all the elemeents in the table next to each other, or a box containing all those spots.
Trying to measure the conductivity of the silicon, researcher says its making electricity.
Day makes electriciy night not.
Light is converting something in this rock to electricity.
Something about it being next to phosphorus in the work area.
Then discovering its not the silicon by itself, its a little phosphorus with a extra bond available in the lattice. (as opposed to the 4 bonds possible from silicon)
Its called doping 1of 10000
Extra bond a free electron.
Mobile electron. It increases the conductivity.
Still electrically neutral.
n-type silicon.
negative charge type.
Children and parents demo, the parents are the positive nuclei, with that extra electron now, will have some electron diffusion.
Kids negative parent positive electric field.
They wont wander too far.
Put some n-type silicon on top.
put some on top of the regular (intrinsic)
N-type has the lattice, has the free electon its go a phosphorus somewhere in there.
More things free to fuse on top, some of the elctrons will difuse from top to bottom.
When this happens, this causes a charge imbalance and electric field at that junction.
Doping only top layer
Next step, N-type, and regular.
That region has big electric field pointing down.
This region wont have mobile charge carriers, will be depleted.
Electron diffusion, causes a depleted region
photons have enough energy to break the bond from the electron and its nucleus
Produce an electron ion pair.
Sun does same thing, ultraviolet more energy can break more bonds thats why sunscreen is good.
In the Ntype reagion photon does nothing bonds and absorbed.
The next region if it get there, the ion will feel pull up, the electron will feel pull down.
“If you produce a photon pair in the depletion zone youll get movement of charge = electricty.”
You need a wire electrode on top. another metal on the bottom, connect some wires, discovered by accident.
Solar cell, why blue. absorb all the light. All the photons.
no ligth returning/reflecting. I think i seen this before, but its nice to see again refresh.
_ Why sound sounds good.
_ Why is sky blue
_ back with new markers
11 vids left

_ Energy stats: Then and now
Wrapping up these videos, this looks liek a update on some energy usage.
This one is energy use by source, 2018-2006
The quad unit again, 1 Quad = 10^15 BTU
10^18 Joules.
#1 Oil. 2018 36.1, 2006 39.8
Nat gas.2018 31.0, 2006 22.4 Less CO then coal lowered the amount of CO2
Coal. 2018 13.2, 2006 22.5 Fracking cheaper than coal. American energy independent, if you included Canada.
Nuclear 2018 8.4, 2006 8.2
Hydro electric 2018 2.7, 2006 2.9
Wind 2018 2.5 2006 0.26 X10^ Renewables 5%
Wood (waste) 2.3 2006 2.1
Ethanol Biodiesel 2018 2.3, 2006 0.76 X3^
Solar 2018, 1.0 2006 0.07 X15^
Garbagee 2018 0.5, 2006 0.4
Geothermal 2018 0.2 2006 0.35
Another graph from 50s to preesent.
Cosumption levels off. Make more stuff with less energy.
switch from coal to nat gas.
Renewable line going up.
Rest of the world.
Its showing some data between energy use by country 2016 -2014
China taken the lead in energy use by country.
India growth.

_ Updates video, talent show lol.

_ Lithium for fusion energy.
Making fusion cheaper, with lithium.
using low atyomic numbers IE lithium to withstand the heat during fusion.
Lithium its almost as low as you can go.
Not the opnly reason (low atomic number)
The H or more like the (D,T) Say that was to hit the wall would make some LiH
Or dissolves, in the lithium.
So what, who cares?
Imagine the sun.
Whatever leaves the sun keeps going.
Because of that, any gasses that escape the confinenment, doesnt hit a wall.
But, if it was in a magnetic fusion device the wind would stick and hit a wall.
Eventually the fluix to the wall will equalk the flux going back from the wall, will get saturated with flux.
The temp will be 100 000 000 degrees.
say the wall is 300degrees.
Basically illustrating youre always returnuing cooler to the fusion device, but its ejecting really hot.
Standard fusion reactores, the fusion part in the middle, cooler around the wall.
Small amount of volume participating in the fusion.
This time with lithium is a entire volume participating in the reaction.
Using lithium to make 20times smaller device.
Still new tech.
showing the lab.
Neat. Im looking at a bunch of things no idea, id call research equipment with many warning signs.
Some vessels that look really sturdy.
The fusion device itself.
Basically the idea is your trying to get a molten flowing state.
So that its always getting hit with fresh molten lithium.
On the edge of the plasma.
Its a E rotated 90 degree left.
thats the cooling portion.
The top is the filled in portion, of the a metal Its a thermocouple.
therrmocouple property.
Temperature, = volt
so diff temp different volt.
So the top part heat is at 1.0 volt, the cooler is at 0.9 volt.
Voltage different.
Flowing current.
So it goes down the lithium groove, up the other groove.
Theres a force its the JxB= force
B is the magentic.
Some high tech amd some visuals of lithium flowing.
Wow more actual research they did showing the lithium movement.

_ Thorium, and Modular micro.
Thorium. Discussion.
Basic idea, mine the thorium. Th #90
Expose thorium in a nuclear reactor to create U-233
Thorium 232 isotope.
Shows a chart of the decay.
Minutes decays to Pa91.
27 days later U-233
Run another reactor on U-233 and make more U-233 than you use by surrounding the core with thorium.
This is a breeder reactor.
Not magic still using Thorium but make more U-233 on a cycle.
Once you get one get another one going.
Molten salt reactor.
Showing some graphs on the halflives differences.
Afteer its difficult to make bombs from the material in the reactor due to the U-232 the bomb poison.\
Why bother reasons includingt he bomb things.
Why not bother.
Molten salt is cool, theres passive safe ways to fission.
Maybe 50 yrs ago woulda been better economically.
60 years experience, operating the U-235 maybe technological problems were solved at competitive price.
The argument for starting over is not economically compelling.
Research yes, full scale power plants model maybe not.

_Modular micro reactors
Last video
Small to ship thicker safe.
Put em all togetehr for more power/.
Factory 15 MW thermal, vs standard 3000MW
Sealed and accidnet proof.
20 year later, its returned and facotgry buries em.
Competing with diesel at mining sites, military bases.
Remote mining.
Small enough for a truck airplane.
QA of the assembly line.
Fewer moving parts and smaller than a 737
All of the wastes stay inside never have to open it, its like a 20 year loaner.
Fuel is the key.
TRISO tri structurakl isotopic particle fuel.
Fuel size is liek a grain of sand.
Lots of advantages to this fuel; solid and stable high temp.
Fission products and gasses stay trapped inside.
Negative temp reactivety coefficient, this means if it gets too hot stops fissioning.
Press any button you want you cant hurt it.
If the fuel heats up the neutrons are absorbed by both the U-235 and U-238 before they get slowed, and the fissioning stops. No intervention needed.
Resonances in Uranium.
Even if Helium stops flowing air takes out sufficient heat to limit the temp.
Has carbon moderation, but gas cooling so no phase-change can happen in the core.
Power density is dramatically lower, and therefore passively safe.
Interesting webpage.
Goes on about the molten salt cycle and the air cooled.
In space wouldnt need that cooling.
Its expensive but true.
The cons, nat gas 2 cents an hour.
Conventional Nuclear consts. 3 cents KWh
Modular~ 25 cents per KWh could be cheaper mass production.
Its just the initial r/d engineering testing first one is expensive.
He mentions 747 makes me think of the boeing 737 max
The competition is diesel for generators.
no Co2 or air polution.
Ideal for some district heating , and process heat.
Actually more economical than diesel varying on costs + CO2.
Fits together like Lego.
There is a Ultra safe Nuclear plan to build the first one in Canada 2024. Department of Energy competition to have a demo reactor.
Couple on the go USA and Canada. Sold the CANDU tech or exported I mean not even that successfully.

Lol these suggested videos, someone tasting deuterieum. lmao.
Ok well that wraps up that, need a few specific research terms but finish this off finally.

April 13 2021 some news about Fukushima. Releasing some water back in to the ocean and what goes with that.

There’s some current events about an attack on Iran centrifuge facilities. 60% It seems like an attack on the electrical grid.

Watching this STS1 this was a cool article
and this other one about cosmic origin of the Uranium. Thats super interesting.
More than 100 environmental, anti-nuclear, community and other Canadian groups signed a statement in November declaring SMRs a “dirty, dangerous distraction” from tackling climate change. They argue the fight against global warming can’t wait for the technology to be proven and deployed and warn SMRs will cost more than other low-carbon energy alternatives, won’t create as many jobs and will result in new streams of dangerous nuclear waste.

April 14 Some debate about the SMR today. Renewables vs R/D. Im all about the upgrading diesel. I fuckin hate diesel lol especially in mouth lol.
Imagine the steam revolution smr powered bird suit or any kind of ridiculous idea, add SMR powered lol. Like a walking mech suit.
Canada’s reputation as a safe and well-regulated leader in nuclear energy.
Id a1rgue, what? maybe in the 70’s otherwise seems like on a steep decline as leaders in anything.
How many days ago I was learning about Ultra safe Nuclear building in Canada for 2024. (Seattle based) . So in that aspect cant argue with the no jobs. Go some news on it today .

___ New Illinois energy prof video.
This new SMR Small modular reactor. Gas cooled.
Last year competition for SMR.
Illinois put in a design, and they lost but here are some other 2 designs.
XE-Energy’ XE-100
Triso fuel , gets too hot, stops working.
Big truck design.
Its a high temp gas cooled
Fuel is the little small beads tri structural isotropic particle fuel.
Outer carbon layer silicon carbide, inner carbon compressiobe,
Fuel UCO and UO2 10-20 % U235. Yea thats the fuel enhancements I rememeber.
So the fuel and fission reaction happens in that little vessel. So the wastes alro remain in that pellet. Even the gasses.
So you take one of those grains of thand, x 1000 make into a liek a steel bal, with thousands of those like pellets. in One bigger ball.
And also container for the nuclear waste.
advantages, wont melt, gassses trapped inside again.
Negativer temp reactivity. coeficient this means if it gets too hot its stops fissionning.
Nuclear reaction: fast neutrons are produced and moderated slowed by the carbon blocks
These slowed neeutrons cause fissions.
N -> U-235 more neutrons really fast.
The explanation on the if it gets too hot, the neutrons are absorbed back into the U-238 and no fission occurs.
Whoever found the resonances of uranium gets top magician prize.
Probably Enrico Fermi top wizard lol.
70 ft long 16 ft diameter.
“pebble bed reactor”
Fuel in out, gas cooled, different liquid for the turbine.
Only helium in reactor core.
Electricity or heat.
Walk away safety.
No phase change can happen in the core
How much. 8.4 cents per kwh
X-Energy will make the fuel and 4 reactors.
Could just make heat too industrial.
Coal is around 3000 MW thermal
X-energy is 200 MW thermal range
Could put one at every coal plant.
Maybe a few. Since the infrastructure is there.

Heres the biblio for the latest assignement copy pasting here rather than a new post of links begins now.___

Heres a bibliography of some online searches assignment specific.

Learning more about STS, Science tech society. Has some good images. And the R&D interests me.

Lesson 2 Research:
What Isotope of Uranium exists.
Heres so usefull stuff on that
Isoptope , one of two or more species of atoms of a hemical eleement.
Same atomic number and position, nearly identical chemical behavior but with different atomic masses and physical properties. Every chemical element has one or more isotopes. Difference in neutrons. New forms of old elements.
JJ Thompson and the neon with 10 neutrons, then neon with 12 neutrons.
Anyways Its basically U-238, U-234 (descendant of U-238), And U-235 Ca be used as fuel in reactor, very high concentrated for weapons.
Those be the natural abundant, and 238 is the 99.3% natural form.
Some other artificial isotopes are 236, 233, 232 For example presence of U236 is formed from U235 fuel, after the neutrino captures that didnt cause fission. The presence of U236 in a sample concludes the sample has been in reactor.

Candu Process : Its a natural fuel U235 So basically mostly U28 0.7~0.9 % U235
What is Half life: Time it takes for a sample to decrease radioactivity by half. Radioactive decay, going from unstable form to more stable form.
How long is uranium 235 half life is 700 million years. U-238 4.5 billion years. From the Argonne US national lab.
Proceses for fuel
CANDU reactors operate on a once-through, natural uranium fuel cycle. The process of turning the natural uranium into reactor fuel bundles is described. The components making up the fuel bundle are UO2 pellets, zircaloy tubes, zircaloy bearing pads and interelement spacers, zircaloy end caps for fuel element closure welds and zircaloy end plates which hold the fuel elements in a bundle. The five process steps in preparing the zircaloy components for the fuel element and the bundle assembly are described and the quality assurance system explained. Because CANDU reactors use natural, rather then enriched uranium the fuel fabrication is a much simpler process requiring smaller plant. CANDU fuel is fabricated in Argentina, South Korea and Romania as well as Canada. (UK)
Concerns about the tritium emissions.
Heres a really basic answer.
CANDU reactors use natural uranium as their nuclear fuel. Natural uranium is composed of about 0.7% uranium-235, and the remaining 99.3% is mostly uranium-238 which cannot directly be used in a fission process to obtain energy.[7] The uranium-238 is fertile and can absorb high speed neutrons and convert to plutonium-239 which is fissile and then undergoes fission; this process accounts for around half of the energy produced within the reactor.[8] CANDU reactors use about 25 to 30% less mined uranium than a comparable light water reactor (mostly because of the better use of neutrons in the reactor).
In CANDU reactors, fuel in the form of uranium oxide powder is packed into pellets and placed in the fuel rods. Thirty seven fuel rods are bunched together to complete a cylindrical fuel bundle, seen in Figure 2. The fuel bundle is approximately 50 cm in length and 10 cm in diameter.[9] A fuel bundle remains in the reactor between 6 and 24 months, depending on its location within the core.[2]
Its a Uranium oxide powder fuel rod.

How a Nuclear Reactor Works

Candu is the horizontal fuel rods.
Article about nuclear power in AB. Lol

Finally, operating a nuclear power plant requires vast amounts of water which, if properly treated, could return to the water system, but Alberta has a “highly variable” water supply, which will be affected by climate change in the future. 
Search for Modular reactor nothing just the mega-waterside plant. Anyways just browsing thoght that was interesting.
What wastes Plutonium about half as much as another style LWR
Storing some at Chalk river.
More details on the CANDU fuel bundle.
Storing wastes
Wet storage Drystorage
The storing of waste is a hot topic, from vegas to Canadian debate. Shoudl eb stored next to usage. Dont want it touching water. Fukushima theyre releasing it.
Uranium oxides.
Naturally occuring uranium is super interesting. Or how Uranium is formed.
Cosmic origins of uranium.
Wow learning some things, semi conductor properties.

Lesson 3
Included some naturally forming uranium.
Mining concerns:
Processing concerns:
How have uranium mining, and extraction facilities affected communities. Loaded question.
Uraninite, formally pitchblend
Trying to find some mine news near me.
This one has a 11 million $ increase to clean the Gunnar mines,.
Shut down 1963
Look at all that cleanup.
Well 1963 isnt the pinnacle of environmentalism, Just profited and left.
So in the case of this particular mine, “Gilbert Labine” Canadas Mr. Uranium. Just makes me think.
Joe Boyle to Gilbert Labine.
What a time you just prospect pick a spot, dig it all up for the government get a medal and cya later. Later the government is hesitant on the cleanups. And the communities there grateful for a opportunity to clean up the site (jobs). Hes in the miners hall of fame, after they didnt decomission they just flooded the mine and threw some old rock in there. Employed a bunch of people during ‘cold war boom’.
Just interested learning about this Labine character. Thesee people didnt make their money from thin air, they dug it out of the ground. Well he had some issues too. Anyways site looks cleaned up. He got order of Canada.
trying to find some ‘extraction facilities’
Heres a interesting story, only mentions the uranium at the very bottom, and concerns in the past with Colorado River, however its a Canadian mining company. And, theyree being negatively impacted by the neighboring mine claim.
On mines and mills
Extraction, im finding mill, I found some neat things Rabbit lake and cigar lake.
Closest perspective I can find.

Candu High School Northern Saskatchewan. Abandoned in 1982. from saskatchewan

Saskatchewan, feds at odds over abandoned uranium mine remediation

How do you ask a ghost town what theyre perspective is. Uranium city.
Fun fact – CANDU was handed to SNC Lavalin in 2011 for pennies.
”The transaction will place Candu technology in proven, competent hands to be serviced and deployed in Canada and abroad, meeting energy needs and stimulating a supply chain located largely in Canada.”
This comment aged well didn’t it?

Abandoned uranium mine cleanup a provincial responsibility: Sohi from saskatchewan

Opinion: Small modular nuclear reactors distract from real climate solutions from saskatchewan

another year old Re: SMR
Heres a month old :

Alta., Ont., Sask. and N.B. signing agreement to explore small nuclear reactors from saskatchewan

Roisser mine Nambia Its profitable and sensitive to environments. Not a good combo.
Uganda profiting from increaseed nuclear.

Energy and mineral sector makes steady progress
Just of interest, theyre building a crude pipeline through a neighboring country.

What kind of radiation is ionizing,
Basically the Sun , anything that can remove the electron and bring about a charge. Cosmic rays.
Gamma rays, X-rays and the higher ultraviolet part of the electromagnetic spectrum are ionizing radiation, whereas the lower energy ultraviolet, visible light, nearly all types of laser light, infrared, microwaves, and radio waves are non-ionizing radiation.
Nice chart with a graphic left and right of the visible light spectrum
Non-ionising on the left ionizing on the right.
Theres some properties of Ionizing radiation.
Distance, inverse square.
Absorbstion. Theres a good graphic of how the distance beams
Smoke detectors, static eliminators. Thats a new onw.
Carbon-14 dating.
Food irridiation, sterile insect technique.
Neutron radiation is for the reactors and weapons.
X-ray gamma used for medical and NDT.

What effect does ionizing radiation have on water.
Well Radiolysis.
Different effects per different radiations.
Alpha makes Hydrogen peroxide
Beta makes beta decay can be used in reactor.
Gamma rays; Gamma radiation induces hydrogen absorption by coppper in water. Not linking that.
You can Gamma ray waster water to break down organics.
Why is there concern about changes in matter as a result of exposure to ionizing radiation.
Well basically in laymans terms you dont want the water molecule getting destroyed while its in your body and can destroy DNA molecules.
The EPA has a good page.
Has some on the concerns about changes in matter,.
This one too.
Non ionizing makes things warm.
The blue radiation glass.
The Illinois energy prof sit eat throw away exercise.

Heres a perspective around the Bruce site.
You know A commenter wrote, the government controls everything nuclear except when its time to clean up or pay for clean up costs.
So its no wonder these people dont trust the gov. look at the record. Its like a shitty friend there for all the good times, no where to be found when its time to clean up. Doesnt that describe Seamusa and the current gov well, there for the party thats it. Pure cronyism.

The no number.
Nuclear is like a scale,

1- Its the CANDU scientific & technological perspective
First its my personal perspective. CANDU is a has been. Pildfered and sat on by governments from the 60s. Where we could have been: look at China, japan, leading the way in exports.
If we would have focused on nuclear and recommendations from Chief engineers in the 70’s wed be laughing all the way to the bank now. No, now its lobbyist have left us quite a large gap.
So if we were nuclear powerhouse in the 70s our leader have squandered our opportunities. Throwing a little miniscule investment at the SMR’s another wasted chance. In the USA they have the EPA and argonnes national lab and government benefits to energy makers. Here we have buddy deals and SNC.
Bureacrats keen on nickel and diming projects to oblivion.If its not that its proliferation India bomb, and Romanian corruption. The technology perspective is cool. I mean what im supposed to be in awe with Bruce power. The shits outdated 70s tech and havent invested in anything new since the 70s.
Did I say 70s I meant 40s and 50s. It just becomes silly I mean I read the reccomendations from chief engineer, our government obviously didnt. When youre still talking about transporting the oil by rail in the 2020s. Id say look at Uganda, using logic and reason.
I mean everyone knows a pipeline is the most effective safest way so far to move your resources.Land.
I guess I would say on the Cernavoda 2 83 start, and 2007 commercial.
So thats 1983 to 2021. Or 2007-2021 nothing.
China has the mega reactor list. The 2/67 CANDU they are using. Almost a whole 3%.
France and its 0% CANDU Reactors. 0% USA CANDU reactors. UK 0% CANDU.
Whats the most important thing with a nuclear reactor, that is safe and it gives power.
So I think the tech is cool it just its not that huge of an export maybe and not top of the line.
South Korea, UK have variety of styles,
South Korea with those impressive build times.
USA went with a couple models Canada went with one.

2- Perspective on the nuclear power
Ok I watched the Three mile island documentary, you can like see the concern in people, and the president going down there. Id like to say I am compassionate with those people and the fear. Though its really nothing comparable to the Chernobyl. No one wants to have loved ones go through those nuclear disaster experienced at TMI, Chernobyl Fukushima or Hiroshima. That being said everyt new reactor some new technology passive safety, the gas cooled. Liquid sodium cooled, high termperature gas cooled. Molten Salt reactor, Thorium. All sorts of cool new tech to lower wastes and improve safety systems. Recycling fuels.
The weapons vs the power generation, and medical agricultural benefits.
The nuclear weapons to sit at the big table
Ok, im lookingf at more perspectives of nuclear power.
Fly ash, from coal, more dangerous.
Compare what you get for X dollars living next to coal vs next to nuclear.
No news is good news rigth.

Pickering Nuclear Incident from ontario


More talk on that natural reactor. This is on

3- Sale of Candu tech
What the hell you gonna do with 15 million thats not even a whole reactor
Then the Wylfa, cancelling cause 20 billion too much..
old wylfa

4- Residents and CANDU reactor
Living next to reactor.
There is some debate in Ontario still.

Ontario anti-nuclear group with their iron-clad “facts” from ontario

New group distributing information on nuclear waste to 30,000 households in northwestern Ontario | CBC News from ontario

Anti-nuclear flyers sent to 50,000 homes are ‘fear mongering,’ says top scientist from ontario

‘Human error,’ ‘systemic issues’ led to Pickering nuclear false alarm from canada

Its like the pickering incident reminded everyone to be scared again.

Living near a nuclear power plant… what are the dangers? from NuclearPower

Cant explain it better than senior plant operator obviously living in the area.
Obviously its desirable to live next to ontario nuclear cause expensive to live there.
Would you rather live next to Nuclear or coal, diesel.

5- Nuclear exports.
Using this one again.
South Korea

France wants to be world competitor.
Russia leads in Nuclear exports in 2018 China is the only competition.
That ‘test radiological’ equipment is a Canadian export.
Like a Siemens
Then the cobalt 60 therapy radioisotope “External Beam Radiotherapy”
The Iran Uranium refining in the news
Walt Disney was treated with the cobalt treatment 1966

-Using Nuclear tech
Simply put even if you dont like nuclear tech its still being used around.
US Navy, and Russian Ice breakers.
Space exploration outside solar system impossible without nuclear.
Has the energy and heat required for sensitive equipment. No sun for solar panels.
Alot of that nuclear anti proliferation translates to no nuclear at all.
My opinion should be using nuclear power to phase out coal, diesel.
Mining should be done sustainably.
Not this after all the resources pilfered and land destroyed theres no money for clean up.
Profits. I understand the operation costs and building say a nuclear plant, but everyone should benefit.
Not some nickel and diming customers into oblivion. The prices should be lower to benefit all.
I think I agree with the proff Its should level out (energy usage) then finding ways to get more with less. Every country wants its own industrial evolution. Using the tech for the lower carbon, space junk.
Sulfur dioxide proven to cool the planet after volcano blasts into the atmosphere.

Using nuclear tech. Just searching.
Quasi crystals thats neat—
(Growth In nuclear families)
IEA , net zero. Immediate massive deployment of all available clean, and efficient energy technologies.
Whats going on in my backyard, proposed and backlashed, coal expansions and Helium Avanti energy in AB.

ISRO plans for nuclear energy use in space

Thermal nuclear propulsion.
But also NASA is capable of launching nucleics over civilization.

Extrasolar Object Interceptor Would be Able to Chase Down the Next Oumuamua or Borisov and Actually Return a Sample

Thats super interesting.
And more Advance Nuclear Thermal propulsion.

Canadian researchers tout nuclear-renewable hybrid solution for shipping

Hybrid nuclear solution for shipping.
This just a crazy story about atomic Vodka using apples from chernobyl.
Wow investing in super heat resistant cameras.

What does uranium decay into?

The half-life of uranium-238 is 4.5 billion years. It decays into radium-226, which in turn decays into radon-222. Radon-222 becomes polonium-210, which finally decays into a stable nuclide, lead.Jul. 25, 2017

Facts About Uranium | Live Science
Decay chain and Nuclear resonance thats, Enrico Fermi
Play the gamma game lol.
Eldorado study.

That train truck transport experiment. mostly abandoned
alex mcpherson story

1- my assignment specific Uranium and supernova
Cosmic origins of uranium. Parsec and images
1987A super nova
Archive: Double Rings of a Supernova Explosion (NASA, Chandra, 02/22/07)
The kepler supernova
Neutron star merger

Depending on what happens forms a black hole or a bigger neutron star.
This amazing tokamak articificial sun
Chicago Pile-1
Decay chain
sun fusion used this person photo.
particle penetration photo.

2- More CANDU specifics.
…Canadian Nuclear Program.
Experiments in the NRX, NRU, and WR-1 reactors, and work in AECL’s laboratories and Canadian industry, …
This WR-1 research reactor used water, and “The main problem with using normal water as a moderator is that it also absorbs some of the neutrons. The neutron balance in the natural isotopic mix is so close that even a small number being absorbed in this fashion means there are too few to maintain criticality.”

ZED-2 Research Reactor

Candu 6 , Candu 9
Its a water molecule but instead of Hydrogens bonded to a Oxygen. Replaces the Hydrogens with Deuteriums.
Adding a neutron to the Hydrogen atom.

How a Nuclear Reactor Works
CANDU vs light water and the proliferation that did occur.
Its all about the possible upgrades, upgrades in fuel cooling, passive walk away safety.
Differences between the CANDU6/CANDU9, and LWR pros and cons.
Talking about SEU fuels slightly enriched Uranium.
Advanced CANDU, its the Gen III using more light water and more enricheed fuels

2 billion. Im using ur picture (Photo: Bruce Power/Cameco Corp.)
Fuel channel
Prices average kWh per Canadian household
Theres so many discrepencies for kwh per hour, the statscan says 117.7 Gigajoules which makes 32685kwh per year. (2015 AB) USA household says low 6296 kWh Hawaii to Higher Louisiana 14787 kWh average of 10649kWh
Just a personal note was much easier finding recent data about USA than it was on the statscan page, stats can was lacking- to say the least. Found some data from 6 years ago

Cost of Nuclear Power in Ontario wet storage
Finland, Okanlo site.

Using nuclear tech
Crookes tuber XRAY
HIFU ultrasound

Marie Curie quote
Nothing in life is to be feared, it is only to be understood. Now is the time to understand more, so that we may fear less.
touching on some laser excitements.
nth country experiment, its a good one.
M Richardson, in 1912 in response to the Titanic disaster, suggested both airborn and underwater echo- ranging schemes, and, in 1914, RA Fessenden experimentally demonstrated echo-ranging underwater detection of an iceberg. The transducer that Langevin used in the earlier days was a mosaic of thin quartz crystals glued between two steel plates (the composite having a resonant frequency of about 150 KHz), mounted in a housing suitable for submersion. In the underwater community the word transducer means a device that has the capability of both transmitting and receiving sound. A projector is a device that transmits sound underwater. Projectors are used in active systems. In active systems, after the sound has been generated, the sound waves travel to a target and return as echoes to be detected. Projectors are usually used near their resonance frequencies where they provide the highest acoustic output.
Thats some new histotripsy focused ultrasound.
Ct scan its xray

AI triage solution for PE and aortic dissection receives FDA clearance and CE mark

Mapping How the Brain Organizes Semantic Activity


industrial commercial
icebreaker pic
URENCO Centrifuges

DU munitions

Siemens newer MRI
Siemines wheelie CT scan
Siemens CT
Xenon arclamp and imax

the texas pic

Chief engineer. Broken links
Scientists forced to dumb down reports
Pics of former president Jimmy Carter doiung Navy things.
economics of a reactor
this germany info about
The social cost of this shift from nuclear to coal is approximately 12 billion dollars per year. Over 70% of this cost comes from the increased mortality risk associated with exposure to the local air pollution emitted when burning fossil fuels.
. Im using your picture
Even Uganda has a pipeline.
RC) that the fire testing used to qualify Thermo-Lag was inadequate. By the time of the disclosure, many nuclear plants had already installed the faulty product.
one fuel pellet compared to the rest.
Japan 121.64 billion nuclear exports 2020.
action plans and roadmaps.



cask test
Natural reactor

Space Future

Enceladus - October 2008
Marsbase nuclear
moonbase nuclear

Nothing by authority; Boyle & Anti-Aristotelianism

Author: clayton

Clayton L. CD 85