Nuclear for Tyros

Nuclear for Tyros
by Clay ’21

Origins of Uranium.
What is Uranium?
Uranium is a atomic element number 92.
Its a silvery-grey metal in the actinide series. Its a hard dense metal. Uranium is denser than lead, slightly less dense than tungsten, and gold. Uranium can be found in a form called Pitchblende, or Uraninite on Earth.

Earthly origins are believed to be inherited by the solar system in one, or more supernova occurring approximately 6 billion years ago. Supernova is the end of the life cycle of a star. A star that suddenly increases in brightness because of a catastrophic explosion that ejects most of its mass. More recently second theory, that Uranium, other heavy metals, and gravitational waves ejected during a neutron star collision or a ‘merger.’

This artist’s impression shows two tiny but very dense neutron stars at the point at which they merge and explode as a kilonova. Such a very rare event is expected to produce both gravitational waves and a short gamma-ray burst, both of which were observed on 17 August 2017 by LIGO–Virgo and Fermi/INTEGRAL respectively. Subsequent detailed observations with many ESO telescopes confirmed that this object, seen in the galaxy NGC 4993 about 130 million light-years from the Earth, is indeed a kilonova. Such objects are the main source of very heavy chemical elements, such as gold and platinum, in the Universe.

Neutron star is a collapsed supergiant star. A teaspoon of Neutron star weighing around a billion tons. Havoc, and massive explosions if spoonful of neutron star matter suddenly appeared on Earth.
MIT tech video shows a great animation ‘ Neutron stars collide.’ Also the neutron star merger ejects gamma rays, in a pattern. Matter is ejected, many lightyears away. In 1604 Johannes Kepler observed and recorded the Kepler Supernova” in our galaxy.

1987A Hubble

Artist 1987A

Neutrons stars from the cosmos all the way to, bouncing neutrons out when splitting a Uranium atoms, at the atomic level.

Principles of nuclear.
What is nuclear?
Energy is the movement of atoms and molecules within a substance. Nuclear is relating to the nucleus of a atom.
Nuclear fusion is the reaction occurring inside the sun. With gravity the mass of the two atoms of Hydrogen combine together, and create a Helium. High temperatures, ionized, and confined/compressed with gravity.

Thats how the sun, and stars do it.

Experimental Tokamak technology.

‘Nuclear Fusion’ can create around 4 times as much energy as ‘Nuclear Fission’. Nuclear Fission reaction is whats happening in a reactor. In a U-235 fission energy is released, so much energy is released that there is a measurable decrease in mass, that means some of the mass is converted to energy.

In a reactor such as CANDU, the chance of a nuclear fission (energy) event is higher when the ejected neutron is slowed down. How do you slow down that neutron, with a moderator like a carbon, or a deuterium heavy water.

Chance of fission

Its a sustained chain reaction. Rutherford discovered some alpha particle scattering with the gold foil experiment changed the atomic model. Rutherford couldnt figure out why negative electrons didn’t automatically fall into the positively charged nucleus. It was Niels Bohr in 1913, discovered the valence electron levels studying the properties of the Hydrogen electrons.
First ‘Nuclear Fission’ was Dec 1938, Kaiser Wilhem Institute for Chemistry.
Dec 1942 was the Chicago pile -1 first sustained nuclear chain reaction.

Chalk River

In Canada it was Zeep: Zero energy Experimental Pile September 1945. And Chalk river the beginning of Canada CANDU nuclear. ZEEP NRX NRU SLOWPOKE


Accidents in 1952,1958, 2007, 2008, 2009 medical isotope shortage
In layman’s terms, nuclear elements don’t want to stay in a unstable form, so they degrade into more stable elements. This half-life process can take astronomical amount of time, to a few seconds. Radioactive decay means that elements will decay through alpha beta or gamma wave emission into more stable elements. For example Cesium will decay into Barium. While Uranium, Thorium Actinium all decay to different stable isotopes of lead.

During Radioactive decays, different particle/waves along with energy will be released.
Alpha, and Beta Particles. Gamma rays Neutron Radiation. The 4 types of radiation.
They were named in the order of discovery.
Alpha particles stopped by paper.
Beta particles stopped by aluminum sheet.
Gamma stopped by lead.

Imagine you had 4 cookies. One is a alpha emitter, one is a beta emitter, one is a gamma emitter and finally a neutron emitter.
You can throw one cookie away, but you have to put one in your pocket, one in your hand, and eat one.
Alpha particles are bad to vital tissue, so you probably don’t want to eat that one.
The Gamma emitter cookie, the gamma rays are likely to pass right through you inside, or out.
So this is the cookie deemed the one to eat.
Throw away the neutron emitter, like a buried used reactor core.
Keep the alpha particles away from your organs; the cookie in your hand.
Finally the beta particles shielded in your pocket.
The effects of beta particles can be similar to a sunburn effect on skin.

Y = Gamma

Note that it is the beta particles remaining in a carbon-14 sample the principles of carbon dating. Carbon-14 is radioactive. Measuring the beta particles it tells you how much carbon-14 left in the fossil which allows you to calculate how long ago the organism was alive.

CANDU reactor specifics.
Reactors are not all one shape, and size.
Evolutions in designs through R&D, disasters.
Pros and cons to different situations.
For the CANDU specific
ZEEP ’57 Origins of the bundle rod.

WR-1 tests with light water.
Zed-2 Is the test support reactor, Its the successor to ZEEP reactor. Designed by AECL fopr CANDU support It uses the 43 bundle CANFLEX fuel. SEU fuel, is just slight enhanced Uranium. For the Full core simulation. Its a nuclear historic landmark 2010. Its purpose is to test
CANDU 6 (600MWe)/ CANDU 9(900MWe) designs. The feature for selling CANDU was not needing the enriched fuels.

Selling CANDU to India, Pakistan, South Korea. 70s. Issues with some Romanian, and Argentina deals.

Advanced CANDU Reactor ACR project. To reduce costs, and some specific safety systems and redundancy. Moving to a light water reactor. ACR uses a more enriched fuel compared to the previous CANDU 6. But, not by much. ACR purpose was to test with other organic moderators.
The original thought process was that using natural uranium fuel would keep the costs relatively low compared to the more expensive enriched Uranium costs.
Also, it was though that the CANDU model was safer from proliferation because of its non-enriched fuel. However that proved to be untrue with the Smiling Buddha India bomb Canada received some blame.
The ACR , using a slight more enriched fuel, is able to have a smaller core, more output.
After the ACR design there was the sale of AECL reactor division to SNC Lavalin in 2011. And, in 2014 SNC announced a partnership with CNNC to support sales, and construction of the existing CANDU designs. Including a plan for the “Advance Fuel CANDU reactor” ‘AFCR.’
Argentina 2018 reactor. “Atucha III.”Hasnt started yet can speak to some associated extra costs and regulations.
Atucha has a horizontal fuel channel, with crane refueling.

Atucha I & II
Still in Canada every reactor over budget. Commercial reactor company takes the risk, with the loans. From engineer design to the end power customer there is lots of potential for human error from the safety components, to corruption in politicians. Much more regulations than a coal plant. Not much more incentive. Thought experiment: If only the government could fund the reactor, and as tax payers and power consumers, we could pay the plant off and reap some of that 5 cent estimated kWh. Per kWh Ontario Its more than 10x than the kWh prices in USA and abroad. Nuclear Power Economics World-Nuclear.

CANDU Calandria

CANDU Vertical Fuel Channel
The CANDU reactor is maybe the only one I know with a vertical wall fuel channel. This design allows it to be refueled during operation. Put the fuel in. The Uranium fission event occurs with the fuel rod, and moderator. The extra neutrons in the heavy water make the chance of fission higher. Everytime a uranium atom is struck by the extra neutron creates that chain reaction; a extra neutron, and some energy. The heavy water is a coolant moderator. Graphite could also be used. The heavy water pipes around the the boiling steam vessel, so that the radioactive coolant, and steam are separated. That steam spins a turbine attached to generator that creates the electricity. Or, if you only wanted heat you could skip the electricity generation, and pipe some hot water through a pipe network. In the case of too much fission, and need to turn it off, there are control rods. 2 types of rods, fuel rods, and the control rods. Control rods are present in reactors and usually contain the “Neutron poison” Gadolinium Nitrate for CANDU . In a RBMK model its boron carbide. It creates a critical mass poison absorbing neutron and stopping that critical mass chain reaction. After the CANDU fuel is used up there is a period of wet storage.

Wet Storage

Then dry storage. Concrete air canisters, MACSTOR units. Dry storage containers.


Theres some debate on the waste storage ill get into later. But the main concepts are security, monitoring, cross generational costs. Have the used fuel travel not too far ideally, and keep it dry as to not accidentally get in the water table with the astronomical half lives. Cross multi generational wastes could be troublesome for future humans. On the other hand advance fuel recycling is a real concept that could have reactors re-using fuels. Reprocessing fuels. Thorium reactors burning those wastes into something more manageable, Also some of these ‘fission products’ could be components in future nuclear tech.

Using nuclear tech.
I am for the use of safe nuclear technologies, and against the destruction of the human species.
When nuclear technologies were first discovered it was the wild west of the nuclear days.
I890s, and 1900s fluoroscope experiments with no protections because the dangers of X-ray weren’t yet known. X-ray was discovered after experiments with the Crookes tube. X for unknown. Its a cathode ray tube with more vacuum. Its the successor to the ‘Geissler tube’ which is similar to a neon light. Crookes tube is a vacuum tube with 2 electrodes, and variable voltage. Basically while testing with the Crookes tub scientist discovered two things, the Cathode ray as seen in on tube televisions. And,b more interestingly with the Crookes X-ray tube, deflecting the ray. Take a cathode ray, put stuff in its path. They discovered they could knock around the inner electrons of an atom into a higher energy level. Then, as the electrons return to their original valence level X-Ray is emitted in a process called X-ray Fluorescence. Wilhem Rontgen was one of the first to investigate this new ray. It is a wavelength and not just any random wavelength its was measurable, and consistent with different elements.

A lot of scientists exposing themselves learning about the electromagnetic spectrum. Now we have lead vests, and no longer use x-rays for trivial things like 1950s shoe fitting machines, or entertainment.
In the 1930s People putting radium in their mouths and painting it on things with Marie Curie.
“Radium Jaw.”
I would say Chicago pile one is likely the dawn of a new age nuclear.
The atomic bombs, and the end of ww2, golden age of nuclear. There’s more than just the bombs, reactors, and X-Rays. There are many evolving technologies in medicine, energy, agriculture, industrial applications, and safety.
Ultrasound is a non-ionizing sound wave. Beam transducer, emits and receives beam wave, or beam wave pulses. Its a wider wave. And the tech can be used in medical applications or is used to map, and find large objects under water. How many times have I heard human body is 80% water. Someone decided to ping themselves. A predecessor to the ultrasound was the hydrophone. A device created by M Richardson in 1912 as response to titanic sinking. RW Boyle was a student in Manchester, learning this, then returned to University of Alberta begun ground breaking research on ultrasonics, This tech lead to some sonar and submarine sinking capabilities April 23 1916 first known sinking of a submarine using this tech. Nowadays theres new research on high intensity focused ultrasound, actually able to control to high points in the wave to a focal point. Its non invasive low cost therapy that can at minimum outperform the current standard of care. This tech was developed and discovered in the 1940s but refined in the 90s using magnetic resonance. My understand is using magnetic resonance to alter/adjust the wavelength into desired positions below the skin. The tissue is only destroyed at the focal point. At the intersection, and peaks of the the beams.

CT Scan.
Circular X-Ray. The CT stands for computerized tomography. Everything is motorized the X-Ray source, the detectors, the patients table. And, the display and operation is computer assisted.
CT is thinner compared to the MRI in appearance usually. CT scan radiation dose is 100-1000 times stronger that conventional X-Ray. CT scans are now using AI to triage aorta chest patients. Its a new AI solution that leverages deep learning algorithms for emergency triage of deadly vascular conditions.

Siemens CT

Siemens Wheelie Model

MRI Is Magnetic Resonance Imaging.
Non ionizing.
Its a medical application of nuclear magnetic resonance. Makes use of the nuclear properties of atoms spin, and dipoles correlating data. It uses radio waves, and the properties of a positive Hydrogen Nuclei, and atoms in their regular, and excited phases. The radio waves interprets the data into imaging. Its polarizing all the atoms in the sample, and the radio waves are able to interpret that change. The change is measured in frequencies. Don’t wear jewelry next to the opening, it is very magnetic. MRI requires the system component room Helium, and magnets. Outdoor infrastructure components. Magnetic shielding safety considerations.

Siemens MRI

I couldn’t imagine being the first test subject to have all your water-hydrogen’s polarized.
Recently it has been found that inhaling Xenon-129 gas for a few moments can produce excessively high resolution lung images for example. MRI can be used to map, and track connections in the brain, and where the blood brings oxygen. Xenon arclamps closely mimic natural sunlight in a theatre setting. Ionized gas.

Xenon Arclamp

Agriculture nuclear tech is my favorite.
IAEA has a cool website shows some peaceful applications.
There is food irradiation with cobalt-60 gamma source. Destroys the mold.
Sterile insect technique that (SIT) sterilizes populations of fruit flies. Good for exports.
Atomic gardening, and Isotope analysis. Identifying drought resistant banana varieties for example.

Carbon Soil Detection Kit (IAEA)

Using Carbon-13 to measure and track how CO2 is being absorbed and released
Advanced nuclear spectrometers to analyze the carbon content in soil with test kits. Then custom tailor manure solutions based on the results.

Indian Farmers Using Soil Testing Kit

Industrial & commercial.
Russian nuclear Ice Breakers, arctic tourism.

Artika Class

Nuclear Smoke Alarms utilize alpha particles and detectors. Americium-214. If you removed the ceramic chamber, and swallowed it. Its about six times desired yearly exposure.
Non-destructive testing, method to check welds, or the integrity of components that cannot fail, in mining, pressure vessels, aircraft, machinery.
Ground-penetrating radar is electromagnetic radiation in microwave band.
I mentioned Carbon dating (radio carbon dating) for organic materials uses the halflife of Carbon 14 and the neutrons remaining.
Commercial, and research reactors and the fission products that can be used for variety of purposes, such as health, and other research.

Enriching uranium takes some advanced centrifuge tech. 2 types of enrichment. Enriched uranium for research, and commercial reactors, ill call that 20% U-235. Then there’s the weapons grade enriched at around 90% U-235. So some concerns of Iran recently getting past 60% grade. In the news one of their research facilities was sabotaged.

The quick version is that if your looking for weapons grade your looking for the rarer isotope of Uranium the U-235. It has a different weight than the more common isotope U-238. Change of pressure in a vessel to separate the particles, or spin the gaseous isotopes in a centrifuge allowing you to separate the 2 isotopes.

There is a new laser excitement method being developed right now that sounds interesting. Bomb tech itself has evolved. Im not going to get into that, Id prefer to spend my efforts with the peaceful nuclear applications for humanity. And, despite the fact the Karachi plant was intended for peaceful uses was still ultimately used for bomb tests. The bomb still remains deterrent, and posture. In the 60s there was the NthCountry experiment, where 3 students recently received their PHDs in physics tasked to design a nuclear bomb.

Nth Country Experiment

It was experiment in the proliferation capabilities. Its an interesting experiment because it shows what some determined pros could achieve, and what that would look like.

Chief engineer recommendations.
Gord Brooks was the Chief Engineer for CANDU operations almost 40 years. Reading his content he has a good understanding of all things CANDU. Can be found at CANTEACH

Gord L. Brooks

His perspective was; that there will be many engineer in demand jobs, and cheap nuclear power in Ontario, and out east. Theyre all ambitious, but reasonable, and looking from the 2020s would appear Nuclear in Canada has declined from those days. During the 70s oil crisis, and the oil prices going up. The world was after cheaper power sources.
Three Mile Island happened.
President Jimmy Carter had previously worked in the US Navy nuclear submarine program.

Lt. James Earl Carter Jr. USN

I watched the History Channel documentary. Could really see some panic, and fear in all those involved. Too much data, and incorrect data. I saw that sense of relief when the President arrived with his wife. If it was safe enough for the President to be on scene with his wife was re-assuring. Not only that the President had a background in nuclear. Unfortunately televised, and evacuated nearby towns, the damage in a sense was already done. Financial damage. Actually some house prices still fairly cheap next to that reactor, compared to the Bruce Power generating station.

The economics of a nuclear reactor.
Nuclear power generation will cost more, more regulations and inspections.
The trade off is more power cheaper in the long run compared to a coal or natural gas power plant.

In 1986 was the Chernobyl disaster. Operators decided to run a low power test that proved disastrous, first they shut it down, there was some Xenon gas neutron poisoning. Then they were trying to raise the power back up to pre-shut down levels, and kept inserting more fuel and didn’t know why the power wasnt picking back up. Eventually the reactor had a couple explosions. Theres also excess Hydrogen that causes the roof to blow off in some cases. The meltdown caused a mass of radioactive hot corium elephants foot. Chernobyl made the world take a second look at nuclear. Other reactors in different countries neighboring Chernobyl’s, safety systems were going off. The initial response was to pretend nothing happened. First responders to the Chernobyl site doing some scary clean up. Many perished.

Years later Fukushima showed that even with preparation, and good engineering you can have a earthquake, then get hit by a tsunami. 10 year anniversary of Fukushima disaster occurred this year. Japan is industrialized, and technologically advanced, and still had disaster as the world watched. Planning to begin releasing contaminated water back into the oceans. At a levels deemed safe by world scientists.
Germany In 2011, Chancellor Angela Merkel in response to the Fukushima and some heavy protest. Policy reversal commitment to close their reactors by 2022. Replaced with coal steam generation.
A study: The costs associated from increasing more coal power to the grid estimated in the 12 billion per year in increases in mortality, due to exposure to pollution from burning fossil fuels.
Siemens the German company announced complete withdrawl from the nuclear industry at that time.
At Three Mile Island, there was evacuations, no one was killed though. A fear in the air.
In Canada, maybe its a thought in some peoples mind as they drive by as routine or, on their way to work. Or, on January 12 2020 the Nuclear false alert, as part of a training error Pickering Nuclear Generating station mass message.

If anything, that gave a horrible perspective reminder on living next to nuclear power.
But, better safe than sorry. Lack of trust is the fallout from that scenario.
Otherwise no news is good news.
Fracking made natural gas cheaper.
Methane reforming tech could make the cost even cheaper.
Coal, oil diesel, and natural gas are the Nuclear competition, or alternative.
Natural gas has the combined cycle plant which is pretty competitive.
A fraction of the electricity used is generated from wind solar, bio fuels.
Now seeing the lumber prices skyrocket
Theres arguably some insane house prices next to Pickering and Bruce Power.
TMI plant mostly shut down and houses next to it were looking pretty affordable.
Ontario power generation is around more than half nuclear. The OPG, or Hydro.

Living next to a reactor at sea on a icebreaker, or a Nimitz class aircraft carrier. Under the sea in a submarine. A floating nuclear power plant could travel anywhere its needed. I could just imagine add some nuclear capabilities with the latest big off shore rig disaster you can remember. There wouldnt be anyone around, also that far away the logistics for disaster relief would be horrible.

Perspective living next to old Uranium mining sites like the Rabbit Lake, or Gunnar site.
The mining itself is relatively safe occupation. The clean up efforts in North Saskatchewan leave something to be desired. Especially from the old days, it was all profit. They flooded Gunnar Mine site, and more.

Gunnar Site I

Miners made all the money, and the government still arguing about clean up costs.
Gunnar Mine was abandoned in 1963 tax payers stuck with the clean up that is lame.
There is some tech, and remediation too bad we cant all just go destroy a piece of Canada to get our wealth 60 years ago with no consequence except to the people living now.

Gunnar Site II

There was a urgent need to build the atomic bomb, and Uranium meant wealth. Pop culture, sci-fi movie ‘The Cyclops’ 1957. Just a crazy film based on radiation uranium, and the man that mutated in the cyclops.

Scene from the movie ‘The Cyclops’

Anyways just how convenient the government is there to control everything regarding the uranium and atomic, but when the time comes for clean up , oh they’re nowhere to be found.
Another pattern, another loss of trust. So when they say they’ll clean up new sites, how about these old ones. Cross generational cleanup. I think people are ok cleaning up or doing the nuclear waste storage as long as its done safely, and it can be a decent job for someone like me.
It should be the corporation, and government funding all this, instead its the taxpayer.

Depleted Uranium Munitions

Depleted uranium. Weight of Uranium is heavy use your depleted uranium in munitions. Can actually cause some environmental effects. Don’t want to be inhaling those munition impact aerosols.

Sadly the future of nuclear lies in politics. Often politicians these days are only focused with the time they are in power. Some politicians want nothing to do with a pro nuclear position. And, its no wonder people are concerned with the bad track record cleaning up. Minister O’Reagan claimed there is no way to net zero without Nuclear. We get some lip service, then disappear till the next scandal, or election. Why put a former ‘TV personality’ in charge of nuclear?
Even with the simplest understanding he acknowledges that the best way to reach the zero carbon goals is in the nuclear.
So what are they waiting for ?

Ontario hydro and the debt its left its customers. Its almost like the game of telephone, where the initial message(engineer reactor design) gets so mutilated by politicians, and construction, that by the time it gets to the customer its an abomination of the former self.

Gerald W. Brown for example, it concerns me because, right away the fire safety circuitry to the control room the safety systems implementation, corners were cut.
Nickel, and diming to save a penny in costs. Ends in bankruptcy.
Nuclear is not the place should be cutting corners.
Yet, it is a common occurrence. Happening in Ohio too, electricity customers held hostage.
The Gerald W Brown fire safety incident both shocking, and reassuring that atleast some of the processes work. At least some people care.

Gerald W. Brown

If only we could apply the same science, and physics to the politics as we do the nuclear reactor maybe we’d get somewhere.
What do we get instead Coal expansion on the AB eastern slopes.
Elk river fish poisoned by selenium in BC next door.
Atleast when Uranium is mined, one fuel pellet can create as much energy as one ton of coal, 149 Gallons of Oil, 1700 cubic feet of natural gas.

At Wylfa UK, Nuclear power plant was canceled due to the 20 billion pounds debt too much. It was meant to be a Hitachi. This is maybe one of the unsuccessful projects Ive seen. Japan with the 121.64 Billion nuclear exports in 2020, despite Fukushima mind you. Thats a big number.


How many reactors were constructed here with this massive deficit. Zero.

New(ish) Green Party leader Annamie Paul Nov 6 2020

Thats her twitter statement, completely disagree with. South Korea with the impressive reactor build times. How about Oklo Gabon, the natural reactor found in nature. Scientists also used the Gabon site to see how far fission products could get away from the source, and the answer is not very far.

Oklo Gabon – Natural Reactor

Anyways, government has invested in SMR research. SMR in Canada.
Moltex, has never built as reactor.
And the Hitachi General electric BRWX-300 was studied in a report.
Nothing against Hitachi but I think thats what Chief Engineer Gord Brooks was talking about, with nuclear opportunity fizzling away.
Note instead of Canada designing anything, theyre just awarding some huge contracts.
There’s a SNC design 2 pages online CANDU style no one talks about.
It is true there are many designs, and no government wants to be the first investor in uncharted water. In the USA at the Department of energy, they ran a contest for best SMR, and the design was the XE-100.

Xe-100 Pebble Bed

Theres also the Nuscale power.
I personally think the pebble; bed reactor design and the advance triso fuel is amazing engineering.
The silicon carbides surrounding the fuel means the fuel container, is the waste container. All the fission products remain in trapped within the fuel casing. There will be 4x under construction soon. This is the high temperature Gas cooled reactor. I believe its a evolution from coolant reactors. The benefit of SMR, replacing diesel generators. Modular sections could virtually replace a coal power plant. Passive safety. Walk-away safety. The XE-100, 400 yards safety perimeter vs 10 miles. Place is even hiring.

My opinion on the CANDU reactor.

I got nothing against it. Its had a turbulent business history. I feel bad for the people of Romania and the people promised power and for whatever reason it gets canceled, or costs are ran up.
Lets see though does UK, France, or USA use CANDU? No.

In China, CANDU makes up a tiny 4.3 % of their reactors. If you include the ‘under construction’ the total is 3.07% of reactors in China operating, and under construction are CANDU.

So much for : “Energy prices will be too low to measure.” Line from the 60s. I’m not seeing much of the CANDU chief engineer recommendations followed neither. Now I have read some comments, its just wasting money going for investments in the heavy water reactor that we have technology for.
Time for R&D was years ago, not starting now. On some tech we already had. I look at the department of energy in the states, and then I look at Canada; its a complete joke. Sad looking at the CBC too from the 70s with some scientists having debate compared to now too. CANDU had a bright future, but a bit of a trainwreck as a export, and the nuclear Ontario Hydro power isnt competitive at all.

Its almost like the politicians can behave badly cause nuclear already has a bad rep.
Also I cant imagine oil, and coal barons being pleased about all this ‘free unlimited’ power.
Hypocrites in the west dictating who can have energy freedom. The west, and Europe creating wealth, pollution, and war during industrial revolution, turning around saying no power for you, only me. Developing nations using more energy which is good. Quality of life going up. Here in America energy use has tapered off. Now the challenge is conserving that energy, and doing more with less.

TRISO Fuel Upgrade

Everything evolves; the fuel upgrades, the safety systems, the smart grid housing. Some people will never be happy. In Las Vegas, there is Yucca Mountain which is supposed to be the Countries nuclear waste repository. With all the rail network, mountain, and Las Vegas being a undesirable city in the middle of the desert. Theres some debate, people from Nevada dont want the waste in their mountain. Biden administration is opposed to the Yucca Mountain project. Same thing in Canada with the Chretien nuclear waste agreements in Labrador.

Yucca Mountain

Enter the nuclear flask endurance testing.
Just the most ridiculous obscene testing with rail, road, and used nuclear fuel transport.
Even a rocket powered truck slamming straight into a wall. 1978 cask test. I recommend watching it.

Rocket-Powered Truck, Nuclear Waste Transportation Testing – Cask Test 1978

Ideally the waste would not have to travel far and set into a long term dry location. It could be jobs for the community. Burying underground in a desert maybe not the most ideal. Could always move it later, find another solution. Cross generational.
You’d have to keep people out that want to dig it all up, and eat it probably.

Texas Nuclear Waste Burial Site

Future of nuclear lies in politics, and economics.
I like the Tokamak fusion progress, and research. Id like to see the coal plant be switched to SMR pebble bed. Id like to see some inexpensive enrgy, and government investments.
Id like to see the politics, and politicians taken out of nuclear.
I think we can all agree on safe reliable power, and can do without the cutting corners to save 5 cents on everything. Pilfering politicians.
This assignment, and basic understanding of nuclear took some time.
Thats definitely a con for nuclear. its a complicated way to boil water, that takes time to learn and explain, operate safely. Who wants a disaster, or mine in their back yard.
Nuclear provides a good fraction of the worlds power free from carbon dioxide.
Irresponsible mining is a expensive problem left to communities, and taxpayers. Don’t get me started on the river dumpers too. Maybe don’t live downstream from a reactor in the 1950s. Those costs should be worked in before everyone cashes out. Proliferation, and premature destruction of the species is a concern. Carl Sagan was against proliferation, but in favor of using nuclear technologies.

Lots of work previous generations did to reduce nuclear warheads stockpiles during the cold war. Activists may protest nuclear, but think of this. Life of the Sun, even if humans last forever the bounds of the sun will supersede our current orbit. Stephen Hawking says humans must leave earth within 600 years. We are surrounded by nuclear with the US Navy & more. J. Bezos envisions a future where all the industry is off-world. It would be much better to use the resources, and industry pollute in space. If NASA can send nuclear components in space over cities atmospheres safely, I have hope for the rest of us.
Maybe if someone has access to power, internet, drinking water, they wont be in a nuclear terrorist killing mood.
Terrorist asides how many nuclear tests occurred anyways without my consent, or permission.
Proliferation of space is also becoming a concern. Must not allow space to become militarized.
Putting nuclear weapons in orbit would be stupid, and potentially catastrophic to the species.
Unless maybe it was a joint mission to nuke an asteroid.

Space. Id like to know more about the waters on Encaldus, and if I was astronaut dependent on that nuclear power Id want it to best tried tested, and reliable. Not the first test run.


How are you gonna power the Perseverance rover, or the Casssini spacecraft without nuclear?
How are you going to explore beyond the solar system without nuclear?

“No X-ray, medical hope, or electricity for you because I cant be bothered to learn nuclear.”

The heat, and power source are necessary for exploring beyond the reaches of our sun, when solar panels wont function. The recent Lunar Rover announced by Canada Space Agency, I bet you will have a nuclear power/ heat source. Utilizing computers, and components within operating temperatures in the cold of space. Any lunar base, any mars base will utilize a reactor of some type.

Moon Reactor

Even the design drawings include the reactor. Seems to me its worth the investments and experience. Im reading a sci fi book series, Asimov Foundation.

Harri Seldon

I really enjoy it. Its the story of the future of humans. They go through a nuclear rise, and fall in space. A society with no nuclear capabilities, or understanding cannot survive. The planet Trantor, the center of the empire outputs only law. I. Asimov was a biochemist and I like his view of nuclear in the future.

Lesson 2 Research
U-238, U-234 (descendant of U-238), And U-235 Can be used as fuel in reactor, very high concentrated for weapons.
Those be the natural abundant, and 238 is the 99.3% natural form.
Some other artificial isotopes are 236, 233, 232 For example presence of U236 is formed from U235 fuel, after the neutrino captures that didnt cause fission. The presence of U236 in a sample concludes the sample has been in reactor.
CANDU Process :
Its a natural fuel U235 So basically mostly U28 0.7~0.9 % U235
What is Half life:
Time it takes for a sample to decrease radioactivity by half. Radioactive decay, going from unstable form to more stable form.
How long is uranium 235 half life is 700 million years. U-238 4.5 billion years.
Neptunium Plutonium traces fission.
Wastes wet storage and the MACSTOR , air cooled concrete, underground one day.


Lesson 4
Ionizing can remove a electron and cause charge.
Ionizing effects on water.
Different effects per different radiations.
Alpha makes Hydrogen peroxide
Beta makes beta decay can be used in reactor.
You can Gamma ray waste-water to break down organics
Why is there concern.
Basically you don’t want your body H2O molecules getting destroyed, you dont want your DNA destroyed. Causes Cancers. Too much radiation and youll get sick, and die, or vaporized in a blast.
Glass turns blue after long exposure to radiation its called Cherenkov Radiation.

BIBLIO for this assignment.

Heres a bibliography of some online searches assignment specific.

Learning more about STS, Science tech society. Has some good images. And the R&D interests me.

Lesson 2 Research:
What Isotope of Uranium exists.
Heres so usefull stuff on that
Isoptope , one of two or more species of atoms of a hemical eleement.
Same atomic number and position, nearly identical chemical behavior but with different atomic masses and physical properties. Every chemical element has one or more isotopes. Difference in neutrons. New forms of old elements.
JJ Thompson and the neon with 10 neutrons, then neon with 12 neutrons.
Anyways Its basically U-238, U-234 (descendant of U-238), And U-235 Ca be used as fuel in reactor, very high concentrated for weapons.
Those be the natural abundant, and 238 is the 99.3% natural form.
Some other artificial isotopes are 236, 233, 232 For example presence of U236 is formed from U235 fuel, after the neutrino captures that didnt cause fission. The presence of U236 in a sample concludes the sample has been in reactor.

Candu Process : Its a natural fuel U235 So basically mostly U28 0.7~0.9 % U235
What is Half life: Time it takes for a sample to decrease radioactivity by half. Radioactive decay, going from unstable form to more stable form.
How long is uranium 235 half life is 700 million years. U-238 4.5 billion years. From the Argonne US national lab.
Proceses for fuel
CANDU reactors operate on a once-through, natural uranium fuel cycle. The process of turning the natural uranium into reactor fuel bundles is described. The components making up the fuel bundle are UO2 pellets, zircaloy tubes, zircaloy bearing pads and interelement spacers, zircaloy end caps for fuel element closure welds and zircaloy end plates which hold the fuel elements in a bundle. The five process steps in preparing the zircaloy components for the fuel element and the bundle assembly are described and the quality assurance system explained. Because CANDU reactors use natural, rather then enriched uranium the fuel fabrication is a much simpler process requiring smaller plant. CANDU fuel is fabricated in Argentina, South Korea and Romania as well as Canada. (UK)
Concerns about the tritium emissions.
Heres a really basic answer.
CANDU reactors use natural uranium as their nuclear fuel. Natural uranium is composed of about 0.7% uranium-235, and the remaining 99.3% is mostly uranium-238 which cannot directly be used in a fission process to obtain energy.[7] The uranium-238 is fertile and can absorb high speed neutrons and convert to plutonium-239 which is fissile and then undergoes fission; this process accounts for around half of the energy produced within the reactor.[8] CANDU reactors use about 25 to 30% less mined uranium than a comparable light water reactor (mostly because of the better use of neutrons in the reactor).
In CANDU reactors, fuel in the form of uranium oxide powder is packed into pellets and placed in the fuel rods. Thirty seven fuel rods are bunched together to complete a cylindrical fuel bundle, seen in Figure 2. The fuel bundle is approximately 50 cm in length and 10 cm in diameter.[9] A fuel bundle remains in the reactor between 6 and 24 months, depending on its location within the core.[2]
Its a Uranium oxide powder fuel rod.

How a Nuclear Reactor Works

Candu is the horizontal fuel rods.
Article about nuclear power in AB. Lol

Finally, operating a nuclear power plant requires vast amounts of water which, if properly treated, could return to the water system, but Alberta has a “highly variable” water supply, which will be affected by climate change in the future. 
Search for Modular reactor nothing just the mega-waterside plant. Anyways just browsing thoght that was interesting.
What wastes Plutonium about half as much as another style LWR
Storing some at Chalk river.
More details on the CANDU fuel bundle.
Storing wastes
Wet storage Drystorage
The storing of waste is a hot topic, from vegas to Canadian debate. Shoudl eb stored next to usage. Dont want it touching water. Fukushima theyre releasing it.
Uranium oxides.
Naturally occuring uranium is super interesting. Or how Uranium is formed.
Cosmic origins of uranium.
Wow learning some things, semi conductor properties.

Lesson 3
Included some naturally forming uranium.
Mining concerns:
Processing concerns:
How have uranium mining, and extraction facilities affected communities. Loaded question.
Uraninite, formally pitchblend
Trying to find some mine news near me.
This one has a 11 million $ increase to clean the Gunnar mines,.
Shut down 1963
Look at all that cleanup.
Well 1963 isnt the pinnacle of environmentalism, Just profited and left.
So in the case of this particular mine, “Gilbert Labine” Canadas Mr. Uranium. Just makes me think.
Joe Boyle to Gilbert Labine.
What a time you just prospect pick a spot, dig it all up for the government get a medal and cya later. Later the government is hesitant on the cleanups. And the communities there grateful for a opportunity to clean up the site (jobs). Hes in the miners hall of fame, after they didnt decomission they just flooded the mine and threw some old rock in there. Employed a bunch of people during ‘cold war boom’.
Just interested learning about this Labine character. Thesee people didnt make their money from thin air, they dug it out of the ground. Well he had some issues too. Anyways site looks cleaned up. He got order of Canada.
trying to find some ‘extraction facilities’
Heres a interesting story, only mentions the uranium at the very bottom, and concerns in the past with Colorado River, however its a Canadian mining company. And, theyree being negatively impacted by the neighboring mine claim.
On mines and mills
Extraction, im finding mill, I found some neat things Rabbit lake and cigar lake.
Closest perspective I can find.

Candu High School Northern Saskatchewan. Abandoned in 1982. from saskatchewan

Saskatchewan, feds at odds over abandoned uranium mine remediation

How do you ask a ghost town what theyre perspective is. Uranium city.
Fun fact – CANDU was handed to SNC Lavalin in 2011 for pennies.
”The transaction will place Candu technology in proven, competent hands to be serviced and deployed in Canada and abroad, meeting energy needs and stimulating a supply chain located largely in Canada.”
This comment aged well didn’t it?

Abandoned uranium mine cleanup a provincial responsibility: Sohi from saskatchewan

Opinion: Small modular nuclear reactors distract from real climate solutions from saskatchewan

another year old Re: SMR
Heres a month old :

Alta., Ont., Sask. and N.B. signing agreement to explore small nuclear reactors from saskatchewan

Roisser mine Nambia Its profitable and sensitive to environments. Not a good combo.
Uganda profiting from increaseed nuclear.

Energy and mineral sector makes steady progress
Just of interest, theyre building a crude pipeline through a neighboring country.

What kind of radiation is ionizing,
Basically the Sun , anything that can remove the electron and bring about a charge. Cosmic rays.
Gamma rays, X-rays and the higher ultraviolet part of the electromagnetic spectrum are ionizing radiation, whereas the lower energy ultraviolet, visible light, nearly all types of laser light, infrared, microwaves, and radio waves are non-ionizing radiation.
Nice chart with a graphic left and right of the visible light spectrum
Non-ionising on the left ionizing on the right.
Theres some properties of Ionizing radiation.
Distance, inverse square.
Absorbstion. Theres a good graphic of how the distance beams
Smoke detectors, static eliminators. Thats a new onw.
Carbon-14 dating.
Food irridiation, sterile insect technique.
Neutron radiation is for the reactors and weapons.
X-ray gamma used for medical and NDT.

What effect does ionizing radiation have on water.
Well Radiolysis.
Different effects per different radiations.
Alpha makes Hydrogen peroxide
Beta makes beta decay can be used in reactor.
Gamma rays; Gamma radiation induces hydrogen absorption by coppper in water. Not linking that.
You can Gamma ray waster water to break down organics.
Why is there concern about changes in matter as a result of exposure to ionizing radiation.
Well basically in laymans terms you dont want the water molecule getting destroyed while its in your body and can destroy DNA molecules.
The EPA has a good page.
Has some on the concerns about changes in matter,.
This one too.
Non ionizing makes things warm.
The blue radiation glass.
The Illinois energy prof sit eat throw away exercise.

Heres a perspective around the Bruce site.
You know A commenter wrote, the government controls everything nuclear except when its time to clean up or pay for clean up costs.
So its no wonder these people dont trust the gov. look at the record. Its like a shitty friend there for all the good times, no where to be found when its time to clean up. Doesnt that describe Seamusa and the current gov well, there for the party thats it. Pure cronyism.

The no number.
Nuclear is like a scale,

1- Its the CANDU scientific & technological perspective
First its my personal perspective. CANDU is a has been. Pildfered and sat on by governments from the 60s. Where we could have been: look at China, japan, leading the way in exports.
If we would have focused on nuclear and recommendations from Chief engineers in the 70’s wed be laughing all the way to the bank now. No, now its lobbyist have left us quite a large gap.
So if we were nuclear powerhouse in the 70s our leader have squandered our opportunities. Throwing a little miniscule investment at the SMR’s another wasted chance. In the USA they have the EPA and argonnes national lab and government benefits to energy makers. Here we have buddy deals and SNC.
Bureacrats keen on nickel and diming projects to oblivion.If its not that its proliferation India bomb, and Romanian corruption. The technology perspective is cool. I mean what im supposed to be in awe with Bruce power. The shits outdated 70s tech and havent invested in anything new since the 70s.
Did I say 70s I meant 40s and 50s. It just becomes silly I mean I read the reccomendations from chief engineer, our government obviously didnt. When youre still talking about transporting the oil by rail in the 2020s. Id say look at Uganda, using logic and reason.
I mean everyone knows a pipeline is the most effective safest way so far to move your resources.Land.
I guess I would say on the Cernavoda 2 83 start, and 2007 commercial.
So thats 1983 to 2021. Or 2007-2021 nothing.
China has the mega reactor list. The 2/67 CANDU they are using. Almost a whole 3%.
France and its 0% CANDU Reactors. 0% USA CANDU reactors. UK 0% CANDU.
Whats the most important thing with a nuclear reactor, that is safe and it gives power.
So I think the tech is cool it just its not that huge of an export maybe and not top of the line.
South Korea, UK have variety of styles,
South Korea with those impressive build times.
USA went with a couple models Canada went with one.

2- Perspective on the nuclear power
Ok I watched the Three mile island documentary, you can like see the concern in people, and the president going down there. Id like to say I am compassionate with those people and the fear. Though its really nothing comparable to the Chernobyl. No one wants to have loved ones go through those nuclear disaster experienced at TMI, Chernobyl Fukushima or Hiroshima. That being said everyt new reactor some new technology passive safety, the gas cooled. Liquid sodium cooled, high termperature gas cooled. Molten Salt reactor, Thorium. All sorts of cool new tech to lower wastes and improve safety systems. Recycling fuels.
The weapons vs the power generation, and medical agricultural benefits.
The nuclear weapons to sit at the big table
Ok, im lookingf at more perspectives of nuclear power.
Fly ash, from coal, more dangerous.
Compare what you get for X dollars living next to coal vs next to nuclear.
No news is good news rigth.

Pickering Nuclear Incident from ontario


More talk on that natural reactor. This is on

3- Sale of Candu tech
What the hell you gonna do with 15 million thats not even a whole reactor
Then the Wylfa, cancelling cause 20 billion too much..
old wylfa

4- Residents and CANDU reactor
Living next to reactor.
There is some debate in Ontario still.

Ontario anti-nuclear group with their iron-clad “facts” from ontario

New group distributing information on nuclear waste to 30,000 households in northwestern Ontario | CBC News from ontario

Anti-nuclear flyers sent to 50,000 homes are ‘fear mongering,’ says top scientist from ontario

‘Human error,’ ‘systemic issues’ led to Pickering nuclear false alarm from canada

Its like the pickering incident reminded everyone to be scared again.

Living near a nuclear power plant… what are the dangers? from NuclearPower

Cant explain it better than senior plant operator obviously living in the area.
Obviously its desirable to live next to ontario nuclear cause expensive to live there.
Would you rather live next to Nuclear or coal, diesel.

5- Nuclear exports.
Using this one again.
South Korea

France wants to be world competitor.
Russia leads in Nuclear exports in 2018 China is the only competition.
That ‘test radiological’ equipment is a Canadian export.
Like a Siemens
Then the cobalt 60 therapy radioisotope “External Beam Radiotherapy”
The Iran Uranium refining in the news
Walt Disney was treated with the cobalt treatment 1966

-Using Nuclear tech
Simply put even if you dont like nuclear tech its still being used around.
US Navy, and Russian Ice breakers.
Space exploration outside solar system impossible without nuclear.
Has the energy and heat required for sensitive equipment. No sun for solar panels.
Alot of that nuclear anti proliferation translates to no nuclear at all.
My opinion should be using nuclear power to phase out coal, diesel.
Mining should be done sustainably.
Not this after all the resources pilfered and land destroyed theres no money for clean up.
Profits. I understand the operation costs and building say a nuclear plant, but everyone should benefit.
Not some nickel and diming customers into oblivion. The prices should be lower to benefit all.
I think I agree with the proff Its should level out (energy usage) then finding ways to get more with less. Every country wants its own industrial evolution. Using the tech for the lower carbon, space junk.
Sulfur dioxide proven to cool the planet after volcano blasts into the atmosphere.

Using nuclear tech. Just searching.
Quasi crystals thats neat—
(Growth In nuclear families)
IEA , net zero. Immediate massive deployment of all available clean, and efficient energy technologies.
Whats going on in my backyard, proposed and backlashed, coal expansions and Helium Avanti energy in AB.

ISRO plans for nuclear energy use in space

Thermal nuclear propulsion.
But also NASA is capable of launching nucleics over civilization.

Extrasolar Object Interceptor Would be Able to Chase Down the Next Oumuamua or Borisov and Actually Return a Sample

Thats super interesting.
And more Advance Nuclear Thermal propulsion.

Canadian researchers tout nuclear-renewable hybrid solution for shipping

Hybrid nuclear solution for shipping.
This just a crazy story about atomic Vodka using apples from chernobyl.
Wow investing in super heat resistant cameras.

What does uranium decay into?

The half-life of uranium-238 is 4.5 billion years. It decays into radium-226, which in turn decays into radon-222. Radon-222 becomes polonium-210, which finally decays into a stable nuclide, lead.Jul. 25, 2017

Facts About Uranium | Live Science
Decay chain and Nuclear resonance thats, Enrico Fermi
Play the gamma game lol.
Eldorado study.

That train truck transport experiment. mostly abandoned
alex mcpherson story

1- my assignment specific Uranium and supernova
Cosmic origins of uranium. Parsec and images
1987A super nova
Archive: Double Rings of a Supernova Explosion (NASA, Chandra, 02/22/07)
The kepler supernova
Neutron star merger

Depending on what happens forms a black hole or a bigger neutron star.
This amazing tokamak articificial sun
Chicago Pile-1
Decay chain
sun fusion used this person photo.
particle penetration photo.

2- More CANDU specifics.
…Canadian Nuclear Program.
Experiments in the NRX, NRU, and WR-1 reactors, and work in AECL’s laboratories and Canadian industry, …
This WR-1 research reactor used water, and “The main problem with using normal water as a moderator is that it also absorbs some of the neutrons. The neutron balance in the natural isotopic mix is so close that even a small number being absorbed in this fashion means there are too few to maintain criticality.”

ZED-2 Research Reactor

Candu 6 , Candu 9
Its a water molecule but instead of Hydrogens bonded to a Oxygen. Replaces the Hydrogens with Deuteriums.
Adding a neutron to the Hydrogen atom.

How a Nuclear Reactor Works
CANDU vs light water and the proliferation that did occur.
Its all about the possible upgrades, upgrades in fuel cooling, passive walk away safety.
Differences between the CANDU6/CANDU9, and LWR pros and cons.
Talking about SEU fuels slightly enriched Uranium.
Advanced CANDU, its the Gen III using more light water and more enricheed fuels

2 billion. Im using ur picture (Photo: Bruce Power/Cameco Corp.)
Fuel channel
Prices average kWh per Canadian household
Theres so many discrepencies for kwh per hour, the statscan says 117.7 Gigajoules which makes 32685kwh per year. (2015 AB) USA household says low 6296 kWh Hawaii to Higher Louisiana 14787 kWh average of 10649kWh
Just a personal note was much easier finding recent data about USA than it was on the statscan page, stats can was lacking- to say the least. Found some data from 6 years ago

Cost of Nuclear Power in Ontario wet storage
Finland, Okanlo site.

Using nuclear tech
Crookes tuber XRAY
HIFU ultrasound

Marie Curie quote
Nothing in life is to be feared, it is only to be understood. Now is the time to understand more, so that we may fear less.
touching on some laser excitements.
nth country experiment, its a good one.
M Richardson, in 1912 in response to the Titanic disaster, suggested both airborn and underwater echo- ranging schemes, and, in 1914, RA Fessenden experimentally demonstrated echo-ranging underwater detection of an iceberg. The transducer that Langevin used in the earlier days was a mosaic of thin quartz crystals glued between two steel plates (the composite having a resonant frequency of about 150 KHz), mounted in a housing suitable for submersion. In the underwater community the word transducer means a device that has the capability of both transmitting and receiving sound. A projector is a device that transmits sound underwater. Projectors are used in active systems. In active systems, after the sound has been generated, the sound waves travel to a target and return as echoes to be detected. Projectors are usually used near their resonance frequencies where they provide the highest acoustic output.
Thats some new histotripsy focused ultrasound.
Ct scan its xray

AI triage solution for PE and aortic dissection receives FDA clearance and CE mark

Mapping How the Brain Organizes Semantic Activity


industrial commercial
icebreaker pic
URENCO Centrifuges

DU munitions

Siemens newer MRI
Siemines wheelie CT scan
Siemens CT
Xenon arclamp and imax

the texas pic

Chief engineer. Broken links
Scientists forced to dumb down reports
Pics of former president Jimmy Carter doiung Navy things.
economics of a reactor
this germany info about
The social cost of this shift from nuclear to coal is approximately 12 billion dollars per year. Over 70% of this cost comes from the increased mortality risk associated with exposure to the local air pollution emitted when burning fossil fuels.
. Im using your picture
Even Uganda has a pipeline.
RC) that the fire testing used to qualify Thermo-Lag was inadequate. By the time of the disclosure, many nuclear plants had already installed the faulty product.
one fuel pellet compared to the rest.
Japan 121.64 billion nuclear exports 2020.
action plans and roadmaps.



cask test
Natural reactor

Space Future

Enceladus - October 2008
Marsbase nuclear
moonbase nuclear

Author: clayton

Clayton L. CD 85