Nuclear for Tyros

Nuclear for Tyros
by Clay ’21

Origins of Uranium.
What is Uranium?
Uranium is a atomic element number 92.
Its a silvery-grey metal in the actinide series. Its a hard dense metal. Uranium is denser than lead, slightly less dense than tungsten, and gold. Uranium can be found in a form called Pitchblende, or Uraninite on Earth.

Earthly origins are believed to be inherited by the solar system in one, or more supernova occurring approximately 6 billion years ago. Supernova is the end of the life cycle of a star. A star that suddenly increases in brightness because of a catastrophic explosion that ejects most of its mass. More recently second theory, that Uranium, other heavy metals, and gravitational waves ejected during a neutron star collision or a ‘merger.’

This artist’s impression shows two tiny but very dense neutron stars at the point at which they merge and explode as a kilonova. Such a very rare event is expected to produce both gravitational waves and a short gamma-ray burst, both of which were observed on 17 August 2017 by LIGO–Virgo and Fermi/INTEGRAL respectively. Subsequent detailed observations with many ESO telescopes confirmed that this object, seen in the galaxy NGC 4993 about 130 million light-years from the Earth, is indeed a kilonova. Such objects are the main source of very heavy chemical elements, such as gold and platinum, in the Universe.

Neutron star is a collapsed supergiant star. A teaspoon of Neutron star weighing around a billion tons. Havoc, and massive explosions if spoonful of neutron star matter suddenly appeared on Earth.
MIT tech video shows a great animation ‘ Neutron stars collide.’ Also the neutron star merger ejects gamma rays, in a pattern. Matter is ejected, many lightyears away. In 1604 Johannes Kepler observed and recorded the Kepler Supernova” in our galaxy.

1987A Hubble

Artist 1987A

Neutrons stars from the cosmos all the way to, bouncing neutrons out when splitting a Uranium atoms, at the atomic level.

Principles of nuclear.
What is nuclear?
Energy is the movement of atoms and molecules within a substance. Nuclear is relating to the nucleus of a atom.
Nuclear fusion is the reaction occurring inside the sun. With gravity the mass of the two atoms of Hydrogen combine together, and create a Helium. High temperatures, ionized, and confined/compressed with gravity.


Thats how the sun, and stars do it.

Experimental Tokamak technology.

‘Nuclear Fusion’ can create around 4 times as much energy as ‘Nuclear Fission’. Nuclear Fission reaction is whats happening in a reactor. In a U-235 fission energy is released, so much energy is released that there is a measurable decrease in mass, that means some of the mass is converted to energy.

In a reactor such as CANDU, the chance of a nuclear fission (energy) event is higher when the ejected neutron is slowed down. How do you slow down that neutron, with a moderator like a carbon, or a deuterium heavy water.


Chance of fission

Its a sustained chain reaction. Rutherford discovered some alpha particle scattering with the gold foil experiment changed the atomic model. Rutherford couldnt figure out why negative electrons didn’t automatically fall into the positively charged nucleus. It was Niels Bohr in 1913, discovered the valence electron levels studying the properties of the Hydrogen electrons.
First ‘Nuclear Fission’ was Dec 1938, Kaiser Wilhem Institute for Chemistry.
Dec 1942 was the Chicago pile -1 first sustained nuclear chain reaction.

Chalk River

In Canada it was Zeep: Zero energy Experimental Pile September 1945. And Chalk river the beginning of Canada CANDU nuclear. ZEEP NRX NRU SLOWPOKE


ZEEP

Accidents in 1952,1958, 2007, 2008, 2009 medical isotope shortage
In layman’s terms, nuclear elements don’t want to stay in a unstable form, so they degrade into more stable elements. This half-life process can take astronomical amount of time, to a few seconds. Radioactive decay means that elements will decay through alpha beta or gamma wave emission into more stable elements. For example Cesium will decay into Barium. While Uranium, Thorium Actinium all decay to different stable isotopes of lead.

During Radioactive decays, different particle/waves along with energy will be released.
Alpha, and Beta Particles. Gamma rays Neutron Radiation. The 4 types of radiation.
They were named in the order of discovery.
Alpha particles stopped by paper.
Beta particles stopped by aluminum sheet.
Gamma stopped by lead.

Cookies.
Imagine you had 4 cookies. One is a alpha emitter, one is a beta emitter, one is a gamma emitter and finally a neutron emitter.
You can throw one cookie away, but you have to put one in your pocket, one in your hand, and eat one.
Alpha particles are bad to vital tissue, so you probably don’t want to eat that one.
The Gamma emitter cookie, the gamma rays are likely to pass right through you inside, or out.
So this is the cookie deemed the one to eat.
Throw away the neutron emitter, like a buried used reactor core.
Keep the alpha particles away from your organs; the cookie in your hand.
Finally the beta particles shielded in your pocket.
The effects of beta particles can be similar to a sunburn effect on skin.

Y = Gamma

Note that it is the beta particles remaining in a carbon-14 sample the principles of carbon dating. Carbon-14 is radioactive. Measuring the beta particles it tells you how much carbon-14 left in the fossil which allows you to calculate how long ago the organism was alive.

CANDU reactor specifics.
Reactors are not all one shape, and size.
Evolutions in designs through R&D, disasters.
Pros and cons to different situations.
For the CANDU specific
ZEEP ’57 Origins of the bundle rod.

WR-1 tests with light water.
Zed-2 Is the test support reactor, Its the successor to ZEEP reactor. Designed by AECL fopr CANDU support It uses the 43 bundle CANFLEX fuel. SEU fuel, is just slight enhanced Uranium. For the Full core simulation. Its a nuclear historic landmark 2010. Its purpose is to test
CANDU 6 (600MWe)/ CANDU 9(900MWe) designs. The feature for selling CANDU was not needing the enriched fuels.

Selling CANDU to India, Pakistan, South Korea. 70s. Issues with some Romanian, and Argentina deals.

Advanced CANDU Reactor ACR project. To reduce costs, and some specific safety systems and redundancy. Moving to a light water reactor. ACR uses a more enriched fuel compared to the previous CANDU 6. But, not by much. ACR purpose was to test with other organic moderators.
The original thought process was that using natural uranium fuel would keep the costs relatively low compared to the more expensive enriched Uranium costs.
Also, it was though that the CANDU model was safer from proliferation because of its non-enriched fuel. However that proved to be untrue with the Smiling Buddha India bomb Canada received some blame.
The ACR , using a slight more enriched fuel, is able to have a smaller core, more output.
After the ACR design there was the sale of AECL reactor division to SNC Lavalin in 2011. And, in 2014 SNC announced a partnership with CNNC to support sales, and construction of the existing CANDU designs. Including a plan for the “Advance Fuel CANDU reactor” ‘AFCR.’
Argentina 2018 reactor. “Atucha III.”Hasnt started yet can speak to some associated extra costs and regulations.
Atucha has a horizontal fuel channel, with crane refueling.

Atucha I & II
Still in Canada every reactor over budget. Commercial reactor company takes the risk, with the loans. From engineer design to the end power customer there is lots of potential for human error from the safety components, to corruption in politicians. Much more regulations than a coal plant. Not much more incentive. Thought experiment: If only the government could fund the reactor, and as tax payers and power consumers, we could pay the plant off and reap some of that 5 cent estimated kWh. Per kWh Ontario Its more than 10x than the kWh prices in USA and abroad. Nuclear Power Economics World-Nuclear.


CANDU Calandria

CANDU Vertical Fuel Channel
The CANDU reactor is maybe the only one I know with a vertical wall fuel channel. This design allows it to be refueled during operation. Put the fuel in. The Uranium fission event occurs with the fuel rod, and moderator. The extra neutrons in the heavy water make the chance of fission higher. Everytime a uranium atom is struck by the extra neutron creates that chain reaction; a extra neutron, and some energy. The heavy water is a coolant moderator. Graphite could also be used. The heavy water pipes around the the boiling steam vessel, so that the radioactive coolant, and steam are separated. That steam spins a turbine attached to generator that creates the electricity. Or, if you only wanted heat you could skip the electricity generation, and pipe some hot water through a pipe network. In the case of too much fission, and need to turn it off, there are control rods. 2 types of rods, fuel rods, and the control rods. Control rods are present in reactors and usually contain the “Neutron poison” Gadolinium Nitrate for CANDU . In a RBMK model its boron carbide. It creates a critical mass poison absorbing neutron and stopping that critical mass chain reaction. After the CANDU fuel is used up there is a period of wet storage.

Wet Storage

Then dry storage. Concrete air canisters, MACSTOR units. Dry storage containers.

MACSTOR

Theres some debate on the waste storage ill get into later. But the main concepts are security, monitoring, cross generational costs. Have the used fuel travel not too far ideally, and keep it dry as to not accidentally get in the water table with the astronomical half lives. Cross multi generational wastes could be troublesome for future humans. On the other hand advance fuel recycling is a real concept that could have reactors re-using fuels. Reprocessing fuels. Thorium reactors burning those wastes into something more manageable, Also some of these ‘fission products’ could be components in future nuclear tech.

Using nuclear tech.
I am for the use of safe nuclear technologies, and against the destruction of the human species.
When nuclear technologies were first discovered it was the wild west of the nuclear days.
I890s, and 1900s fluoroscope experiments with no protections because the dangers of X-ray weren’t yet known. X-ray was discovered after experiments with the Crookes tube. X for unknown. Its a cathode ray tube with more vacuum. Its the successor to the ‘Geissler tube’ which is similar to a neon light. Crookes tube is a vacuum tube with 2 electrodes, and variable voltage. Basically while testing with the Crookes tub scientist discovered two things, the Cathode ray as seen in on tube televisions. And,b more interestingly with the Crookes X-ray tube, deflecting the ray. Take a cathode ray, put stuff in its path. They discovered they could knock around the inner electrons of an atom into a higher energy level. Then, as the electrons return to their original valence level X-Ray is emitted in a process called X-ray Fluorescence. Wilhem Rontgen was one of the first to investigate this new ray. It is a wavelength and not just any random wavelength its was measurable, and consistent with different elements.

A lot of scientists exposing themselves learning about the electromagnetic spectrum. Now we have lead vests, and no longer use x-rays for trivial things like 1950s shoe fitting machines, or entertainment.
In the 1930s People putting radium in their mouths and painting it on things with Marie Curie.
“Radium Jaw.”
I would say Chicago pile one is likely the dawn of a new age nuclear.
The atomic bombs, and the end of ww2, golden age of nuclear. There’s more than just the bombs, reactors, and X-Rays. There are many evolving technologies in medicine, energy, agriculture, industrial applications, and safety.
Ultrasound is a non-ionizing sound wave. Beam transducer, emits and receives beam wave, or beam wave pulses. Its a wider wave. And the tech can be used in medical applications or is used to map, and find large objects under water. How many times have I heard human body is 80% water. Someone decided to ping themselves. A predecessor to the ultrasound was the hydrophone. A device created by M Richardson in 1912 as response to titanic sinking. RW Boyle was a student in Manchester, learning this, then returned to University of Alberta begun ground breaking research on ultrasonics, This tech lead to some sonar and submarine sinking capabilities April 23 1916 first known sinking of a submarine using this tech. Nowadays theres new research on high intensity focused ultrasound, actually able to control to high points in the wave to a focal point. Its non invasive low cost therapy that can at minimum outperform the current standard of care. This tech was developed and discovered in the 1940s but refined in the 90s using magnetic resonance. My understand is using magnetic resonance to alter/adjust the wavelength into desired positions below the skin. The tissue is only destroyed at the focal point. At the intersection, and peaks of the the beams.

CT Scan.
Circular X-Ray. The CT stands for computerized tomography. Everything is motorized the X-Ray source, the detectors, the patients table. And, the display and operation is computer assisted.
CT is thinner compared to the MRI in appearance usually. CT scan radiation dose is 100-1000 times stronger that conventional X-Ray. CT scans are now using AI to triage aorta chest patients. Its a new AI solution that leverages deep learning algorithms for emergency triage of deadly vascular conditions.


Siemens CT

Siemens Wheelie Model

MRI Is Magnetic Resonance Imaging.
Non ionizing.
Its a medical application of nuclear magnetic resonance. Makes use of the nuclear properties of atoms spin, and dipoles correlating data. It uses radio waves, and the properties of a positive Hydrogen Nuclei, and atoms in their regular, and excited phases. The radio waves interprets the data into imaging. Its polarizing all the atoms in the sample, and the radio waves are able to interpret that change. The change is measured in frequencies. Don’t wear jewelry next to the opening, it is very magnetic. MRI requires the system component room Helium, and magnets. Outdoor infrastructure components. Magnetic shielding safety considerations.

Siemens MRI

I couldn’t imagine being the first test subject to have all your water-hydrogen’s polarized.
Recently it has been found that inhaling Xenon-129 gas for a few moments can produce excessively high resolution lung images for example. MRI can be used to map, and track connections in the brain, and where the blood brings oxygen. Xenon arclamps closely mimic natural sunlight in a theatre setting. Ionized gas.

Xenon Arclamp

Agriculture nuclear tech is my favorite.
IAEA has a cool website shows some peaceful applications.
There is food irradiation with cobalt-60 gamma source. Destroys the mold.
Sterile insect technique that (SIT) sterilizes populations of fruit flies. Good for exports.
Atomic gardening, and Isotope analysis. Identifying drought resistant banana varieties for example.

Carbon Soil Detection Kit (IAEA)

Using Carbon-13 to measure and track how CO2 is being absorbed and released
Advanced nuclear spectrometers to analyze the carbon content in soil with test kits. Then custom tailor manure solutions based on the results.

Indian Farmers Using Soil Testing Kit

Industrial & commercial.
Russian nuclear Ice Breakers, arctic tourism.

Artika Class

Nuclear Smoke Alarms utilize alpha particles and detectors. Americium-214. If you removed the ceramic chamber, and swallowed it. Its about six times desired yearly exposure.
Non-destructive testing, method to check welds, or the integrity of components that cannot fail, in mining, pressure vessels, aircraft, machinery.
Ground-penetrating radar is electromagnetic radiation in microwave band.
I mentioned Carbon dating (radio carbon dating) for organic materials uses the halflife of Carbon 14 and the neutrons remaining.
Commercial, and research reactors and the fission products that can be used for variety of purposes, such as health, and other research.

Enriching uranium takes some advanced centrifuge tech. 2 types of enrichment. Enriched uranium for research, and commercial reactors, ill call that 20% U-235. Then there’s the weapons grade enriched at around 90% U-235. So some concerns of Iran recently getting past 60% grade. In the news one of their research facilities was sabotaged.

The quick version is that if your looking for weapons grade your looking for the rarer isotope of Uranium the U-235. It has a different weight than the more common isotope U-238. Change of pressure in a vessel to separate the particles, or spin the gaseous isotopes in a centrifuge allowing you to separate the 2 isotopes.

There is a new laser excitement method being developed right now that sounds interesting. Bomb tech itself has evolved. Im not going to get into that, Id prefer to spend my efforts with the peaceful nuclear applications for humanity. And, despite the fact the Karachi plant was intended for peaceful uses was still ultimately used for bomb tests. The bomb still remains deterrent, and posture. In the 60s there was the NthCountry experiment, where 3 students recently received their PHDs in physics tasked to design a nuclear bomb.

Nth Country Experiment

It was experiment in the proliferation capabilities. Its an interesting experiment because it shows what some determined pros could achieve, and what that would look like.

Chief engineer recommendations.
Gord Brooks was the Chief Engineer for CANDU operations almost 40 years. Reading his content he has a good understanding of all things CANDU. Can be found at CANTEACH

Gord L. Brooks

His perspective was; that there will be many engineer in demand jobs, and cheap nuclear power in Ontario, and out east. Theyre all ambitious, but reasonable, and looking from the 2020s would appear Nuclear in Canada has declined from those days. During the 70s oil crisis, and the oil prices going up. The world was after cheaper power sources.
Three Mile Island happened.
President Jimmy Carter had previously worked in the US Navy nuclear submarine program.

Lt. James Earl Carter Jr. USN

I watched the History Channel documentary. Could really see some panic, and fear in all those involved. Too much data, and incorrect data. I saw that sense of relief when the President arrived with his wife. If it was safe enough for the President to be on scene with his wife was re-assuring. Not only that the President had a background in nuclear. Unfortunately televised, and evacuated nearby towns, the damage in a sense was already done. Financial damage. Actually some house prices still fairly cheap next to that reactor, compared to the Bruce Power generating station.

The economics of a nuclear reactor.
Nuclear power generation will cost more, more regulations and inspections.
The trade off is more power cheaper in the long run compared to a coal or natural gas power plant.

In 1986 was the Chernobyl disaster. Operators decided to run a low power test that proved disastrous, first they shut it down, there was some Xenon gas neutron poisoning. Then they were trying to raise the power back up to pre-shut down levels, and kept inserting more fuel and didn’t know why the power wasnt picking back up. Eventually the reactor had a couple explosions. Theres also excess Hydrogen that causes the roof to blow off in some cases. The meltdown caused a mass of radioactive hot corium elephants foot. Chernobyl made the world take a second look at nuclear. Other reactors in different countries neighboring Chernobyl’s, safety systems were going off. The initial response was to pretend nothing happened. First responders to the Chernobyl site doing some scary clean up. Many perished.

Years later Fukushima showed that even with preparation, and good engineering you can have a earthquake, then get hit by a tsunami. 10 year anniversary of Fukushima disaster occurred this year. Japan is industrialized, and technologically advanced, and still had disaster as the world watched. Planning to begin releasing contaminated water back into the oceans. At a levels deemed safe by world scientists.
Germany In 2011, Chancellor Angela Merkel in response to the Fukushima and some heavy protest. Policy reversal commitment to close their reactors by 2022. Replaced with coal steam generation.
A study: The costs associated from increasing more coal power to the grid estimated in the 12 billion per year in increases in mortality, due to exposure to pollution from burning fossil fuels.
Siemens the German company announced complete withdrawl from the nuclear industry at that time.
At Three Mile Island, there was evacuations, no one was killed though. A fear in the air.
In Canada, maybe its a thought in some peoples mind as they drive by as routine or, on their way to work. Or, on January 12 2020 the Nuclear false alert, as part of a training error Pickering Nuclear Generating station mass message.

If anything, that gave a horrible perspective reminder on living next to nuclear power.
But, better safe than sorry. Lack of trust is the fallout from that scenario.
Otherwise no news is good news.
Fracking made natural gas cheaper.
Methane reforming tech could make the cost even cheaper.
Coal, oil diesel, and natural gas are the Nuclear competition, or alternative.
Natural gas has the combined cycle plant which is pretty competitive.
A fraction of the electricity used is generated from wind solar, bio fuels.
Now seeing the lumber prices skyrocket
Theres arguably some insane house prices next to Pickering and Bruce Power.
TMI plant mostly shut down and houses next to it were looking pretty affordable.
Ontario power generation is around more than half nuclear. The OPG, or Hydro.

Living next to a reactor at sea on a icebreaker, or a Nimitz class aircraft carrier. Under the sea in a submarine. A floating nuclear power plant could travel anywhere its needed. I could just imagine add some nuclear capabilities with the latest big off shore rig disaster you can remember. There wouldnt be anyone around, also that far away the logistics for disaster relief would be horrible.

Perspective living next to old Uranium mining sites like the Rabbit Lake, or Gunnar site.
The mining itself is relatively safe occupation. The clean up efforts in North Saskatchewan leave something to be desired. Especially from the old days, it was all profit. They flooded Gunnar Mine site, and more.


Gunnar Site I

Miners made all the money, and the government still arguing about clean up costs.
Gunnar Mine was abandoned in 1963 tax payers stuck with the clean up that is lame.
There is some tech, and remediation too bad we cant all just go destroy a piece of Canada to get our wealth 60 years ago with no consequence except to the people living now.

Gunnar Site II

There was a urgent need to build the atomic bomb, and Uranium meant wealth. Pop culture, sci-fi movie ‘The Cyclops’ 1957. Just a crazy film based on radiation uranium, and the man that mutated in the cyclops.

Scene from the movie ‘The Cyclops’

Anyways just how convenient the government is there to control everything regarding the uranium and atomic, but when the time comes for clean up , oh they’re nowhere to be found.
Another pattern, another loss of trust. So when they say they’ll clean up new sites, how about these old ones. Cross generational cleanup. I think people are ok cleaning up or doing the nuclear waste storage as long as its done safely, and it can be a decent job for someone like me.
It should be the corporation, and government funding all this, instead its the taxpayer.

Depleted Uranium Munitions

Depleted uranium. Weight of Uranium is heavy use your depleted uranium in munitions. Can actually cause some environmental effects. Don’t want to be inhaling those munition impact aerosols.

Sadly the future of nuclear lies in politics. Often politicians these days are only focused with the time they are in power. Some politicians want nothing to do with a pro nuclear position. And, its no wonder people are concerned with the bad track record cleaning up. Minister O’Reagan claimed there is no way to net zero without Nuclear. We get some lip service, then disappear till the next scandal, or election. Why put a former ‘TV personality’ in charge of nuclear?
Even with the simplest understanding he acknowledges that the best way to reach the zero carbon goals is in the nuclear.
So what are they waiting for ?

Ontario hydro and the debt its left its customers. Its almost like the game of telephone, where the initial message(engineer reactor design) gets so mutilated by politicians, and construction, that by the time it gets to the customer its an abomination of the former self.

Gerald W. Brown for example, it concerns me because, right away the fire safety circuitry to the control room the safety systems implementation, corners were cut.
Nickel, and diming to save a penny in costs. Ends in bankruptcy.
Nuclear is not the place should be cutting corners.
Yet, it is a common occurrence. Happening in Ohio too, electricity customers held hostage.
The Gerald W Brown fire safety incident both shocking, and reassuring that atleast some of the processes work. At least some people care.

Gerald W. Brown

If only we could apply the same science, and physics to the politics as we do the nuclear reactor maybe we’d get somewhere.
What do we get instead Coal expansion on the AB eastern slopes.
Elk river fish poisoned by selenium in BC next door.
Atleast when Uranium is mined, one fuel pellet can create as much energy as one ton of coal, 149 Gallons of Oil, 1700 cubic feet of natural gas.

At Wylfa UK, Nuclear power plant was canceled due to the 20 billion pounds debt too much. It was meant to be a Hitachi. This is maybe one of the unsuccessful projects Ive seen. Japan with the 121.64 Billion nuclear exports in 2020, despite Fukushima mind you. Thats a big number.

Wylfa

How many reactors were constructed here with this massive deficit. Zero.

New(ish) Green Party leader Annamie Paul Nov 6 2020

Thats her twitter statement, completely disagree with. South Korea with the impressive reactor build times. How about Oklo Gabon, the natural reactor found in nature. Scientists also used the Gabon site to see how far fission products could get away from the source, and the answer is not very far.


Oklo Gabon – Natural Reactor

Anyways, government has invested in SMR research. SMR in Canada.
Moltex, has never built as reactor.
And the Hitachi General electric BRWX-300 was studied in a report.
Nothing against Hitachi but I think thats what Chief Engineer Gord Brooks was talking about, with nuclear opportunity fizzling away.
Note instead of Canada designing anything, theyre just awarding some huge contracts.
There’s a SNC design 2 pages online CANDU style no one talks about.
It is true there are many designs, and no government wants to be the first investor in uncharted water. In the USA at the Department of energy, they ran a contest for best SMR, and the design was the XE-100.


Xe-100 Pebble Bed

Theres also the Nuscale power.
I personally think the pebble; bed reactor design and the advance triso fuel is amazing engineering.
The silicon carbides surrounding the fuel means the fuel container, is the waste container. All the fission products remain in trapped within the fuel casing. There will be 4x under construction soon. This is the high temperature Gas cooled reactor. I believe its a evolution from coolant reactors. The benefit of SMR, replacing diesel generators. Modular sections could virtually replace a coal power plant. Passive safety. Walk-away safety. The XE-100, 400 yards safety perimeter vs 10 miles. Place is even hiring.

My opinion on the CANDU reactor.

I got nothing against it. Its had a turbulent business history. I feel bad for the people of Romania and the people promised power and for whatever reason it gets canceled, or costs are ran up.
Lets see though does UK, France, or USA use CANDU? No.

In China, CANDU makes up a tiny 4.3 % of their reactors. If you include the ‘under construction’ the total is 3.07% of reactors in China operating, and under construction are CANDU.

So much for : “Energy prices will be too low to measure.” Line from the 60s. I’m not seeing much of the CANDU chief engineer recommendations followed neither. Now I have read some comments, its just wasting money going for investments in the heavy water reactor that we have technology for.
Time for R&D was years ago, not starting now. On some tech we already had. I look at the department of energy in the states, and then I look at Canada; its a complete joke. Sad looking at the CBC too from the 70s with some scientists having debate compared to now too. CANDU had a bright future, but a bit of a trainwreck as a export, and the nuclear Ontario Hydro power isnt competitive at all.

Its almost like the politicians can behave badly cause nuclear already has a bad rep.
Also I cant imagine oil, and coal barons being pleased about all this ‘free unlimited’ power.
Hypocrites in the west dictating who can have energy freedom. The west, and Europe creating wealth, pollution, and war during industrial revolution, turning around saying no power for you, only me. Developing nations using more energy which is good. Quality of life going up. Here in America energy use has tapered off. Now the challenge is conserving that energy, and doing more with less.


TRISO Fuel Upgrade

Everything evolves; the fuel upgrades, the safety systems, the smart grid housing. Some people will never be happy. In Las Vegas, there is Yucca Mountain which is supposed to be the Countries nuclear waste repository. With all the rail network, mountain, and Las Vegas being a undesirable city in the middle of the desert. Theres some debate, people from Nevada dont want the waste in their mountain. Biden administration is opposed to the Yucca Mountain project. Same thing in Canada with the Chretien nuclear waste agreements in Labrador.

Yucca Mountain

Enter the nuclear flask endurance testing.
Just the most ridiculous obscene testing with rail, road, and used nuclear fuel transport.
Even a rocket powered truck slamming straight into a wall. 1978 cask test. I recommend watching it.

Rocket-Powered Truck, Nuclear Waste Transportation Testing – Cask Test 1978

Ideally the waste would not have to travel far and set into a long term dry location. It could be jobs for the community. Burying underground in a desert maybe not the most ideal. Could always move it later, find another solution. Cross generational.
You’d have to keep people out that want to dig it all up, and eat it probably.

Texas Nuclear Waste Burial Site

Future of nuclear lies in politics, and economics.
I like the Tokamak fusion progress, and research. Id like to see the coal plant be switched to SMR pebble bed. Id like to see some inexpensive enrgy, and government investments.
Id like to see the politics, and politicians taken out of nuclear.
I think we can all agree on safe reliable power, and can do without the cutting corners to save 5 cents on everything. Pilfering politicians.
This assignment, and basic understanding of nuclear took some time.
Thats definitely a con for nuclear. its a complicated way to boil water, that takes time to learn and explain, operate safely. Who wants a disaster, or mine in their back yard.
Nuclear provides a good fraction of the worlds power free from carbon dioxide.
Irresponsible mining is a expensive problem left to communities, and taxpayers. Don’t get me started on the river dumpers too. Maybe don’t live downstream from a reactor in the 1950s. Those costs should be worked in before everyone cashes out. Proliferation, and premature destruction of the species is a concern. Carl Sagan was against proliferation, but in favor of using nuclear technologies.

Lots of work previous generations did to reduce nuclear warheads stockpiles during the cold war. Activists may protest nuclear, but think of this. Life of the Sun, even if humans last forever the bounds of the sun will supersede our current orbit. Stephen Hawking says humans must leave earth within 600 years. We are surrounded by nuclear with the US Navy & more. J. Bezos envisions a future where all the industry is off-world. It would be much better to use the resources, and industry pollute in space. If NASA can send nuclear components in space over cities atmospheres safely, I have hope for the rest of us.
Maybe if someone has access to power, internet, drinking water, they wont be in a nuclear terrorist killing mood.
Terrorist asides how many nuclear tests occurred anyways without my consent, or permission.
Proliferation of space is also becoming a concern. Must not allow space to become militarized.
Putting nuclear weapons in orbit would be stupid, and potentially catastrophic to the species.
Unless maybe it was a joint mission to nuke an asteroid.

Space. Id like to know more about the waters on Encaldus, and if I was astronaut dependent on that nuclear power Id want it to best tried tested, and reliable. Not the first test run.


Enceladus

How are you gonna power the Perseverance rover, or the Casssini spacecraft without nuclear?
How are you going to explore beyond the solar system without nuclear?

“No X-ray, medical hope, or electricity for you because I cant be bothered to learn nuclear.”

The heat, and power source are necessary for exploring beyond the reaches of our sun, when solar panels wont function. The recent Lunar Rover announced by Canada Space Agency, I bet you will have a nuclear power/ heat source. Utilizing computers, and components within operating temperatures in the cold of space. Any lunar base, any mars base will utilize a reactor of some type.

Moon Reactor

Even the design drawings include the reactor. Seems to me its worth the investments and experience. Im reading a sci fi book series, Asimov Foundation.


Harri Seldon

I really enjoy it. Its the story of the future of humans. They go through a nuclear rise, and fall in space. A society with no nuclear capabilities, or understanding cannot survive. The planet Trantor, the center of the empire outputs only law. I. Asimov was a biochemist and I like his view of nuclear in the future.

Lesson 2 Research
Isotopes:
U-238, U-234 (descendant of U-238), And U-235 Can be used as fuel in reactor, very high concentrated for weapons.
Those be the natural abundant, and 238 is the 99.3% natural form.
Some other artificial isotopes are 236, 233, 232 For example presence of U236 is formed from U235 fuel, after the neutrino captures that didnt cause fission. The presence of U236 in a sample concludes the sample has been in reactor.
CANDU Process :
Its a natural fuel U235 So basically mostly U28 0.7~0.9 % U235
What is Half life:
Time it takes for a sample to decrease radioactivity by half. Radioactive decay, going from unstable form to more stable form.
How long is uranium 235 half life is 700 million years. U-238 4.5 billion years.
Neptunium Plutonium traces fission.
Wastes wet storage and the MACSTOR , air cooled concrete, underground one day.

~

Lesson 4
Ionizing can remove a electron and cause charge.
Ionizing effects on water.
Different effects per different radiations.
Alpha makes Hydrogen peroxide
Beta makes beta decay can be used in reactor.
You can Gamma ray waste-water to break down organics
Why is there concern.
Basically you don’t want your body H2O molecules getting destroyed, you dont want your DNA destroyed. Causes Cancers. Too much radiation and youll get sick, and die, or vaporized in a blast.
Glass turns blue after long exposure to radiation its called Cherenkov Radiation.

BIBLIO for this assignment.
___

Heres a bibliography of some online searches assignment specific.

Learning more about STS, Science tech society. Has some good images. And the R&D interests me.
https://education.usask.ca/documents/profiles/aikenhead/sts05.htm

Lesson 2 Research:
What Isotope of Uranium exists.
Heres so usefull stuff on that
https://www.radioactivity.eu.com/site/pages/Uranium_Isotopes.htm
Isoptope , one of two or more species of atoms of a hemical eleement.
Same atomic number and position, nearly identical chemical behavior but with different atomic masses and physical properties. Every chemical element has one or more isotopes. Difference in neutrons. New forms of old elements.
JJ Thompson and the neon with 10 neutrons, then neon with 12 neutrons.
https://www.britannica.com/video/216564/What-are-isotopes
https://www.britannica.com/science/isotope
Anyways Its basically U-238, U-234 (descendant of U-238), And U-235 Ca be used as fuel in reactor, very high concentrated for weapons.
Those be the natural abundant, and 238 is the 99.3% natural form.
Some other artificial isotopes are 236, 233, 232 For example presence of U236 is formed from U235 fuel, after the neutrino captures that didnt cause fission. The presence of U236 in a sample concludes the sample has been in reactor.

Candu Process : Its a natural fuel U235 So basically mostly U28 0.7~0.9 % U235
What is Half life: Time it takes for a sample to decrease radioactivity by half. Radioactive decay, going from unstable form to more stable form.
https://www.britannica.com/science/half-life-radioactivity
How long is uranium 235 half life is 700 million years. U-238 4.5 billion years.
https://web.evs.anl.gov/uranium/faq/uproperties/faq5.cfm From the Argonne US national lab.
Proceses for fuel
https://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:19013875
CANDU reactors operate on a once-through, natural uranium fuel cycle. The process of turning the natural uranium into reactor fuel bundles is described. The components making up the fuel bundle are UO2 pellets, zircaloy tubes, zircaloy bearing pads and interelement spacers, zircaloy end caps for fuel element closure welds and zircaloy end plates which hold the fuel elements in a bundle. The five process steps in preparing the zircaloy components for the fuel element and the bundle assembly are described and the quality assurance system explained. Because CANDU reactors use natural, rather then enriched uranium the fuel fabrication is a much simpler process requiring smaller plant. CANDU fuel is fabricated in Argentina, South Korea and Romania as well as Canada. (UK)
Concerns about the tritium emissions.
Heres a really basic answer.
CANDU reactors use natural uranium as their nuclear fuel. Natural uranium is composed of about 0.7% uranium-235, and the remaining 99.3% is mostly uranium-238 which cannot directly be used in a fission process to obtain energy.[7] The uranium-238 is fertile and can absorb high speed neutrons and convert to plutonium-239 which is fissile and then undergoes fission; this process accounts for around half of the energy produced within the reactor.[8] CANDU reactors use about 25 to 30% less mined uranium than a comparable light water reactor (mostly because of the better use of neutrons in the reactor).
In CANDU reactors, fuel in the form of uranium oxide powder is packed into pellets and placed in the fuel rods. Thirty seven fuel rods are bunched together to complete a cylindrical fuel bundle, seen in Figure 2. The fuel bundle is approximately 50 cm in length and 10 cm in diameter.[9] A fuel bundle remains in the reactor between 6 and 24 months, depending on its location within the core.[2]
Its a Uranium oxide powder fuel rod.
http://www.nuclearfaq.ca/

How a Nuclear Reactor Works


Candu is the horizontal fuel rods.
https://web.archive.org/web/20161125110315/http://www.edmontonexaminer.com/2016/04/13/though-there-is-potential-for-nuclear-power-in-alberta-theres-more-than-just-public-opinion-holding-it-back
Article about nuclear power in AB. Lol

Finally, operating a nuclear power plant requires vast amounts of water which, if properly treated, could return to the water system, but Alberta has a “highly variable” water supply, which will be affected by climate change in the future. 
Search for Modular reactor nothing just the mega-waterside plant. Anyways just browsing thoght that was interesting.
What wastes Plutonium about half as much as another style LWR
http://nuclearsafety.gc.ca/eng/waste/high-level-waste/index.cfm
Storing some at Chalk river.
https://world-nuclear-news.org/Articles/Trio-of-organisations-collaborate-on-Candu-decommi
More details on the CANDU fuel bundle.
Storing wastes
http://nuclearsafety.gc.ca/eng/waste/high-level-waste/index.cfm
Wet storage Drystorage
The storing of waste is a hot topic, from vegas to Canadian debate. Shoudl eb stored next to usage. Dont want it touching water. Fukushima theyre releasing it.
https://www.bbc.com/news/world-asia-56728068
Uranium oxides.
Centrifuges.
Naturally occuring uranium is super interesting. Or how Uranium is formed.
Cosmic origins of uranium.
https://www.world-nuclear.org/information-library/nuclear-fuel-cycle/uranium-resources/the-cosmic-origins-of-uranium.aspx
Wow learning some things, semi conductor properties.
https://www.world-nuclear.org/nuclear-essentials/how-is-uranium-made-into-nuclear-fuel.aspx

Lesson 3
Included some naturally forming uranium.
Mining concerns:
Processing concerns:
How have uranium mining, and extraction facilities affected communities. Loaded question.
Uraninite, formally pitchblend
https://ags.aer.ca/activities/uranium
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Uraninite
Trying to find some mine news near me.
https://paherald.sk.ca/2021/05/10/could-have-been-a-whole-lot-worse-new-north-reacts-to-this-years-budget/
This one has a 11 million $ increase to clean the Gunnar mines,.
Shut down 1963
https://www.src.sk.ca/project-cleans/gunnar-mine-and-mill-site
Look at all that cleanup.
Well 1963 isnt the pinnacle of environmentalism, Just profited and left.
So in the case of this particular mine, “Gilbert Labine” Canadas Mr. Uranium. Just makes me think.
Joe Boyle to Gilbert Labine.
https://thestarphoenix.com/news/local-news/northern-mine-cleanups-continue-province-feds-still-divided-on-cost
https://patriciasandberg.com/category/gunnar-mines/
https://www.src.sk.ca/blog/gunnar-uranium-mine-cold-war-darling-ghost-town-part-1
What a time you just prospect pick a spot, dig it all up for the government get a medal and cya later. Later the government is hesitant on the cleanups. And the communities there grateful for a opportunity to clean up the site (jobs). Hes in the miners hall of fame, after they didnt decomission they just flooded the mine and threw some old rock in there. Employed a bunch of people during ‘cold war boom’.
Just interested learning about this Labine character. Thesee people didnt make their money from thin air, they dug it out of the ground. Well he had some issues too. Anyways site looks cleaned up. He got order of Canada. https://www.gg.ca/en/honours/recipients/146-2718
trying to find some ‘extraction facilities’
https://www.epa.gov/radtown/radioactive-waste-uranium-mining-and-milling
https://www.azcentral.com/story/news/local/arizona-environment/2021/05/09/quechan-tribe-prepares-new-fight-over-gold-mine-tribal-land/4067624001/
Heres a interesting story, only mentions the uranium at the very bottom, and concerns in the past with Colorado River, however its a Canadian mining company. And, theyree being negatively impacted by the neighboring mine claim.
On mines and mills
http://www.nuclearsafety.gc.ca/eng/uranium/mines-and-mills/index.cfm
Extraction, im finding mill, I found some neat things Rabbit lake and cigar lake.
https://www.cameco.com/businesses/uranium-operations/suspended/rabbit-lake
https://thestarphoenix.com/news/local-news/cameco-developing-plan-to-clean-up-contaminated-groundwater-at-key-lake
https://nuclearsafety.gc.ca/eng/uranium/mines-and-mills/nuclear-facilities/key-lake/index.cfm
Closest perspective I can find.
https://www.estevanmercury.ca/news/business-energy/saskatchewan-wants-feds-to-pony-up-its-share-of-abandoned-uranium-mine-cleanup-1.24174842

Candu High School Northern Saskatchewan. Abandoned in 1982. from saskatchewan

Saskatchewan, feds at odds over abandoned uranium mine remediation


How do you ask a ghost town what theyre perspective is. Uranium city.
Fun fact – CANDU was handed to SNC Lavalin in 2011 for pennies.
”The transaction will place Candu technology in proven, competent hands to be serviced and deployed in Canada and abroad, meeting energy needs and stimulating a supply chain located largely in Canada.”
This comment aged well didn’t it?

Abandoned uranium mine cleanup a provincial responsibility: Sohi from saskatchewan

Opinion: Small modular nuclear reactors distract from real climate solutions from saskatchewan


another year old Re: SMR
Heres a month old :

Alta., Ont., Sask. and N.B. signing agreement to explore small nuclear reactors from saskatchewan

international
Roisser mine Nambia Its profitable and sensitive to environments. Not a good combo.
Uganda profiting from increaseed nuclear.

Energy and mineral sector makes steady progress


https://thebulletin.org/2021/02/radiation-illnesses-and-covid-19-in-the-navajo-nation/
https://www.monitor.co.ug/uganda/oped/commentary/women-should-have-place-in-mining-sector-3261574
Just of interest, theyre building a crude pipeline through a neighboring country.

L4
What kind of radiation is ionizing,
Basically the Sun , anything that can remove the electron and bring about a charge. Cosmic rays.
Gamma rays, X-rays and the higher ultraviolet part of the electromagnetic spectrum are ionizing radiation, whereas the lower energy ultraviolet, visible light, nearly all types of laser light, infrared, microwaves, and radio waves are non-ionizing radiation.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ionizing_radiation
Nice chart with a graphic left and right of the visible light spectrum
Non-ionising on the left ionizing on the right.
Theres some properties of Ionizing radiation.
Distance, inverse square.
Scattering
Absorbstion. Theres a good graphic of how the distance beams
Becquerel
Smoke detectors, static eliminators. Thats a new onw.
Carbon-14 dating.
Food irridiation, sterile insect technique.
Neutron radiation is for the reactors and weapons.
X-ray gamma used for medical and NDT.

What effect does ionizing radiation have on water.
Well Radiolysis.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Radiation_damage
Different effects per different radiations.
Alpha makes Hydrogen peroxide
Beta makes beta decay can be used in reactor.
Gamma rays; Gamma radiation induces hydrogen absorption by coppper in water. Not linking that.
You can Gamma ray waster water to break down organics.
Why is there concern about changes in matter as a result of exposure to ionizing radiation.
Well basically in laymans terms you dont want the water molecule getting destroyed while its in your body and can destroy DNA molecules.
The EPA has a good page.
https://www.epa.gov/radiation/radiation-health-effects
Has some on the concerns about changes in matter,.
This one too.
https://chem.libretexts.org/Bookshelves/General_Chemistry/Map%3A_Chemistry_(Zumdahl_and_Decoste)/20%3A_The_Nucleus_A_Chemists_View/20.7%3A_Effects_of_Radiation_on_Matter
Non ionizing makes things warm.
The blue radiation glass.
The Illinois energy prof sit eat throw away exercise.

Heres a perspective around the Bruce site.https://london.ctvnews.ca/mobile/saugeen-first-nation-debates-fate-of-canada-s-nuclear-waste-1.5430208
You know A commenter wrote, the government controls everything nuclear except when its time to clean up or pay for clean up costs.
So its no wonder these people dont trust the gov. look at the record. Its like a shitty friend there for all the good times, no where to be found when its time to clean up. Doesnt that describe Seamusa and the current gov well, there for the party thats it. Pure cronyism.

The no number.
Nuclear is like a scale,

1- Its the CANDU scientific & technological perspective
First its my personal perspective. CANDU is a has been. Pildfered and sat on by governments from the 60s. Where we could have been: look at China, japan, leading the way in exports.
If we would have focused on nuclear and recommendations from Chief engineers in the 70’s wed be laughing all the way to the bank now. No, now its lobbyist have left us quite a large gap.
So if we were nuclear powerhouse in the 70s our leader have squandered our opportunities. Throwing a little miniscule investment at the SMR’s another wasted chance. In the USA they have the EPA and argonnes national lab and government benefits to energy makers. Here we have buddy deals and SNC.
Bureacrats keen on nickel and diming projects to oblivion.If its not that its proliferation India bomb, and Romanian corruption. The technology perspective is cool. I mean what im supposed to be in awe with Bruce power. The shits outdated 70s tech and havent invested in anything new since the 70s.
Did I say 70s I meant 40s and 50s. It just becomes silly I mean I read the reccomendations from chief engineer, our government obviously didnt. When youre still talking about transporting the oil by rail in the 2020s. Id say look at Uganda, using logic and reason.
I mean everyone knows a pipeline is the most effective safest way so far to move your resources.Land.
https://www.cbc.ca/archives/entry/a-candu-fiasco-in-romania
https://www.nrcan.gc.ca/energy/energy-sources-distribution/uranium-nuclear-energy/nuclear-energy/international-perspective/7717

https://www.world-nuclear.org/reactor/default.aspx/CERNAVODA-2
I guess I would say on the Cernavoda 2 83 start, and 2007 commercial.
https://www.nucnet.org/news/romania-signs-declaration-of-intent-with-france-10-3-2020
So thats 1983 to 2021. Or 2007-2021 nothing.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_commercial_nuclear_reactors
China has the mega reactor list. The 2/67 CANDU they are using. Almost a whole 3%.
France and its 0% CANDU Reactors. 0% USA CANDU reactors. UK 0% CANDU.
Whats the most important thing with a nuclear reactor, that is safe and it gives power.
So I think the tech is cool it just its not that huge of an export maybe and not top of the line.
South Korea, UK have variety of styles,
South Korea with those impressive build times.
USA went with a couple models Canada went with one.
https://world-nuclear.org/information-library/nuclear-fuel-cycle/nuclear-power-reactors/nuclear-power-reactors.aspx

2- Perspective on the nuclear power
Ok I watched the Three mile island documentary, you can like see the concern in people, and the president going down there. Id like to say I am compassionate with those people and the fear. Though its really nothing comparable to the Chernobyl. No one wants to have loved ones go through those nuclear disaster experienced at TMI, Chernobyl Fukushima or Hiroshima. That being said everyt new reactor some new technology passive safety, the gas cooled. Liquid sodium cooled, high termperature gas cooled. Molten Salt reactor, Thorium. All sorts of cool new tech to lower wastes and improve safety systems. Recycling fuels.
https://www.world-nuclear.org/information-library/safety-and-security/safety-of-plants/safety-of-nuclear-power-reactors.aspx
The weapons vs the power generation, and medical agricultural benefits.
The nuclear weapons to sit at the big table
Ok, im lookingf at more perspectives of nuclear power.
Fly ash, from coal, more dangerous.
Compare what you get for X dollars living next to coal vs next to nuclear.
No news is good news rigth.

Pickering Nuclear Incident from ontario


es_are_fear/
https://www.bbc.com/news/world-us-canada-51084859
picture

More talk on that natural reactor.
https://www.nwmo.ca/ This is on

3- Sale of Candu tech
https://www.cbc.ca/news/business/aecl-sold-for-15m-to-snc-lavalin-1.985786
What the hell you gonna do with 15 million thats not even a whole reactor
Then the Wylfa, cancelling cause 20 billion too much..
https://www.bbc.com/news/uk-wales-54158091.
https://www.bbc.com/news/uk-wales-55833186
old wylfa

4- Residents and CANDU reactor
Living next to reactor.
There is some debate in Ontario still.

Ontario anti-nuclear group with their iron-clad “facts” from ontario

New group distributing information on nuclear waste to 30,000 households in northwestern Ontario | CBC News from ontario

Anti-nuclear flyers sent to 50,000 homes are ‘fear mongering,’ says top scientist from ontario

‘Human error,’ ‘systemic issues’ led to Pickering nuclear false alarm from canada


Its like the pickering incident reminded everyone to be scared again.

Living near a nuclear power plant… what are the dangers? from NuclearPower


Cant explain it better than senior plant operator obviously living in the area.
Obviously its desirable to live next to ontario nuclear cause expensive to live there.
Would you rather live next to Nuclear or coal, diesel.

5- Nuclear exports.
Using this one again.
South Korea
https://www.world-nuclear.org/information-library/country-profiles/countries-o-s/south-korea.aspx

France wants to be world competitor.
Russia leads in Nuclear exports in 2018 China is the only competition.
That ‘test radiological’ equipment is a Canadian export.
Like a Siemens
Then the cobalt 60 therapy radioisotope “External Beam Radiotherapy”
The Iran Uranium refining in the news
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cobalt_therapy
Walt Disney was treated with the cobalt treatment 1966

-Using Nuclear tech
Simply put even if you dont like nuclear tech its still being used around.
US Navy, and Russian Ice breakers.
Space exploration outside solar system impossible without nuclear.
Has the energy and heat required for sensitive equipment. No sun for solar panels.
Alot of that nuclear anti proliferation translates to no nuclear at all.
My opinion should be using nuclear power to phase out coal, diesel.
Mining should be done sustainably.
Not this after all the resources pilfered and land destroyed theres no money for clean up.
Profits. I understand the operation costs and building say a nuclear plant, but everyone should benefit.
Not some nickel and diming customers into oblivion. The prices should be lower to benefit all.
I think I agree with the proff Its should level out (energy usage) then finding ways to get more with less. Every country wants its own industrial evolution. Using the tech for the lower carbon, space junk.
Sulfur dioxide proven to cool the planet after volcano blasts into the atmosphere.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Stratospheric_sulfur_aerosols

Using nuclear tech. Just searching.
https://www.thesun.co.uk/tech/14990543/quasicrystal-formed-after-nuclear-bomb-test/
Quasi crystals thats neat
https://www.britannica.com/science/quasicrystal
https://www.businesswire.com/news/home/20210518005604/en/Global-Baby-Monitor-Market-Outlook-and-Forecast-Report-2021-2026-Growing-Demand-For-Smart-Baby-Monitors-Increase-In-Tech-Savvy-Millennial-Parents—ResearchAndMarkets.com
(Growth In nuclear families)
https://www.manilatimes.net/2021/05/19/opinion/columnists/topanalysis/israel-americas-frankenstein-yet-valuable-monster/873964/
https://www.politico.com/newsletters/morning-energy/2021/05/18/iea-lays-out-narrow-road-to-net-zero-795360
IEA , net zero. Immediate massive deployment of all available clean, and efficient energy technologies.
IEA -USA https://www.iea.org/ https://www.eia.gov/
Whats going on in my backyard, proposed and backlashed, coal expansions and Helium Avanti energy in AB.

ISRO plans for nuclear energy use in space


Thermal nuclear propulsion.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kosmos_954
But also NASA is capable of launching nucleics over civilization.

Extrasolar Object Interceptor Would be Able to Chase Down the Next Oumuamua or Borisov and Actually Return a Sample


Thats super interesting.
And more Advance Nuclear Thermal propulsion.

Canadian researchers tout nuclear-renewable hybrid solution for shipping


Hybrid nuclear solution for shipping.
https://www.thesun.co.uk/tech/14931325/atomik-booze-radioactive-chernobyl-apples-ukranian-spies/
This just a crazy story about atomic Vodka using apples from chernobyl.
https://www.nasa.gov/press-release/nasa-invests-105-million-in-us-small-business-technology-development
Wow investing in super heat resistant cameras.

What does uranium decay into?

The half-life of uranium-238 is 4.5 billion years. It decays into radium-226, which in turn decays into radon-222. Radon-222 becomes polonium-210, which finally decays into a stable nuclide, lead.Jul. 25, 2017

Facts About Uranium | Live Science
Decay chain and Nuclear resonance thats, Enrico Fermi

https://x-energy.com/reactors/xe-100

https://nuclearsafety.gc.ca/eng/resources/news-room/feature-articles/robotic-technologies-at-nuclear-facilities.cfm

https://nuclearsafety.gc.ca/eng/resources/learning-portal/gamma-gear-game.cfm
Play the gamma game lol.

https://nuclearsafety.gc.ca/eng/resources/health/health-studies/eldorado/index.cfm#faq
Eldorado study.

That train truck transport experiment.

https://www.mdpi.com/2076-0787/7/1/5/html mostly abandoned
alex mcpherson story
https://thestarphoenix.com/news/local-news/uranium-city-trip-highlights-our-ties-to-natural-resources

1- my assignment specific Uranium and supernova
https://world-nuclear.org/information-library/nuclear-fuel-cycle/uranium-resources/the-cosmic-origins-of-uranium.aspx
Cosmic origins of uranium.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Near-Earth_supernova
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Parsec#/media/File:M87_jet.jpg Parsec and images
1987A super nova
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/SN_1987A
Archive: Double Rings of a Supernova Explosion (NASA, Chandra, 02/22/07)
The kepler supernova
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kepler%27s_Supernova
https://www.nasa.gov/audience/forstudents/5-8/features/nasa-knows/what-is-a-supernova.html
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Neutron_star
Neutron star merger https://youtu.be/sgkDoSbHHVU
https://www.e-education.psu.edu/eme444/node/264

Depending on what happens forms a black hole or a bigger neutron star.
https://www.space.com/neutron-star-crash-made-gold-uranium.html
This amazing tokamak articificial sun https://www.scmp.com/news/china/science/article/3135332/chinese-artificial-sun-hits-new-mark-fusion-energy-mission
https://www.world-nuclear.org/information-library/current-and-future-generation/nuclear-fusion-power.aspx
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Discovery_of_nuclear_fission
https://www.britannica.com/science/atom/Discovery-of-radioactivity
https://www.radioactivity.eu.com/site/pages/Neutrons_Moderators.htm
https://www.quora.com/Why-do-slower-neutrons-in-nuclear-reactors-have-a-higher-probability-of-causing-fission-with-certain-isotopes-of-uranium-unlike-fast-neutrons
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chalk_River_Laboratories
https://www.nrc.gov/reading-rm/basic-ref/students/science-101/what-are-different-types-of-radiation.html
Chicago Pile-1
Decay chain https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Radioactive_decay_chains_diagram.svg
http://large.stanford.edu/courses/2011/ph241/olson1/
sun fusion used this person photo.

https://pixabay.com/vectors/radiation-radioactivity-nuclear-5407733/
particle penetration photo.

2- More CANDU specifics.
https://www.cns-snc.ca/media/history/ZEEP/ZEEP_CNSBulletin_Fall1995.html
…Canadian Nuclear Program.
Experiments in the NRX, NRU, and WR-1 reactors, and work in AECL’s laboratories and Canadian industry, …
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/NRX
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/National_Research_Universal_reactor
https://www.cns-snc.ca/media/history/wr-1/wr-1_1.html
https://www.cns-snc.ca/media/history/wr-1/wr-1_3.html
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/WR-1
This WR-1 research reactor used water, and “The main problem with using normal water as a moderator is that it also absorbs some of the neutrons. The neutron balance in the natural isotopic mix is so close that even a small number being absorbed in this fashion means there are too few to maintain criticality.”

ZED-2 Research Reactor


Candu 6 , Candu 9
https://energyeducation.ca/encyclopedia/CANDU_reactor
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Atomic_Energy_of_Canada_Limited
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Heavy_water
Its a water molecule but instead of Hydrogens bonded to a Oxygen. Replaces the Hydrogens with Deuteriums. https://www.sciencedirect.com/topics/earth-and-planetary-sciences/deuterium
Adding a neutron to the Hydrogen atom.
https://energyeducation.ca/encyclopedia/CANDU_reactor
http://nuclearsafety.gc.ca/eng/reactors/power-plants/nuclear-power-plant-safety-systems/index.cfm

How a Nuclear Reactor Works


https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pressurized_heavy-water_reactor
CANDU vs light water and the proliferation that did occur.
Its all about the possible upgrades, upgrades in fuel cooling, passive walk away safety.
https://canteach.candu.org/Content%20Library/19980101.pdf
Differences between the CANDU6/CANDU9, and LWR pros and cons.
https://inis.iaea.org/collection/NCLCollectionStore/_Public/30/057/30057728.pdf?r=1&r=1
Talking about SEU fuels slightly enriched Uranium.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Advanced_CANDU_reactor
Advanced CANDU, its the Gen III using more light water and more enricheed fuels
https://thetyee.ca/Analysis/2021/05/26/US-Experts-Trudeau-Your-Nuclear-Dream-May-Turn-Nightmare/
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Operation_Smiling_Buddha

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nuclear_energy_in_Argentina
https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Central_Nuclear_Atucha_I_-_II.JPG

https://www.bnamericas.com/en/news/argentina-power-watch-renewables-tender-new-energy-minister-atucha-iii
https://www.world-nuclear-news.org/NN-Atucha-3-contract-signed-0409145.html

2 billion.
http://www.nucleartourist.com/type/candu2.htm
https://www.canadiangeographic.ca/article/candu-canadian-success-story Im using ur picture (Photo: Bruce Power/Cameco Corp.)
Fuel channel
https://www.energy.gov/ne/articles/5-fast-facts-about-spent-nuclear-fuel
https://inis.iaea.org/collection/NCLCollectionStore/_Public/49/101/49101472.pdf

https://www.weforum.org/agenda/2018/11/destroying-nuclear-waste-to-create-clean-energy-it-can-be-done/
https://www.ivey.uwo.ca/energycentre/blog/2019/06/a-closer-look-at-hydro-quebecs-electricity-price-advantage-over-ontario/
Prices average kWh per Canadian household
Theres so many discrepencies for kwh per hour, the statscan says 117.7 Gigajoules which makes 32685kwh per year. https://www150.statcan.gc.ca/t1/tbl1/en/tv.action?pid=2510006001 (2015 AB)
https://www.eia.gov/tools/faqs/faq.php?id=97&t=3 USA household says low 6296 kWh Hawaii to Higher Louisiana 14787 kWh average of 10649kWh
Just a personal note was much easier finding recent data about USA than it was on the statscan page, stats can was lacking- to say the least. Found some data from 6 years ago
https://world-nuclear.org/information-library/economic-aspects/economics-of-nuclear-power.aspx

Cost of Nuclear Power in Ontario


http://www.world-nuclear.org/uploadedfiles/org/info/pdf/economicsnp.pdf
https://nuclearsafety.gc.ca/eng/reactors/power-plants/regulatory-oversight-report-npp/npp-report-2014.cfm wet storage
https://www.researchgate.net/figure/Overview-of-MACSTOR-11_fig3_323524464
MACSTOR

https://www.iaea.org/newscenter/multimedia/videos/onkalo-a-solution-for-nuclear-waste
Finland, Okanlo site.

Using nuclear tech
Crookes tuber XRAY https://openclipart.org/detail/274838/illustration-of-crookes-xray-tube
HIFU ultrasound https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Diagram_showing_liver_lesioning_using_a_HIFU_transducer_2.png

Marie Curie quote
Nothing in life is to be feared, it is only to be understood. Now is the time to understand more, so that we may fear less.
https://www.pbs.org/wgbh/nova/article/first-nuclear-chain-reaction-changed-the-world-75-years-ago-today/
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/X-ray
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fluoroscopy
https://world-nuclear.org/information-library/nuclear-fuel-cycle/conversion-enrichment-and-fabrication/uranium-enrichment.aspx
https://www.wsj.com/articles/iran-nuclear-fuel-production-drops-sharply-following-natanz-explosion-11622482066
https://www.anl.gov/education/argonne-discovery-offers-new-way-to-coat-nuclear-materials
https://www.anl.gov/article/5-ways-argonne-scientists-are-powering-ahead-on-nuclear-microreactors
https://www.nrc.gov/materials/fuel-cycle-fac/ur-enrichment.html
touching on some laser excitements.
https://www.atomicheritage.org/history/nth-country-experiment
nth country experiment, its a good one.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Crookes_tube
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cathode_ray
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/X-ray_fluorescence
ultrasound
https://www.ob-ultrasound.net/hydrophone.html
https://www.ob-ultrasound.net/history.html
https://www.ob-ultrasound.net/brown-on-ultrasound.html
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hydrophone
M Richardson, in 1912 in response to the Titanic disaster, suggested both airborn and underwater echo- ranging schemes, and, in 1914, RA Fessenden experimentally demonstrated echo-ranging underwater detection of an iceberg. The transducer that Langevin used in the earlier days was a mosaic of thin quartz crystals glued between two steel plates (the composite having a resonant frequency of about 150 KHz), mounted in a housing suitable for submersion. In the underwater community the word transducer means a device that has the capability of both transmitting and receiving sound. A projector is a device that transmits sound underwater. Projectors are used in active systems. In active systems, after the sound has been generated, the sound waves travel to a target and return as echoes to be detected. Projectors are usually used near their resonance frequencies where they provide the highest acoustic output.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Robert_William_Boyle
https://labblog.uofmhealth.org/health-tech/ultrasound-technology-developed-at-u-m-now-clinical-trials-for-liver-cancer
Thats some new histotripsy focused ultrasound.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/High-intensity_focused_ultrasound
Ct scan its xray
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/CT_scan
https://www.siemens-healthineers.com/computed-tomography
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Siemens

AI triage solution for PE and aortic dissection receives FDA clearance and CE mark


https://www.med-technews.com/news/ai-and-vr-in-healthcare/emergency-ai-triage-system-receives-fda-clearance-and-ce-mar/
https://www.ctvnews.ca/health/can-we-use-radiation-to-treat-alzheimer-s-canadian-pilot-study-finds-improved-cognition-after-ct-scans-1.5449139
MRI
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Magnetic_resonance_imaging
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nuclear_magnetic_resonance
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Stern-Gerlach_experiment
https://www.techtimes.com/articles/261017/20210603/covid-19-lung-diseases-observation-better-%E2%80%94-scientists-use-xenon.htm

Mapping How the Brain Organizes Semantic Activity


funny https://www.dailystar.co.uk/real-life/doctor-spills-beans-creepy-reason-24238789
agri
https://www.mcgill.ca/oss/article/health-you-asked/food-irradiation-dangerous
https://www.iaea.org/
https://www.iaea.org/newscenter/news/new-tsetse-sorting-technology-leads-to-more-efficient-pest-control
https://www.iaea.org/newscenter/news/argentinas-newly-recognized-fruit-fly-free-areas-expedite-fresh-fruit-exports-to-china
https://www.iaea.org/topics/food-and-agriculture
https://www.iaea.org/newscenter/news/living-in-harmony-with-mother-earth-user-friendly-instant-tool-kit-helps-indian-farmers-determine-soil-organic-carbon

industrial commercial
https://www.iaea.org/services/key-programmes/nutec-plastics
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Radiocarbon_dating
https://www.iaea.org/newscenter/news/world-water-day-2021-optimizing-water-resources-with-nuclear-and-isotopic-techniques
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Arktika_(2016_icebreaker)
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nuclear-powered_icebreaker
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Electromagnetic_radiation
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Xenon_arc_lamp
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Neutron_poison
https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:%D0%9A%D1%80%D0%B8%D0%B3%D0%BE%D0%BB%D0%B0%D0%BC_%22%D0%90%D1%80%D0%BA%D1%82%D0%B8%D0%BA%D0%B0%22.jpg
icebreaker pic
Enrichments
URENCO Centrifuges

DU munitions
https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:U-238_DU_ammunition.JPG

SLEIC 6
Siemens newer MRI
Siemines wheelie CT scan https://www.fiercebiotech.com/medtech/fda-clears-siemens-wheeled-bedside-ct-scanner
Siemens CT https://www.flickr.com/photos/thirteenofclubs/5490413146
Xenon arclamp and imax
https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Xenon_IMAX_1.jpg

the texas pic

Perspectives
Chief engineer.
https://www.cns-snc.ca/media/pdf_doc/position_papers/421_RNNR_Rpt05_GR-e.pdf
https://cns-snc.ca/media/history/pioneers/g_brooks/gbrooks.html Broken links
https://www.cns-snc.ca/cns/history/
https://canteach.candu.org/Content%20Library/19720103.pdf
http://nuceng.ca/canteachvba/nDan%20Meneley.htm
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1973_oil_crisis
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Three_Mile_Island_accident
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chernobyl_disaster
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Elephant%27s_Foot_(Chernobyl)
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chernobylite
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Trinitite
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Corium_(nuclear_reactor)
https://www.bbc.com/news/world-asia-56728068

https://www.theglobeandmail.com/politics/article-internal-audit-lays-bare-problems-at-public-health-agency-of-canada/
https://www.theglobeandmail.com/canada/article-ottawa-was-told-about-potential-problems-at-public-health-agency-top/
Scientists forced to dumb down reports
https://www.history.navy.mil/our-collections/photography/numerical-list-of-images/nhhc-series/nh-series/NH-85000/NH-85526.html
Pics of former president Jimmy Carter doiung Navy things.
economics of a reactor https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=cbeJIwF1pVY
this germany info about https://www.nber.org/papers/w26598
The social cost of this shift from nuclear to coal is approximately 12 billion dollars per year. Over 70% of this cost comes from the increased mortality risk associated with exposure to the local air pollution emitted when burning fossil fuels. 

https://www.bbc.com/future/article/20210419-the-end-of-the-worlds-capital-of-brown-coal
https://nationalpost.com/news/canada/newsalertopg-says-alert-about-pickering-nuclear-plant-was-sent-in-error
https://www.cer-rec.gc.ca/en/data-analysis/energy-markets/provincial-territorial-energy-profiles/provincial-territorial-energy-profiles-ontario.html

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Steam_reforming
.
https://thestarphoenix.com/news/local-news/northern-mine-cleanups-continue-province-feds-still-divided-on-cost
https://www.mbcradio.com/2018/11/sask-says-ottawa-not-paying-for-gunnar-mine-remediation Im using your picture

https://thestarphoenix.com/news/local-news/gunnar-mine-reclamation-forging-ahead-despite-legal-battle-over-cost
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Depleted_uranium
https://www.cbc.ca/radio/thehouse/chris-hall-there-s-no-path-to-net-zero-without-nuclear-power-says-o-regan-1.5730197
https://oilprice.com/Latest-Energy-News/World-News/Tanzania-Uganda-Finalize-Oil-Pipeline-Deal.html
Even Uganda has a pipeline.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gerald_W._Brown
RC) that the fire testing used to qualify Thermo-Lag was inadequate. By the time of the disclosure, many nuclear plants had already installed the faulty product.
https://www.nei.org/fundamentals/nuclear-fuel
one fuel pellet compared to the rest.
https://www.bbc.com/news/uk-wales-55833186
https://www.bbc.com/news/uk-wales-54158091
https://tradingeconomics.com/japan/exports-by-category
Japan 121.64 billion nuclear exports 2020.
https://www.cbc.ca/news/business/aecl-sold-for-15m-to-snc-lavalin-1.985786
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/SNC-Lavalin_affair

https://www.nrcan.gc.ca/our-natural-resources/energy-sources-distribution/nuclear-energy-uranium/canadas-small-nuclear-reactor-action-plan/21183
action plans and roadmaps.
https://thetyee.ca/Analysis/2021/05/26/US-Experts-Trudeau-Your-Nuclear-Dream-May-Turn-Nightmare/
https://biv.com/article/2021/05/canadas-nuclear-ambitions-linchpin-carbon-free-future-or-path-greenwash-oilsands
https://www.world-nuclear-news.org/Articles/SMR-160-completes-first-phase-of-Canadian-review
https://world-nuclear-news.org/Articles/Report-highlights-economic-benefits-of-Canadian-SM

https://www.forbes.com/sites/arielcohen/2020/10/29/the-future-of-small-modular-reactors-department-of-energy-awards-135-billion-to-nuscale-power-for-smr-development/

https://world-nuclear-news.org/Articles/X-energy-formally-begins-SMR-partnership-with-DOE

https://x-energy.com/reactors/xe-100
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_commercial_nuclear_reactors

Home

Home


https://usnc.com/
https://www.wsj.com/articles/escape-from-yucca-mountain-biden-administration-promises-progress-on-nuclear-waste-11620984602
https://atlantic.ctvnews.ca/n-l-premier-says-ex-pm-chretien-pitched-nuclear-waste-storage-plan-in-labrador-1.5371444

cask test
Natural reactor
https://www.forbes.com/sites/startswithabang/2018/10/04/earths-first-nuclear-reactor-is-1-7-billion-years-old-and-was-made-naturally/?sh=1814fab25d94

Space Future

https://www.space.com/nuclear-power-spacecraft-after-perseverance-rover
https://www.space.com/mars-rover-perseverance-nuclear-power-source-explained.html
https://www.nbcnews.com/mach/science/stephen-hawking-says-humans-must-leave-earth-within-600-years-ncna818926
https://www.energy.gov/articles/nuclear-heart-cassini
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Enceladus
https://www.cnbc.com/2019/07/17/why-jeff-bezos-spends-billions-on-space-technology.html
https://www.vanityfair.com/news/2019/06/jeff-bezos-wants-to-move-industry-to-space-to-save-the-earth

Cosmos
pic
https://www.pbs.org/wgbh/nova/article/Sagan-Time-Travel/
Enceladus - October 2008
Enceladus
https://www.space.com/nuclear-reactor-for-mars-outpost-2022.html
Marsbase nuclear
https://www.space.com/5850-nasa-eyes-nuclear-power-moon-base.html
moonbase nuclear

Newest Nuculars News Notes

a href=”https://www.cbc.ca/archives/entry/differing-perspectives-on-nuclear-power”>https://www.cbc.ca/archives/entry/differing-perspectives-on-nuclear-power
1977 5% to 40% mixed energy, with the public involved. Back in the day the real concerns of proliferation. Then uising those fears and disasters as a argument against the abundant energy. The first speaker talk about vigilance and completelky agree dont use the cheapest things on nuclear, and quit looking to cut corners on the process.

Gerald W Brown.

https://globalnews.ca/news/7631633/ontario-off-peak-electricity-rates-february-22-coronavirus/

https://www.cer-rec.gc.ca/en/data-analysis/energy-markets/market-snapshots/2017/market-snapshot-canadian-electricity-prices-generally-increasing-faster-than-inflation-but-trends-vary-among-provinces.html

https://nationvalleynews.com/2021/02/07/will-province-flip-switch-higher-hydro-prices-week/

https://www.reddit.com/r/ontario/comments/eaue68/whats_your_hydro_bill/

https://www.atomicheritage.org/history/nth-country-experiment
https://www.reddit.com/r/todayilearned/comments/leq2uz/til_that_in_1964_three_physicists_who_just_got/?utm_source=share&utm_medium=web2x&context=3

https://www.cnbc.com/2021/02/25/bill-gates-nuclear-power-will-absolutely-be-politically-acceptable.html

https://www.cer-rec.gc.ca/en/data-analysis/energy-markets/provincial-territorial-energy-profiles/provincial-territorial-energy-profiles-ontario.html

https://globalnews.ca/news/7427396/ontario-hydro-rate-hike-covid19-savings-end/

https://cns-snc.ca/media/history/pioneers/g_brooks/gbrooks.html

https://www.newswire.ca/news-releases/joint-statement-by-canada-s-minister-of-natural-resources-and-the-saskatchewan-minister-of-energy-and-resources-following-the-energy-and-mines-ministers-conference-873210379.html

___
Im pissy but im on the case.
Fuckin politicians destroy everything thats good followed by general scumbags.
Take something thats amazing, and use fears to make it work for another purpose.
Cut every corner, syphon every last penny and resource.
Imagine a science world where lowest bidder wasnt a thing.
guess it partially worked for space tech. Gus Grissom, Challenger.
All the nuclear disasters are concerning learning from em, holding governments accountable.
I cant believe some of the things that have transpired on this planet regarding nuclear.
Yet despite all that I believe in a future with nuclear tech benefiting humankind.
Already looks corrupt as fuck with SNC and the libs. Do you really want these people fiddling with nuclear safety protocols.
Or, would you rather it out of their hands.
Look at Ontario, and the Chief engineer, they did them wrong.
now the future I see SMRs as being beneficial to some remote areas here in Canada.
Space. Make it deliverable on a truck, have a fleet of trucks.
That could be usefull for military operations.
___

https://nationalpost.com/news/email-destruction-case-highlights-ontario-liberal-moves-that-have-added-billions-to-electricity-costs
In 2015, a year after the new premier won her first election, auditor general Bonnie Lysyk issued a scathing report that suggested Ontarians had paid $37 billion more for power than they should have between 2006 and 2014, partly because the province had allowed exorbitant prices for wind, solar and other alternative energy sources.
Vic Fedeli, the Tories’ finance critic, alleged that many of the current government’s policies have benefited donors to the Liberal party.

“This government has been using Hydro One as their play thing to raise money for the Liberal party,” he said Wednesday. “This has been a cash machine for the Liberals for far too long.”

lol 37 billion more for power.

Thats almost like the coal, and elk river destruction.
https://thenarwhal.ca/for-decades-b-c-failed-to-address-selenium-pollution-in-the-elk-valley-now-no-one-knows-how-to-stop-it/
Teck Resources, which posted profits of $6.1 billion in 2017, was the single largest donor to the BC Liberal party. The practice of corporate political donations has since been phased out in B.C.

What fraudsters.
under the guise of students and the environment.
___
https://nuclearsafety.gc.ca/eng/resources/news-room/feature-articles/nuclear-regulation-by-the-decade-1956-1965.cfm
Just some 50s research. Chalk river zeep.

This headline,
https://www.hilltimes.com/2020/12/03/canada-re-enters-nuclear-weapons-business-with-small-modular-reactors/274591

https://www.forbes.com/sites/jamesconca/2020/09/22/aneel-a-game-changing-nuclear-fuel/?sh=28c8e3c814ea
Thorium headlines stories similar to a candu bundle.

1940
https://www.thecanadianencyclopedia.ca/en/article/history-of-the-armed-forces-in-canada
National resources mobilization act. 61 years ago, conscripted. About 2500. Theres some crazy war cartoons.

Ok 1957
200 MW NRU,.

1960s SLOWPOKES, and the China commercial slowpokemodel of their own.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nuclear_industry_in_Canada

More 50’s 1951 first cobalt 60 treatment Ontario.
Uranium Boom in the 50s.

https://torontopubliclibrary.typepad.com/local-history-genealogy/2019/08/going-nuclear-in-ontario-historic-photos-of-chalk-river.html
Photos, and archive of chalk river.

https://inis.iaea.org/collection/NCLCollectionStore/_Public/13/697/13697006.pdf?r=1&r=1
Speech coal, CNA director from 40 years ago. Nice defict and coal still. Led astray by all talk no action wasting government.

https://cna.ca/
Lol the one job available where you need 5 years experience lobbying parliamentarians.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Atomic_Age
I love this; energy would be to cheap to meter..

https://www.world-nuclear.org/information-library/non-power-nuclear-applications/overview/the-many-uses-of-nuclear-technology.aspx

Since Im reasearching 50s theres a duck and cover movie sure I can find on youtube.
Has a jingle.

Atomic parties drink till dawn watch the nuclear blast. Take a quick shower, duck, and cover.

Some Kodak discoveries, interesting. Wine forgeries. Paint. carbon dating. Fogging of photographic papers Webb JH.
___
Seeking more 60s but learning more about Marie Curie
https://www.britannica.com/biography/Marie-Curie
Marie, and Pierre Curie discovered polonium, and radium 1898

The gram of radium
https://artsandculture.google.com/exhibit/the-leaden-box-and-the-gram-of-radium/vAJyom1aXb5nJw

Or the box atleast, the gram of radium costs 100000 $ at the time.
Its at the currie museum France, they have a road named after them.

Ok the museum is cool, and all im back focused on the 60s.
Specifically canada and nuclear tech in the 60s.

https://nuclearsafety.gc.ca/eng/resources/news-room/feature-articles/nuclear-regulation-by-the-decade-1966-1975.cfm

This one talking about power demonstration NPD. Accident at Chalk river ’52. Shows a cool pic of the rector in 1966

https://www.cns-snc.ca/media/history/canadian_nuclear_history.html
Nov Federal Food and Drug Directorate approved irradiation of potatoes for human consumption. {I&I}
Kariachi Kanuup plant. Pakistan.
Theres mega time line on this link.

https://www.theglobeandmail.com/opinion/editorials/canada-and-india-the-nuclear-genie-40-years-on/article23978162/
Its a story about india and uranium
Ok here 1956 ottawa and india agree to the , 1974 bomb. Cameco corp uranium, restarted in april 2015.

https://www.ourcommons.ca/DocumentViewer/en/42-1/RNNR/report-5/page-39 china expected to build 150 reactors of the the next 20 years and here theyre suggesting SNC try to get a piece of 50 reactors. What the hell have they been doing since 2017. Talking about investements and reactorws we could had, cause now, mega debt, no reactor.
‘Continuing to invest.’ Continuing to train wreck more like. Im not seeing any recommendations being followed. Long term investments. We are at a government crossroads more like in 2021. With proroghing during parliament this gov doesnt care about nuclear. More like the bare minimum with a story oh we looked at some papers once this month, and delay for another 2. “improve candian expertise after ignoring it since the 70’s 80s I read the chief engineer paper. Why am I not seeing that ? Lawrence Mcauley been in government since 1986.

slowpokes,
https://www.rmc-cmr.ca/en/chemistry-and-chemical-engineering/slowpoke-nuclear-reactors-canada
ok cool, boring..

https://atlantic.ctvnews.ca/atlantic-canada-trade-mission-hopes-to-bolster-region-s-trade-links-to-china-1.4164023?cache=yes
lol thias didnt age well build on the trust and relationships that have been established in Chinese market. Shoulda been focused on Canada. I just searched if hed have anything to do with nuclear no. Minister of VAC priorities lol. Its almost as if the chief engineer report thrown in the trash and politicians instead followed their own ambitions.
They didnt design and build the reactor so could cut every corner and rip off the tax payer. Its liek with the money involved should pay for itself, clean up wastes, wages, maintenance, unforeseen circumstances funds. CEO bonuses. Thats my opinion power generation should be a business within itself for the people not for profit. We coulda had jobs and energy, instead getting faty bureaucracy and giving CEOs massive paychecks, and cuttings all the safety and upgrades. Greed. And then these people turns around and say other countries cant have free nuclear. Man if the government was smart with that R&D would be boundless wealth.
It appears in no simple way Ontario overspent on green investments causing the cheap power to be the most overpriced. So why not invest other different money into the green energy. then its the taxpayers paying for bureaucratic errors.

Anyways more on the 60’s
___
More 60s tech.

https://www.newswire.ca/news-releases/canadian-and-uk-nuclear-industries-to-collaborate-on-advancing-nuclear-technology-for-clean-energy-825251219.html

NIA and CNA friends since the 60s.

https://www.niauk.org/event-listing/dit-civil-nuclear-showcase-2020/

https://ir.lib.uwo.ca/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1028&context=politicalsciencepub
Here I am reading about Diefenbaker, criminal defence. Stance on apartheid.
Diefenbaker interesting about the nuclear weapons and a nation we coulda had em, I think in retrospect quickly people are proud of non nuclear weapons choice. Atleast that debate. Nevertheless Bormac misssiles entered Canada 63 phased out 72
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/John_Diefenbaker

69 trudeau signs non proliferation 1970
https://www.thecanadianencyclopedia.ca/en/article/bomarc-missile-crisis

also declared non viable system. Its air defence capable of delivering missile warhead. How effective really. Funny to read these HOC statements and debate, but the rteal threat was the growing stockpile, Canada acting as middle pawm for allies. The author writes about tension, its like Kruchev and the missiles in Cuba, and pressures from allies to act in a certain way.

https://www.history.com/topics/cold-war/cuban-missile-crisis
some 62, political.

https://www.atomicarchive.com/resources/timeline/timeline1960.html
heres more timeline

Rolphton 62 Firts energy to the grid.
https://www.thecanadianencyclopedia.ca/en/article/electric-power
Here talking about some numbers of the generation between 60s if anyone cares, then some growth between 1960 – 1974 low growth 75-94.
oil crisis 73-74

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_artificial_radiation_belts

https://www.thecanadianencyclopedia.ca/en/article/technology
Aloueettee satellite and surving unexpected artificial radiation belt.

Chalk River Laboratories, the latter of which produces a large share of the world’s medical radioisotopes. Other examples of Canadian technology-based science include the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory and the Canadian Light Source in Saskatoon.

https://www.atomicarchive.com/resources/timeline/timeline1960.html
60s timeline of some other events.

Outer space treaty. 67

Start some 70s
___
Re coal and energy from the 70s
This is from a qualified reactor guy.
This author talks about funding taken from nuclear for solar.
Like i see some benefit to solar, especially that nasa solar.
https://www.ans.org/news/article-1561/return-to-the-1970s/

Note that in the 1970s, we were taught in grade school that there would be another (pollution-induced) Ice Age**** and we were told the science was settled then too-but what was the result? A policy that focused at least initially on coal power generation. The inherent contradiction is now plain today; will we see a similar process take place again? Will we face the best predictions for climate available from science-with a push to do exactly what it is we know intuitively will hurt the worst?

Anyways I get it, less corporation. It talks about conservationism, Its odd to me cause cause coal an issue here.

https://www.world-nuclear.org/information-library/current-and-future-generation/outline-history-of-nuclear-energy.aspx
Obninsk upgrade 1973, does isotopes studies decay not super important re 70s.

The first large RBMK (1,000 MW – high-power channel reactor) started up at Sosnovy Bor near Leningrad in 1973, and in the Arctic northwest a VVER with a rated capacity of 440 MW began operating. This was superseded by a 1000 MWe version which became a standard design.In Kazakhstan the world’s first commercial prototype fast neutron reactor (the BN-350) started up in 1972 with a design capacity of 135 MWe (net), producing electricity and heat to desalinate Caspian seawater. In the USA, UK France and Russia a number of experimental fast neutron reactors produced electricity from 1959, the last of these closing in 2009

Many reactor orders from the 1970s were cancelled. The uranium price dropped accordingly.

https://www.energy.gov/sites/prod/files/The%20History%20of%20Nuclear%20Energy_0.pdf
1970s and 1980s, however, growth slowed.
Demand for electricity decreased and concern
grew over nuclear issues, such as reactor
safety, waste disposal, and other environmental considerations.

1974 The first 1,000-megawatt-electric nuclear
powerplant goes into service – Commonwealth
Edison’s Zion 1 Plant.

1979 March 28. The worst accident in U.S.
commercial reactor history occurs at the
Three Mile Island nuclear power station near
Harrisburg, Pennsylvania. The accident is
caused by a loss of coolant from the reactor
core due to a combination of mechanical
malfunction and human error

https://www.eia.gov/todayinenergy/detail.php?id=30972
Some stats on the 20 yr construction time period, starting in the 70s coming online in the 90’s

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nuclear_power
Some stats on safe than coal and fossil fuels

The French La Hague reprocessing facility has operated commercially since 1976 and is responsible for half the world’s reprocessing as of 2010

A fire caused 5–10 million dollars worth of damage to New York’s Indian Point Energy Center in 1971.[312] The arsonist turned out to be a plant maintenance worker.

82 protesty at swiss reactor, theres a split between Alvin Weinburg,
Hans Bethe
Anyways bascially at this point also going with the RMK

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Atomic_Age
prior predictions were gonna have some reactors for business and home communities.

More protests in the 70’s
A large anti-nuclear demonstration was held on May 6, 1979, in Washington D.C., when 125,000 people[38] including the Governor of California, attended a march and rally against nuclear power.[39] In New York City on September 23, 1979, almost 200,000 people attended a protest against nuclear power

Ralph nader interview
https://www.pbs.org/wgbh/pages/frontline/shows/reaction/interviews/nader.html

In 1952, President Truman set up a Materials Policy Commission, which reported, made up of business, labor, and other blue ribbon people. And it recommended that the country go solar, and that by 1975 three-quarters of all homes would be solarized.

The politics of waste and disposal and evacuation plans, that government couldnt answer.
California Energy Commission announced not to approve nuclear plants further unless the utilities could specify fuel and waste disposal costs and by late 1970s, over thirty states had passed regulation legislation dealing with nuclear waste.
3 mile gave creedance to the claims.

https://www.atomicarchive.com/resources/timeline/timeline1970.html

Nice 70s link.
1971
March 30 – The first Poseidon submarine-launched ballistic missiles are introduced by the U.S.
1974
May 18 – India sets off a low-yield device (8 kilotons) under Rajasthan desert.
https://www.cbc.ca/archives/entry/1974-canada-blamed-for-indias-peaceful-bomb

South africa testing some quiet tests too.
___
70’s nuclear tech still.
https://www.atomicheritage.org/history/timeline
This one goes, 70s;
1970 nuclear non proliferation treaty signed can now share atomic tech
74 bomb
83 bomb

http://nuclearconnect.org/in-the-classroom/for-students/know-nukes
Scientists and timelines.

Some personal computers be coming out in 1975.

https://www.pbs.org/wgbh/aso/databank/entries/dh72ct.html
Some stats on CT and MRI difference between Xray,

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/X-ray
1900s xray and cathode tube experiments. 1895 Wilhelm Roentgen

Illinois energy prof. Chernobyl video https://youtu.be/bCbms6umE_o
Containment building on the ‘western reactors’ Candu Deuterium.
Sarcophagus Chernobyl.
The cost of that building/ containment.
Wow super informative.
Chance of Fission over speed of the neutron.
The moderator used to slow the neutron thats the HW
Ok so i know nothing of fission, as the prof says I know everything lol.
Hydrogen same size, cant put gas in it. It he means the 1 proton 1 electron so the neurons bump into it, and slow down.
Best moderator is the size of a neutron.
H2O good
Carbon graphite not quite as good as water.
Purpose boil water steam electricity.
I see so the fission is the chain reaction. Chance of that event drops like a log graph when the moderator is removed.

Ok next the RBMK reactor, Its rods in carbon pillar, reaction controlled by the rods placement.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/RBMK
ANyways I understand they dip the fuel rods in, they space it out and thats operating a water electricity system too.
Quite interesting actually.
Ok Chernobyl scheduled shutdown coming up for the refueling activities.
Wow this guy wanted to test out a safety system. Thats ironically bad. But basicallly when you remove thee Fuel the RBMK reactions continues is kinda what im picking up.
Fukushima, they had diesel and battery backups.
Chernobyl it was a test to see how much steam they could geenerate after turning off the reactor and see if it could still run the safety systems. Jjst in case the diese gens didnt kick in etc.
Shut down middle of the night.
Instead of going to about halfway like they wanted to it went really below that.
Talking about xenon poisoning afetr the power shiuts down its hard to get it going till those isotopes dissipate, cant turn it back on for three days.
Dampening field on the reaction, and they kept trying to get it going. Becomes uncontrolled chain reaction. Mega heat. The heat destroyed the carbon and water, Huge chemical explosion blew the roof off. And all those fission products went into country side. Human error with a wrong button on a early RBMK reactor doing experiments probably not the greatest experiments.
Scientists saw this isnt no slight detectable fallout from a nuclear blast years ago, this contents of an entire reactor. That must have been shocking to see. Wow safety systems for other reactors going off from outside substance. Firefighters fatalities. Not a nuclear exlosion, it was a chemical explosion.
Aftermath dumping sand and lead. The volunteers for sarcophaghus under reactor. Thats some heroics, get ur dose of radiation, and onto the next guy. Built the building first.
Cant happen in the world again. No one uses the graphite, now theres containment buildings.
The profs argument use the physics not humans to keep us safe. The tamper proof failsafes in essence. Worst accident ever.

Corium is substance only found during meltdown.
86 sarcophagus.

This time its the Fukushima.

MArch 11 2011
Comiung up on anniversary. (10 yrs)
Huge amount of casualties.
Massive earthquake off shore, tidal wave 40 meters high.
4 reactors at Fukushima. Prof talks about the containment building.
They take the top off the reactor vessel, bring the crane lift the fuel out, drop the spent fuel in pool, outside the containment building..
Ok surrounded by blast panels, in case of event in spent fuel pool hydrogen builds up boom the panel drop away, no damage to reactor.
Its dividing still. What is the neutrons ?
Hmm ok safety control rods, opposite of a fuel rod.
Ok the reactor shuts down; the radioactive substances still dividing there.
Gives off heat, heat not at 100%.
Spent fuel, starts draining pumps activate diesel gets washed away from tidal wave.
Water on the spent fuel and core becomes concern. Media says blow up, but the structures in a way doing what theyre supposed to with the evolving hydrogen. The Fukushima doses are clearly lower than Chernobyl.

___
Its march 11, 2021.
10 year anniversary of fukushima.
https://thebulletin.org/2021/03/fukushima-today-im-glad-that-i-realized-my-mistake-before-i-died/ Im not commenting out of respect for the persished, seems like the next article saying it was preventable. Yea clearly different than Chernobyl

I guess why is one disaster in a completely different system linked together. Three mile, chernobyl, fukushima.
Im learning more about the older one. Three mile island. Great power you gotta respect that reactor. Im hearing about how the management decline the extra reccomended wall height
https://carnegieendowment.org/2012/03/06/why-fukushima-was-preventable-pub-47361

Ok Im watching movies.
1: illinois energy prof on TMI started
https://youtu.be/kb75NS3vBB0
2: how TMI ended
https://youtu.be/AALvz5RBEZM
3: learning about Radiation dosages.
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=niFizj29h5c

4: gonna watcha 45 min doc on TMI.
Its just called the Three mile Island Documentary.
March 28 1979 middle of night.
Pensylvania Harrisburgh.
Middletown.
Electricity.
3 people in charge of unit 2.
Trying to unclog a filter.
Sci fi reference, Ray Bradbury https://www.goodreads.com/quotes/739269-oh-god-midnight-s-not-bad-you-wake-and-go-back
Often the time accident happens.
some water gets in the pipe.
The alarms start going off, the operators dont know whats happening. The reactor comp sense water, thats bad for the pressures in a complex system auto shuts, off. But thats the system thats also cooling the reactor shut down. (not a good thing). So a clog with a air filter, and trying to blow it out with compressed air hose. Caused this. Ok meanwhile the pressure building up inside reactor, drops the control rods to end reaction. Wow ok the pressure release valve safety system, opens as intended, then doesnt close properly. However the light blinks off letting the operator know its closed (error ligth) Still open. so the light says signal got send not obeyed. Compounding human errors, oh the physics will work all the time. Dont trust the humans, that how to play nuclear safely. Oh no, so the coolat supposed to stay (interior) gushing out everywhere without anyones knowledge. the perfect energy source, built 20 years prior. Back to the too cheap to meter electricity cough Ontario scam. Talk about more excitement regarding Nuclear after world events in 1973. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1973_oil_crisis
The 1973 oil crisis began in October 1973 when the members of the Organization of Arab Petroleum Exporting Countries proclaimed an oil embargo. The embargo was targeted at nations perceived as supporting Israel during the Yom Kippur War.[1] The initial nations targeted were Canada, Japan, the Netherlands, the United Kingdom and the United States with the embargo also later extended to Portugal, Rhodesia and South Africa. By the end of the embargo in March 1974,[2] the price of oil had risen nearly 300%, from US$3 per barrel to nearly $12 globally; US prices were significantly higher. The embargo caused an oil crisis, or “shock”, with many short- and long-term effects on global politics and the global economy.[3] It was later called the “first oil shock”, followed by the 1979 oil crisis, termed the “second oil shock”.

This how the Embargoes goes. Figthing a war, friend of your enemy cant have gas or toilet paper in Cubas case. Pawns getting punished in chess. Now evben pawns are combatants. In a word its attrition. So I can see the point of the USA wanting to be independent of that. Cut back on sales. Now its EV cars. Nuclear revolution. * 1974 43 total plants in USA, 104 on the way. Metropolitan edison company, were the managers. Founded 1917 still exists. Im sorry after meltdown failure, should probably be bankrupt. Consequences to nuclear market. Company went through great lengths to tell nearby residents the tech was safe. As a viewer just interesting to see these sights before I was born. There will never be an accident. because backups and backups.
Accidently still happening. None of instruments, measured the coolant in reactor. Going solid with water filling he reactor, no where to go. Lots of false indication .
5 am day one. Control room filling with workers now. After a while the workers start doubting the readings theyre getting on the panels. Ok another critical error, the turn off the reactor pumps to prevent it from going solid. It was a mistake but they were fooled by the readings and doing theyre best. Ok the reactor melting creating that corium nuclear metal lava burning through containments and earth. Just learning about what type of containment can hold corium.
https://www.osti.gov/biblio/1573134-new-method-contain-molten-corium-catastrophic-nuclear-reactor-accidents
China sydrome where the nuclear waste all the way to china cant stop it.
As operator not knowing whats happening.
Valve open 2 hours, quarte or a million pounds of coolant escaped and evaporated. No one before had ever been in situation before. New alarm radiation in contgrol room. That aint good. General emergency. Everything is under control lol. Doesnt sound like it.
10:17 am.
Press and genie outta the bottle radiation.
Met ed deceptive. –
I cant believe these fuckers, theyre liek we dont have to tell you everything were doing as the reporters taking in radiation.
15 hours later restart pumps.
Ok finally they say get water in those pumps, cool that reactor. Mega consequences with mistakes in the machine era.

March 28th 28 hrs later.
Some one has to go get a sample to measure the radioactivity in the water. No one wants to, Itds important so they can see if the chain reaction will start again. Because of some leaking by the rods area, now there radioactivity in the water. The chain reaction issue. Foreman Ed Howser.
https://www.nytimes.com/1979/04/04/archives/radiation-overdose-all-in-a-days-work-feels-a-little-tired.html

No Body Contamination

Mr. Houser said that he had been assured by various metering systems that there was no contamination of his body. He wonders what the effect of his exposure to radiation might be in 20 or 30 years, but he insists that he is “not really concerned.”

Since the accident, he has given a lot of thought to the nuclear power pro. gram and has lost no faith. “I believe in nuclear power 100 percent,” he said. He has faith in the Metropolitan Edison Company, in the Nuclear Regulatory Commission, in the people who work with him, in the regulations that say four rem is a dose of radiation he can live with.

His only concern at the moment, he said, is that the names of his two children should appear in print. His Baughter, Renee, is 4 years old. His son, Steve, turned 10 this last Saturday, celebrating his birthday on the last day of the first quarter of the calendar year.

wow.
Damn, so this guys sees the rems bouncing off the dosimeter, checking the coolant supposed to be clear instead the beaker is yellow fizzing and vibrating in his hands. They reeally knew they had issues.
Civilians get no messages. Haunting.
Vent gas into atmosphere.
Atomic commission in washington, theyre like we feel like 2 blind men making decsions in the dark, the truth of the reactor was still in a dangerous positions and still very much a threat. Its like people making critical decisions based on lack of info, misleading info, no info. Thats scary.
Evacuate or not.
March 30. Day 3.
NRC.
Leave 5 mile radius.
Well I found some cheap houses. Rigth next to reactor. Seems like you can get some Ok value for your dollar. In Ontario, next to our reactor, prices are astronomical.
Wow just hearing this guy talk about the panic in town and going to the school to pick up your kid. Is pretty scary. All the price of energy. Goldsboro abandoned. One house TV was still one, just up and left. The origional Black friday.

Fades into the public trust of TMI, lost very quickly. The radiation spiolling into the Teenage mutant ninja turtles, a childhood fave.
Day 4.
The press asking querstions about their own safety and whether they should report or run. No authority they could trust sense. Flying blind. Damn. the president is concerned hes a trained engineer. Ex president Jimmy Carter, whoa hes a Navy veteran nuclear submarine program. Thats amazing. He takes contreol of the situation and has a person on the ground reporting directly to him. Harold Denton, and Jimmy carter. The mood starts to change. NRC.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Harold_Denton
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jimmy_Carter
Harry Denton, resaasuring public figure with the accurate info.
The hydrogen pressure might burst the top.
The president on his way.
Wasnt safe for the president but he went anyways. The president a nuclear engineer im sorry thats freakin amazing!
April 1
Day 5 president landing in. They get to work right away on the Hydrogen dispute. The presidential car litterally driving across the tracks towards the reactor. Tours the plant.
Restore public confidence. So he and his wife are seen in the control room.
Meanwhile another very important meeting happening with some chemical calculations. In office trailer. They calculate find the error. They do have days to hours,days maybe weeks before the hydrogen bubble would burst.
The plan; the hydrogen can be released gradually, the reactor can be slowly shut down.
No one died.
Talking about machines changes of state, (the most likely time for accident)
OK moves to talking about Chernobyl.
This one the top blows.. Not gonna comment on it. thee test experiment, and the xenon poisonings.
The narator talking about blowing the lid off the containment building I dont think Chernobyl had the conatinment hence the sarcophagus afterwards.And thewe corium photo that cost that guy his life. If your a reactor operator you might be called for a heroic one time task. Some heroics from those people. RIP. Another ghost town. Never farm again. coulda happened at TMI.
Some scary statistics.
The buildings still there. The aftermath. Most radiation contained only partial meltdown. Changes in the NRC. tour of the new site and changes they made since TMI.
Wow and the cooling towers remain like a battlefield monument. I would visit that site, and especially if you are to study nuclear power. and wisdom and knowledge are diffferent.
Unit 1 still generating power. Lots of people moved away.

Wow that was amazing video.
Now
___
watching ‘the prof’ Illinois energy prof best youtube channel. https://youtu.be/kb75NS3vBB0
Its a geographic advantages place for a plant.
Importance of the turning point for nuclear power usa.
The plant itself, almost new, started 20 years prior no. Anything 20 years old fairly new no. Id say.
Commercial failure too. thats important. cost 4 bil to make.
My opinion again its like the finance world is broken with nuclear. I cant predict the next nuclear catastrophe. 2 extremes, “even good shit fails sometimes” plane crashes. The right to repair type shit, as in sometimes your cellphone laptops fail. Then its like household kitchen things quality diminishing compared to the 50’s like garlic cheese grater things. Also tech evolves. Nasa on the moon with nuclear things before this. So the engineering improves, im actually pretty pleased the amount of cool things learning second time through. Its liek any number of things between the engineer specs to the operation could cause catastrophic problems.
The prof; yes its a economic failure that one, so 4bn not paid yet to build, asset to -1 billion.
Talking about thte building and containment.
Defense in depth. Its like a engineering work of art masterpiece, especially if it works then. The rods melting, the vessel melting, hence meltdown. TMI is gen 2. some water over the reactor even when off.
How ?
Signing off on 1.routine maintenance. Its like yea looks good. Why bother oiling thing etc its brand new lol.
Watergun pump hammer demo; the pump breaks, thats awesome.
2. Back up pumps. TMI the valves were shut on the backup pumps, “someone” thats unfortunate.
TMI no water in reactor. Pressure ^
Pressure too high 3.relief valve. Auto shut off.
4. SCRAM acronym Safety control Rod Ax Man “Activation Mechanism”
Referring the Chicago stadium Fermi and the chain reaction. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Enrico_Fermi
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chicago_Pile-1 There you have it the ax man, to cut a manilla rope into the reaction to stop it.
Cadmium nitrate (concentrate) to pour over incase of emergency 49 Scientists present.
The Chianti fiasco all signed by the participants. Could you imagine wine at school. After some nuclear testing lol.
Norman Hillberry the original Ax man. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Norman_Hilberry
And another name coming up its Arthur Compton. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Arthur_Compton
Could do an entire Chicago Tour of these places.
.After the war, Compton became Chancellor of Washington University in St. Louis. During his tenure, the university formally desegregated its undergraduate divisions, named its first female full professor, and enrolled a record number of students after wartime veterans returned to the United States.

Some fascinating people.
Compton told Conant. (James B Conant.) https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/James_B._Conant Acid base chemistry guy. Scientific method and just some of the nuclear world legends, and most qualified people.
Gen 3 all good convection.
Gen II no. Reactor scram, going from 3000MW to 60MW again with the stuck relief valve sending wrong signal.
5.ECCS
Emergency core coolant system
2 min into accident. Water to reactor. They turn off the ECCS, indication that relief valve is closed. Why pump water in
8 mins open back up pump. tHink theyre in good shape.
They didnt know relief valve was stuck open. Cue coffee scene.
1hr 40 min later. Water running out, heat and hydrogen gas type explosions could occur. because the water running out, its gonna get dry hot melt.

___
Next video these are mega informative, and a little self research.
Im gonna watch a few more about specific things. This ends up being a .doc I could use several times.
Nuclear for tyros; which is alot less crazy than it sounds. Kinda funny.
More TMI end. https://youtu.be/AALvz5RBEZM
So yes I know a bit of what happened near the end already from the history doc but I wanna hear the Profs synopsis.
Its the tank that they thought was closed was actually still open, now overflowing.
The cold water they turn back on cracks the fuel rods.

#6. Rod crack containment.
And the fraction of gas released dillution was no major disaster.

Next vid, Radiation doses https://youtu.be/niFizj29h5c
Neat size charts comparing the actual dose its helpful to get an idea of the known guidelines. LD 50-30 50% of population die within 30 days. at the bottom of the chart
Data supports the threshold dosage.
Story about radium girls and xray skin decay from the 1920s , background radiation.
___
Gotta queue up the what we learned, https://youtu.be/d0SCf0rxX4E
____
MArch 12 2021
Its been 10 years plus a day sine Fukushima.
I have sweet thesis I got. Its about the psychohistory , and nucleics. since Psychohistory is sci-fi, but the problems to nuclear are human made, trust physics not humans.
Just gotta put that one together better. In a way that suits the content.

Ok back to the video.
Engineer on site all the time.
Simulators.
Proof positive diagnostic.
Simplification.
They did it to the air industry.

Gen 3, passive safety.
Convection of air.
Dont need the constant water.
Even without electricity can cool reactor.
___
Types of reactor and the gen IV
More after math
Ah yes had queue, so figure do as much nuclear now, next time got to revisit ill have something.

Ok learning about energy the process of re arranging bonds into a more stable state. https://youtu.be/Imy9hB36wLI
1- H2+O2->H2O
1.1 need to balance; 2H2+O2–> 2H2O
2. H-H H-H , O=O
2.1 after spark.
2.2 H2O H2O

another ex.
CH4+2O2 –> CO2 + 2H2O

Nuclear bonds,
Hydrogen, 1 proton 1 electron,
heavy water, deuterium, 1 proton 1 neutron, still heavier. isotopes/
Tritium 1 proton, 2 neutrons
wow combining D + T with alot of energy would make Helium isotope: He^4 + an extra neutron.
Makes the helium, 2 proton 2 neutron and one extra neutron bouncing off
rearrange the bonds, the helium tremendously more stable then the D or T
Sun; making helium of hydrogen. rearrangements.
Sun is a nuclear furnace. Heat is a result, also that magnetic force.

Nellis solar power plant generaters 25% power to base from wiki
Cresent dunes different tech. “solar thermal” like a 5 year failure that one still interesting.

Sun -> food lol.
photosynthis, to other things, using energy from sun. biomass

sun drive winds.

Hydro power, rain from sun. https://youtu.be/ZN5co3CrJao
___
More basics, I enjoy these videos. Bay of Fundy and some tidal forces.
Neat, this place in France that generates electricity with tide its called.
https://www.edf.fr/en/the-edf-group/industrial-provider/renewable-energies/marine-energy/tidal-power
Thats amazing, and clever. Its called Rance tidal power

Cool the binding chart, most stable is Iron and nickel fusion goes up
fission goes left.
how to get lighter elements big bang.
elements spin out, you get a solar system. Progression to the most stable elements
geothermal, Old faithfull.

_Energy from chemistry https://youtu.be/yFMEtL6qLVk
Alcohol burns to make new substances.
Then, 1 calorie brings 1 gram of water up 1 degree.
Big mac 650 cals. different kind. Kcal. 1000 chem calories = 1 food calorie.
1 cal 4.1868 J

balancing the methanol.
chart with numbers, Enthalpies
He added a + 1/2 O2 when balancing lol.
Solving it for the amount of energy used in reaction. 161.6kcal = q

_Fireworks
exploding bamboo in fires leads to fireworks
guano
with color metals

_ Nuclear fission https://youtu.be/CxCT9z5jkzA
Taking uranium and making it to more stable to Iron. releasing energy.

Thats the D+T makes helium + free neutron. , thats fusion
The well technique. Use the nucleus binding energy per nucleon.
differences between nuclear, and chemical energy. different units.
factor labor.
Theres a calc to compare em.
2 million x more powerfull
___

OK cool new day.
Just some of that quick review that table.
Average binding energy per nucleon.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nuclear_binding_energy
The table midway down there.
Fusion goes up, fission goes back.
Learning about some reaction chemical vs nuclear in Kilocalories.
_
The amount you can learn from nuclear bonds.
Moving along This be some learning slash entertainment.
Learning about sound bells especially. Bells on campus thats interesting. Bell making jobs lol. The bell song player thats cool.

_ Measure up
BTU, British Thermal Unit. 1 pound of water up 1 degree F. Then Calorie, 1 gram of water up 1 degree Celsius, food cals are Kcals.
Joule. standard 1 cal = 4.1868 Joules.
‘1 quad’ is 10^15 BTU
Electron volt. 1.6x 10^-19 Joules = 1 eV
Get ur numbers from the Enthalpies of formation at 25C . Put a number on the ‘stability’ https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Standard_enthalpy_of_formation
Is basically what Im seeing. THe well technique You got a well and the amount of energy its gonna take to get the men (*electrons) out of the well. Methanol burning.
Then the 100 proof was a nice touch.

_How is it used
Buildings, industry , transport
Thats a punchline, you heat things up or you spin it in a circle.
variable sped drive Usefull invention back in the day. I wanna learn quick about that.
Just finding ways to save energy.
Coal gas Nuclear hydro(6.5) wind 4.2 solar a couple tenths of percent.
30s great depression 70’s quadrupule oil prices, oil becoming more valuable political instability. That was in the Three mile doc.
China energy use going up in the 2000s.
_
E=MC^2 description change in mass. talking about the mass difference from beginning to end with deuterium and tritium , very small mass difference. final results you get in Electron volts thats the energy you get using E=MC^2 “disappearing mass”

_
Energy around the world

Power = Energy/time Horsepower man power. Firecracker more power.
match vs firecracker about the same energy
Joule is more common.
quad quadrillion BTU billion million.
//
dont confuse energy with power,
dynamite vs piece of wood vs loaf of bread.
Dynamitee is more power but bread or wood has twice the energy.
BTU usage.
Usa been using about same energy all the time suggesting more efficient use vs world increase, alot more energy for that standard of living. Slope increase Increased standard of living in China with that increased energy is good.
Energy use per person is maybe misleading says the prof. Its Canada with the most energy usage cold. GDP per energy use. Efficiency. Europe more efficient growing less. its a 2012 world consumption use graph im looking at.

_ where does it come from
Its all about being efficient, and improving that as a science.
Brazil Canada Germany all similar energy use.
Nuclear brings more than solar, and wind.
That solar base migth be most efficient solar thing unless its some nasa on mars panels.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Geysers
They Geysers thats pretty cool.
Whoa, so shooting water in the crevices’ was known to cause some seismic activity.
oil, Nat gas, coal, nuclear

_voice change sound proofing
Higher density of the air, is sound.
Math on music notes. octaves. can divide em out
_2 sound proofing
sounds just like a airgun.
sound barrier, oh yea the compressional waves.
Decibels calculations, logs.
A sound with 160 dB vs 150 dB 10x less power.
130dB about 1000x less power
Dazn boxing happening now I been watchin been aight.. Kyoguchi Aragon, Juan Francisco after.
Sound proofing. Sand walls in this building im seeing.
Recording room to control the outside noise.
Earth quietest place. interesting link for another day https://www.uwo.ca/nca/research/facilities/index.html
Anyways its all in R&d the material and the angle.

_what goes up.
helium goes mega fast during reaction thats where that energy goes.
Kinetic energy calc (1/2)mv^2
potential energy
pendulum
rube goldberg device machine kinetic energy

_ whats temp
Motion of molecules on average is temperature.
on average
absolute zero; no motion.
speed of molecules moving in a room calculation v = 510 m/s
lol, this isnt the speed of ‘wind’ its the molecules, a 510 meters per second wind would destroy everything. For whatever reason I find that super humorous.
differences in f (c and k) k just starts at abs 0.
Another one he got me, toucj wood vs metal in the same room youve been sitting in, body warmer than objects. metal more efficient conductor.
Put your hands in a pouch of diamonds feels like ice, cause its conducting the heat away, not electric conductor though. Interesting
Water vs air heat transfer.
Conduction thats touching.
Convection transfer of heat + motion. (hot air balloon)
Radiation, the light that bright fire light wave radiant heat.
3 ways heat is transfered motion of molecules

_Sound getting rid of it.
sounds reflectors sound barriers, Sound absorbtion turning into a little bit of heat.
Noise cancelling headphone summing cancelling out. the opposite sound. creates anti noise. thats sweet lol battery powered ear defenders..

_ Liquid nitrogen.
Thats awesome some liquid nitrogen demos, illustrating the effect on usually soft flexible items like rubber gloves or the rose and theey shatter at low temp.
Wow the baloon, sweet thats a amazing display of Gay-Lussac law, the balloon shrinks in size completely once exposed to the liquid nitrogen.
Amonton’s Law states that the pressure of an ideal gas varies directly with the absolute temperature when the volume of the sample is held constant. P1/T1 = P2/T2 or P/T = k, where k = nR/V.
Another cool link another university youtube Ivee watched recently, this comes from univ Oregon https://chemdemos.uoregon.edu/demos/Amontons-Law#

_ heat engines,
piston on a air cylinder.
auto close to 1/6 efffiency
The mosty efficient
Nicolas Leonard Sadi Carnot 1796-1832 https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nicolas_L%C3%A9onard_Sadi_Carnot
Some of his work helped define entropy.
Oh this guy was taught by Joseph Louis Gay-Lussac, he wrote a book.
Asimov (1982) came up neat.
you dont want the engine to melt
How well did you take the energy to do the work; efficiency.

Airports_
This one CMI
checking some equipment cool. Fun extra curricular thing. So this university has own airport.
All the specs of a state of the art airport fire truck.
commenting on how safe flying is, I guess compared to my opinion statement while back.

Cars_
just some cool animations and definitions.
Miles per gallon is definitely something.
oil lubricant cool protect.
seized engine.

Diesel_
rudolph diesel
compresion ratio.
Diesel added in after the air compressed.

new day ___ hybrids
Just did daylight savings wtf. I hate that.
Oil for cars.
Ok hybrids, gas motors doesn’t spin the wheels it charges it up battery.

_Octane other numbers at the pump.
Iso octane
Most stable ways to put 8 carbons together.
Octane has to do with % compression not blowing up spontaneously

_ Electricity what how.
Its the movement of electrons pretty much.
DC one direction
Alt both directions. AC
The jacobs ladder example.
Paper and holes, wow.

The Jacob’s Ladder is a high voltage climbing arc


Watching the spark travel upwards, then with a fold of paper between you can see the spots the electron travelled through the paper amazing.
Steam generator and the rotors.
Generator; is where the magic happens.
Operatees on the principle that the force on a electron, perpendicular both to direction of motion, and to the direction of magnetic field.
Need magnetic field.
Down or upstroke changes the current. wrapping wire around lengthwise around an object rotated in the magnetic field.
More tech how to get that spinning into the wires, you need that spinning contact https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Faraday_disk_generator.jpg
Gen, turbine, condenser, pump, heat source.

_Smart grid.
USA power grid, the West, texas and the rest, trying to get grid on smart grid.
2003 one squirrel substation
https://www.washingtonpost.com/news/wonk/wp/2016/01/12/a-terrifying-and-hilarious-map-of-squirrel-attacks/
https://iclsystems.com/the-squirrel-in-the-substation/
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Electrical_disruptions_caused_by_squirrels
Largest power outage in recent memory. Self healing power grid. The blackouts.
Profs comment about seeing the data for the energy consumption in your house, kinda cool but useful data for the power company.
Auto repair. The power companies already know when ur having a outage. Some of the issues in our grid, the waves mismatched, gotta go back from AC-> DC then backt o AC and match so its a bit of an issue. Same phase. And, losing energy to radiation on long distance trip through wire. Lunch time.

_Electricity and the electric grid.
Mostly fossil fuels.
The power variation. discussion about solar and wind and the daily energy consumption.
Problems of not in phase. jump skip rope demo, 1 rope vs 2. lots of fossil fuel

_coal who has it wants it, and uses it.
Coal is most abundant fossil resource.
Largest land mass.
All these countries with top 10 coal reserves. These 10 countries have 90 % of the worlds coal.
Its a very unevenly distrusted resource.
China uses most coal, 2012 you got some Russia using natural gas shows how little coal they use.
Strip mining.
Coal dust.
Haze.
Igcc.
So much coal, so dont destroy the farm to sell it.

_What is coal
That was good break. Baaaaack to it.
Most plentiful resource, industrial fuel.
Gas: 1-4 carbons in a chain.
Liquid 5-12 carbons
Tars 12+ carbon.
Hydro carbons.
The ‘muck in this lake’.
All graded by content.
Nitrogen and sulfur, components for some acid rain.
Water in coal.
remove the sulfur, nitrogen oxides.
Peat bog.
Dead plants, and animals.
decays and compresses.
peat.
https://www.britannica.com/technology/peat
peat fire.
Ireland dirt that burns.
Brown coal to anthracite
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Anthracite,_Alberta Thats when they discovered the hot springs.
Metallurgical coal for the crucibles.
Trains.
The smoke stack hitting the passengers covered in coal dust.
Graphite.
+ clay is pencil lead.
Then diamonds.
https://www.ghosttownpix.com/alberta/anthra.html
https://www.britannica.com/science/anthracite

_Shocks n Lighting
plasma ball
Wow 2 quarters you put one on top, and you make a capacitor.
Static hair when you’re going down a slide.
Hair gains a a charge, and repels itself.
Air breaks down at near 3000 volts per mm.
static or live wire shock.
Ionized charge super heated air, lighting.
Demonstration on realeasing a big charge 12000 + volts to a ground, making lighting.
Another demo of a soda can within a coil, and a discharge crushing the soda can.
Lightning.
Ice crystals go up, water goes down, you get a charge.
Bottom cloud is negative, top positive, makes it own electric field.
Cloud to cloud lightning.
stepped leader
gets the discharge closer to ground, that connects. like the electric pathway trying to find the ground.
You get a positive leader up from the ground.
tree water going thru it.
dont hide under tree.
ionized path all that charge released.

_ Whats up with the water. in a electric plant.
Taking water, you dont want buildup on the turbine.
Cooling towers nuclear.
Losing effiency power plant vs cars, and heat engines.

_ Up in smoke.
Fly ash.
electro static precipetator.
Metal sheets with a charge. Smoke gets a charge and sticks to metal.
Hammer hits the panel soot falls down into collector.
Now the sulfur.
Sulfur dioxide, turns into sulfur trioxide, SO3 sulphuric acid rain.
Dry acid precipitate, breath it in, making sulphuric acid in your lungs.
Morning dew burning the paint off the cars.
Scrubber to remove the sulfur.
CaCo3 + SO2 –> +CaSO4 +Co2
Gravel and limestone and the carbonate
GEtting rid of sulfur dioxide.
Gypsum.
Gas in contact with liquid.
separate out the precipates.

_The uni power plant.
The Abbott power plant.
100 trains.
10 trucks of coal per day.
Bring in the gravel.
the water.
they had coal, and then nat gas, then yea its cheaper them generating their own electricity.

_Burning coal through decades.
Its a combined plant, generates electricity and steam.
Basics of coal burning like the train and the soot covered passenegers.
Alotta air, its the air flow.
Walls made of pipes, water goes in steam comes out.
Air and conveyor.
With crushed coal make the cyclone burner.
Coal dust + air coming trhough a cone pipe.
Heavy parts fallsthough or spins though.
cyclone makes more sulfur tri.

_ combined cycle.
Ok simply instead of using just the gas on the turbine you also use the steam by product
https://youtu.be/MgdAxU7Xtto 1:12
Couldn’t find a good pic of that. so theres the link.
Nat gas 40% efficiency
Coal to gas, for the purpose of the combined cycle.
How to do that add steam to the coal, or make it wet, cause that will make flammable gasses.
C+H2O –> H2+ CO
How gas can e turned into liquid fuels with the Fiscer Tropsch process
SASOL plant
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Coal_liquefaction
That plant largest emiter of fossil fuel unless this other plant starts up. reading on the wiki,.
From a chemistry point of view liquifying coal.
Natural gas better.

_who produces who consumes nat gas.
Liquified nat gas, cost money.
pipeline
Canada produce more than consumes. Same with Qatar.
1/3 produced from hydraulic fracking.
Nat gas burns completely.

_ Lasers
Electrical signal.
motor, on a hairspring.
change the reflection.
change the landing reflection. dual mirrors.

_ Solar cells magic.
Semiconductor silicon.
Silicon lattice structure.
Something with light makes electricity in the lattice.
doping 1/10000
using the light.
n-type
intrinsic Si
diffusion.
electric field.
electron diffusion,
depletion region
Photon makes a bond, ntype. delpeted zone,
ooh electron feeels a force this way, the ion feeels attraction the other way., movement of charge is electricity.
(put the phosphorus on top of silica.
wow spinning fan demo from a ligth bulb.
Actual solar cell picture and description.
Carizo plain and Topaz solar farm, can see from space.

_New day Already pissed off at the teacher. Youre the reason Im fuckin mad already. Its like good fucking grief Why the fuck do you think I asked on the 10th!

Back to the ‘real’ Chem class.

_ Biofuels biomass
making fuel from Corn, add yeast.
Alcohol actually kills yeast.
Alcohol boils lower. So use your flask and coil, boils off only the alcohol.
The first vapor that comes out alcohol.
wood alcohol makes you go blind.
twice distilled 95% alcohol everclear.
Not good enough for car, still has that 5% water.
Last steps to dry out the water chemical process for the removal of the water for biofuel.
Gasohol.

_ Hydraulic fracturing Fracking
Tremendous extra amount of resources.
Trying to get methane.
Methane most friendly environment fossil gas.
Price is cheaper supply is more.
Baby ultrasound, and fracking things in common.
To position the drill precisely.
Gas is found in porous rocks. Sometimes not pourous, like shale
Getting more out of your hole.
ok I see the gist of it, its a L shaped drill hole following alog the methane layer.
Yea probably pump in the fracking fluid, the gas comes out.
Surface run off and the drinking water.
Casing and protection for the surface water.
Demo of a firecracker under 2 steel plates.
Miny explosions in the pipe.
Next put the water and sand and pressure down hole.
Hydraulic fracture.
So the sand props those fissures open and the gas and fluid is pumped back out.
8 empire state buildings deep.

_Salt ponds
Hmm learning something new solar pond.
Pond.
Liner black.
Salt water.
Super saturated salt water.
Hot water rises.
Cooler salt chunks fall to bottom with convection.
Gradually start pouring in freshwater.
Make a gradient layer freshwater on top of salt.
No convection in the gradient.
Almost boiling hot.
Run a pipe through the salt area.
Cold in hot out.
Dont mix the layers.
Dont get cloudy water.
Every year or so drain and reestablish.

_Fracking, and environment myth and reality. Gotta do math class [x]
Fracking fluid, water sand.
Emulsions in the water.
ok solution, 90% water, 9.5 % sand
0.5 %
Salt
You dont want to drink this fluid.
3 mil gallons of water to frack one well.
Its a small percentage of water all the wells.
Some places are really scarce for water, so when they bring in those resources theyre like oh you cant use that water for that could go to our crops.
Reusing fracking water.
pollution from fracking originally.
If one were to dump the water into the stream or spray on the ground.
The waste water occurrences are rare now, investigated fined shut down.
Not at the peak when fracking started.
Economics drives the new innovations.
Dont drink water that catches fire. Thanks prof lol
Has nothing to do with fracking.
Methanee in the water, one student says oh yea my water is on fire all the time. lol
Texas and pensylvania leaders in gross withdrawls from shale wells
https://www.eia.gov/tools/faqs/faq.php?id=46&t=8 Is a updated link.
Prof suggests that the explosion’s causes more seismic tremor in between fracs.
Suggests its good to have mini earthquakes instead the big release of pressure.
https://www.sciencedirect.com/topics/earth-and-planetary-sciences/microearthquake
More energy better specially for the billions in the underdeveloped world , more refrigeration more safe clean reliable electricity. Higher standard of life, more productive, more opportunity to feed their families. Nuclear and solar research can provide new sources, but fossil fuels dominate.
Try to make them available inexpensive and clean. Nat gas produces less CO2 than any other fossil fuel.
Inspections are the way and doing it properly the first time.

_Passive solar
solar thermal
Magnifying glass and fire.
Molten salt.
Run water through that you get steam.
Design a house to use the solar better.
Use the sun to stay warm.
If you live northern hemisphere have it face south.
The ratio for window and facing south and the overhang.
Cause the winter time, you want the sun to shine in the house.
Summer time you want that overhang to stay cool.
south side window.
called a trombe wall.
Absorbs during day, warms at night.
Solar water heaters.
Heating pool with solar.
solar cooking.
Solar roast lol.

_Theres always a cost// The madness continues!
Its wind power.
Starts with economics.
So ive heard Casper “landfill,” those photos are pretty bad its, dirt getting piled up on thousands of blades.
So some capital analysis.
The windmills supposed to be cheap to make.
Creating 1MW megawatt, 1 million watt
Ask for a bank loan, interest and payback, 30 yrs for the example.
5% interest on 1.2 million , 60000 $ payments
Property owner rent 8k
Maintenance, 5k.
Sum 73k each year to run the windmill.
Wind is variable
Power = k (speed)^3
Ok hes saying 25% efficiency.
Hours in a year calc.
Need a utility delivery company.
73k to run it, yearly, 77 k electricity sold if everything goes right. So thats a 4k profit per year.
Theres a USA government producer bonus, would add up to like an extra 0.022/ Kwhr, extra 49k.
It would be nice if the government took on all that risk. and the whopping 4k profits lol.
End of 2014 those tax credits were removed.(producer price bonus)
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wind_power_in_the_United_States
Each time Congress has allowed the production tax credit to expire, wind power development has slowed as investors wait for the credit to be restored. Each year it is renewed, development has expanded. The tax credit expired at the end of 2012, bringing wind power development activity to a near halt. A short term, one-year policy was enacted at the beginning of 2013 which provides a tax credit to projects under construction by the end of 2013 and completed before the end of 2014.[90] The PTC was first introduced in 1992.[91] When it was allowed to expire, development dropped 93%, 73%, and 77% the following year.

So without government subsidy the things would take 300 years to pay off. And they typically last 10-20. Prices drived down by competition.
Depending on the price of energy maybe make some more profit.

_ Blowing in the wind
Winds come from uneven solar on the earth.
Also rotation.
The wind on the surface laggin behind the rotation.
How wind would be if earth was cylinder.
Equator wind from east to west.
https://www.weather.gov/source/zhu/ZHU_Training_Page/winds/Wx_Terms/Flight_Environment.htm
Hell yea sweet link
https://earth.nullschool.net/#current/wind/surface/level/orthographic=-100.87,38.25,872
Windiest spot by San Fran.
Polar easterlies and westerlies.
Rotating windmills makes it so direction doesnt matter.
Power= (constant)(speed of wind)^3
5^3 vs 10^3
Ok cool i found some
California ridge energy center Il.
https://invenergy.com/news/invenergy-announces-commercial-operations-of-california-ridge-wind-project-in-illinois
Just looking on the google earth and taking advantage of that windy place.

_ Cost of sunshine.
Economics of the solar panels.
phosphorus on the silacate.
Amount of sun in vs energy coming out.
Holy the amount of styles of solar cells, from 1% efficiency to 46% many producers, Boeing, spire, soltec, spectro lab.
World record cells.
Midrange 20% pretty good.
More innovations by the years cheaper
$ per peak what
Duration of the solar cell panel.
How long is the guarantee waranty. 20 years.
Nice conversion calc on the video, 20 years service into $/kw per hour.
Cheapest places in USA for solar power.
Inverter.
Building types, and building code Usa Vs Germany
Basically in USA custom solar all custom more expensive.
Germany every installation the same, much faster less labor costs.

_ Growing stuff to burn
Heating your home, with wood.
Thats not the 2%, energy thats biomass, and wood remnants.
Paper
Black liquor, from paper.
Back to corn, the combine.
Growing some intentional grasses for biomass.
This particular grass http://www.invadingspecies.com/miscanthus/
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Miscanthus_x_giganteus
Yum salad.
Cellulose.
Miscanthus. cool a miscanthus bale house https://cat.org.uk/worlds-first-miscanthus-bale-house/
twice as much mass as coal.
treating biomass for different products.
Same process with corn sugar for the ethanol.

_Fuel cells Hydrogen Economy Its still wind power
20 yrs ago, hydrogen stations. Only waste was water.
Hydrogen doesnt just come outta ground gotta make it from water, and energy.
Cars that use fuel cells.
Simplest fuel cell is the permeable membrane fuel cell.
Coated with a catalyst Pd element.
Hydrogen H2, goig thru palladium 46 H2. 2H+ O reconstituting water.
Ok then as the ion goes thru the electron is captured and you get some energy as hydrogens forced through.
Watching a deme battery burning hydrogen.
the Palladium is important, its really transparent to hydrogen. can move freely.
Hydrogen walks through palladium.
One side, only hydrogen one side only air.
Splits it, the electron goes to electricity, the other side, just making water on the other side.
Electron recconects after the electrical current.
He says imagine using nat gas instead of hydrogen.
CH4 methane; solid oxide fuel cell.
Take the methan add heat you break the bondds get a carbon and 4 H’s
Adding oxygen.
CH4+O2 -> CO2+ 2H2O
Mentions the combined.
This fuel cell, no moving parts 50% efficiency.
Bloom energy. w/ nat gas.
https://www.bloomenergy.com/how-fuel-cells-work
Energy servers at ebay.

_Windmills How things work.
Demo about midwest underground technology turbines, underground power.
The base of the tower is a important factor of construction.
Whoa talk about cranes. (https://youtu.be/1AvIhZAqYcE)
One commenter: I wish this amount of effort on nuclear.
Anyways neat to see the construction foundation.
In September 2019, Northern Power Systems, Inc (NPS, Inc.) ceased commercial operations in the US…
Anyways seeing inside standing inside gotta be able to get up there to hook up the wires. The numbers arent as good.
Windmill blades be spinnning.

_Whats in windmill
Bernoullis Principle.
Pressure+ (1/2) (density of a fluid(air)) (speed)^2= constant
Thats a good one; Your in a shower, the shower curtain sucks in, because of bernoulis, cause the air gets pushed as the water comes out of the shower. lower pressure with the shower curtain.
Then a plane, and wing cross section.
Since the top surface of an airfoil is curved upwards, the air has to travel a longer distance in the same time as it travels over the wing than beneath it – so the speed has to increase and there is a decrease in pressure above the wing and that causes lift.
Flow direction gets you perpendicular lift.
Not the whole story physics are more complicated.
Change the angle of attack.
Make that the blade of the windmill.
Surface area.
In a circle the radius is gonna determine the power Pie*(r)^2 bigger the area on that blade rotation equivalent to the power.
(The speed)^3 again. in a power equation.
So the speed another huge part of that.
Maintenance im thinking again watching the insides of this.
Going up to each level tightening bolts.
Wow the inside parts of windmill super interesting lots more going on than I thought in that top part.
High speed low torque. 150 mph high fast blades.
Farm windmills Low speed high torque pump water.
Also amazing is the tech to build those structures at sea at different depths.
https://www.energy.gov/eere/wind/articles/top-10-things-you-didn-t-know-about-offshore-wind-energy
https://www.bbc.com/future/article/20201013-is-wind-powers-future-in-deep-water

_How ice rinks work
Dipole moment with the 2 hydrogens 1 oxygen, water expands when freezes.
The crystal structure water makes more space between the molecules than when frozen.
Inside the crystal all polar bonds. +/- on the outside the nano layer, where the crystal ends the molecules just float on top of that lattice structure not connected state.
Really cold ice not as slippery.
Zamboni shaves ice off, and replaces it with water. The coolant system.
Procedure for creating ice rink, graphics etc.
Frank Zamboni inventor of some cool machines.
How zamboni works.

_ Economics of biofuel.
Choices driven by economics.
25kg of corn make 2.7 gallons 100% percent ethanol.
Distill energy cost to boil water alcohol.
Interest loan for a factory for the ethanol.
Labor.
Other chemicals.
Sell the by-products.
Gas prices USA that ethanol looking pretty cheap.
Gasohol. More effective boost the energy content in your fuel.
Extra oxygen so the emissions aree water.
Extra oxygen molecule is the ethanol
Sugar cane cheaper usually, soybean and corn.
Waste oils in fryers for some biofuels.
70% of same miles before you have to refuel.
On the coast its cheaper by the refinery the gasoline cheaper. (should be) looking at vancouver.

_ What goes in Biofuel.
Biological systems.
More ethanol
most US fuels have the 10% blend
https://www.eia.gov/todayinenergy/detail.php?id=26092
Oh yea the E10 E15 gasolines.
Pure ethanol get you like 70% of the miles before you have to refuel opposed to the gasohol.
Food energy vs securities.
Diesel. Biodiesel
Corn, cant live off corn alone.
Soy bean better more nutritious.
Soybean oil with the cold press of the soybeans.
Strain your oil if you got it out of a fryer.
Watching a demo on soybean oil
pottasium hydroxide, (lye) to the oil. depending on the PH.
biodiesel calculator.
add the lye to oil. adjust the pg to just the rights amount.
Next Methyl alcohol. CH3OH (dont drink ..lol) making fuel for trucks, not distilling drinks lol
Soybean oil+ lye + heat + Methyl alcohol(add slow), exothermic reaction.
methanol
2 products; first diesel fuel second glycerin
Makes a 2 layer liquid.
Proper setup has a drain.
Top is diesel, bottom glycerin.
What is gasoline octane, C-C-C-C-C-C-C-C each of those branches Hydrogen bond.
C8H18
Diesel pretty stable, gasoline volatile
Diesels C10H22 or C12H26 heavier.
Ringed carbon molecules
Ok 6 carbons in a ring, each other is a double bond Adding some Methyl(CH3)’s to the outside ring xylene https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Xylene
Coke fuel coal.
Just many uses and desirable, did I see polyester uses.

_How beer is made
starch to sugar, enzyme reaction.
using the cusp later to filter.
soaks in hoty water seperates, just take the liquid sugary.
add hops. hydrocarbons breakk down makes complex beers.
the wort cooled down, add yeast culture.
yeast busy converting sugars to ethanol and CO2
Withtout the yeast youd just have a sugary drink that ‘didnt do anything’
Grain and water, the enzyme wash.
Then next step drain liquids, wort.
the solids have some nutritional value for pigs or cow mixed in with feed.
DDG
Boil add hops next
Next start cooling it next tank is a fermentation tank add yeast, has a venting valve to let the CO2 escape.
Its a V shaped cylindrical vessel. has a exhaust pipe at the top, hasa jacket with glycol and water, for heat transfer purposes.
Carbonation. cold room.
Make kegs.
The taxes.
Distilling in barrels that were on fire.
That was interesting.

I see the light at the end of the tunnel More nuclear stuff coming up then Ill be done this energy course can always refer back to this stockpile that ive learnt.
I justified the learning its exactly on the subject. I know some ethanol things not exactly in the project, Its important to me to have the general crash course Ive been lacking. So im taking this opportunity now. Heres some nuclear now.

_ Nuclear power and the future: how to be allowed to build.
USA power int he 60s starts ramping up almost exponentially.
73 79 oil prices gone up.
73 October Arab embargo.
79 Iran revolution shot up.
Many power plants pulled cause the need dissapated.
After TMI; there was a emphasis on more safety systems.
“EPA” birth in this era.
Also nuclear anti proliferation, and environmentalism.
Double digit interest rates of the 80s no new buildings.
Steps for a plant. Need a construction permit.
Environment Impact (2 sites) The EPA.
If its Nuclear. NRC gets involved too.
(at this point if your coal or nat gas start building.)
If your Nuclear run a preliminary safety analysis report.
Complete mega plan. And the the ASLB board.
Public hearings.
Long process, 1-2 years
if yes go ahead.
4 years construction.
During that time appeal process.
Appeal board
If they win appeal, stop constrcution.
Next is the actual safety analysis, says if you actually build it like you said.
NRC
ASLB Public hearings.
Virtually finished reactor without a license.
Can operate low power appeals still
Then can operate full power. all to say can take 8-10 years.
France does it in 4.
Standardized design.
The US process unique design the high interests.
In the 2000’s Renewal for licenses.
The industry and government in USA recognized it was kinda crazy process and with interest not helping, better process.
Founder of sierra club in favor on nuclear.
John Muir and preservation of Yosemite.
Description of the new methods, condenses it to like 5 year construction s1 single public hearing, after the environment after the safety.
Goes on to describe a power plant constructed within both processes.
Tennessee valley authority watts bar power plant unit 2
Dam, and nuclear power. Some nice spots

_ How things work grilling cooking
Nuclear fuel on the way out. ok gotta take a break.[x]
Lol. just having a moment, humans been cooking food since threes been humans.
Prof: “which makes sense cause, if you got a group eating raw everything they die off.”
70 c / 160 F
killing most bacteria. everything dead 212 F bacteria raw egg lol.
Love that Caesar salad dressing too.
Smoking salting descriptions.
Can of water in the meat smoker.
The Pit Barrel Junior Im hooked I want one for camping.
Over 160F to kill bacteria.
Carbs to sugars.
Caramelization from 110 C to 190 C or 230 F to 356F
Translates to good taste.
Sugar cube vs caramel
Too high temp becomes bitter then black.
Ok baking.
Holy crap my class is starting do class[ X]
I was at the baking.
Oh yea so the yeast in the bread eats the sugars makes carbs, and CO2.
Caramelization too, and the bubbles inside are the CO2.
Maillard reaction (complex reaction)
Proteins + carbohydrates heat em you get
Maillaird reaction chain, proteins to sugars more digestible.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Maillard_reaction Indeed complex.
egg goes liquid to solid.
When you cook the proteins falls apart usually.
The egg description is like opening a bunch of packages and those packages are able to connect as solid.
Cook anything enough returns to some elemental carbon.
___
Oooh I did class, alright light at the end of the tunnel lets go!

_ Nuclear fuel – on the way out After its all over Decommissioning.
Nuclear, operate it long enough inexpensive source of electricity.
Vessel is reactive.
At the end of the reactor life it must be decommissioned taken apart and burried as some low level waste.
Land reuse.
SaFstor
Decon
ISFSI Independent spent fuel storage Installation
License terminated.
Shippingport reactor, first commercial reactor in USA https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Shippingport_Atomic_Power_Station
closed in 1982, completely taken apart
Indian point , ended in 72 decomissioned.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Indian_Point_Energy_Center
Something about the decommissioning fund, every tenth of a penny of electricity sold every sale goes towards the decommissioning.
utilities do it. 300-400 million to take apart.
NRC monitors that, or adjustments could be made.
There was research reactor at University of Illinois. (1960)
Training research education general atomics reactor.
Looking at the water of ths particular reactor.
Decommission this reactor.
In this particular reactor there was some clause that the federal government would take the spent fuel.
Spent fuel rods are the high level waste.
https://distributedmuseum.illinois.edu/exhibit/triga-mark-ii-nuclear-reactor/
Prof talking about his experience with the dismantling.
Rubbling the concrete.
Takes several years.
Making the building a green field, has asbestos.
Asbestos problems.
No record the reactor was there.
Gets trucked away.
So in this case, it worked.
Decommissioning being paid for every watt you buy.
I guess the issue comes when something like TMI goes down.

_ Contaminated things low level waste. Nucelar fuel, out.
Just getting rid of ppe all in a barrel bury it.
Resin beads.
Attract the metal ions.
In a house you use salt crystal in a conditioning tank to soften water.
The water in a reactor dissolve small pieces of the metallic pipe, if that was to jam up a rotor with some hard water residue after time it could cause some problems.
Neutrons makes things radioactive.
Its just like the water softener for nuclear reactor, taking those ions now , the resin beads are low levels wastes.
How much is there.
Perspective.
Agriculture, makes waste 3000 million tons.
Mining/milling mill tailings, 2000 million tons.
Industry 400 million tons.
Municipal waste. 200 million
Utility coal to ash 100 millions
Radioactive waste( low level) high level is even less.
Radioactive 0.04 million tons.
Place em all in a barrells
Bury it.
4 sites.
No water in these areas.
Could be you need to store this at a water place.
Will have rain, clay barrier and roof.
slope and sod the roof.
Water run off.
Geiger counter is easy to use/measure.
easy to detect large amounts.
Next some medical radioisotopes half lifes betyween 2.6 mins (Iodine-131) to (90 years strontium) cobalt 60 mid-range 5.3 years) source this youtube video https://youtu.be/Ydj4k615wDg
Syringes.
I guess technically one day should be able to cycle it through reclaim that land if it doesnt seep in.

_ Moving waste around.
showing a truck cask for spent fuel
all these protective layers
Showing a rail cask for spent fuel.
Wow watching this vintage video its some testers testing out the design to make it safest.
Wow they crash the truck into a concrete wall with a rocket attached to it!
Wow they see theres no damage in/on the cask so they do it again at 80 mph.
lol, after that they hit it with a train. Rocket powered train colliding into the spent fuel casing.
Of course every test, Jet could crash in it, The fire could burn it.
Its the train cask in a pool of jetfuel.
Burn it for 1.5 hrs.
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Bu1YFshFuI4 train cask test 1978
Theres a 84 test but not as cool.
The present its safe.
Those were some cool engineered tests. Highlight of my day lol.

_ High level wastes
Nuclear breaking down uranium
92 heaviest naturally occurring element
U-238 isotope
U-235 fissile , it will fission with any energy neutron.
It splits conserving number of neutrons and protons.
Doesnt always go to the same thing.
goes towards middle left of staircase periodic table.
Distribution of fission products.
THose turn into radioactive elements, then into more stable elements.
Its a on going process.
Ok. So sometimes the U-238 is hit with a neutron and goes 92-Np or 94-P or 95-Am or 96-CM
How much material.
Reactor starts with
29 Ton U238
1 ton U235
After 3 years.
U235 goes to 0.35 ton
U238 28 1/2 tons left
+ 0.80 tons of fission products, mish mash of radioactive materials.
Next is Pu 0.23 tons of Pu , Pu239 is for weps , mostly another isotope.
Isotropic separation, and refining, but if you could do that, ‘youd’ be going for the fissionable stuff in the first place so the byproducts aint really what youre looking for to begin with.
Also included is 0.12 ton U236
0.1 ton NP
0.001 ton Am
0.004 ton Cm
whats left in a reactor ^ below the U235 and 0.80 is the bad stuff.
Fuel pellet, pin, rod
long halflifes.
spent fuel pool, for a few years.
Like Fukushima.
GEt rid of the typical container like the train casket.
Fill it up with grout. So if water his its.
1000 ft below surface.
1000 ft above water table. in a desert Yucca mountain nevada
https://youtu.be/H8_NwzRSOeU CBS vegas.
In Finland building a site to hold all the waste for 100 000 years.
https://www.iaea.org/newscenter/news/finlands-spent-fuel-repository-a-game-changer-for-the-nuclear-industry-director-general-grossi-says
Could send it to the sun lol.
Talking about the nuclear test site. The concerns of driving through town. Dry cask storage right there next to the reactor. Still got valuable isotopes in there to re-use.
Power since 58

_ Natural Nuclear Reactor
U235 Oklo
Whoa we think fermi is the first to create the first fission.
But this Oklo natural reactor. Today U-235=0.7% 0.7B years U-238= 99.3 $ 4.5 B years
2 billion years ago had ~3% at that spot and97% respecively.
3% important to have fission
Moderator to slow reaction down for sustained chain reaction.
Natural reator.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Natural_nuclear_fission_reactor
Learning, nature also has a reactor not just man.
Scientists looking for the fission products.
End of decay chain.
Unique isotopses.
These elements shouldnt exist in nature, unless this reaction happened.
Finding their distribution away from the spot they were created gives an idea waste migration over geologic timescales.
They didnt go far.
Okla west Africa.

Watching this Soyuz relocate maneuver live. Just confirmed the docking.
_ economics of reactor https://youtu.be/cbeJIwF1pVY
Nuclear fuel on the way in.
Nuclear competitor is the nat gas plant.
Comparing some prices, Im just listening. Maybe write down the final comparison.
AP1000 gen 3 reactor, 5 billion 6 years.
Nat gas plant numbers looking way better than nuclear. math class[X]
Profit line comparing the two.
The cost comparison, I can tell nuclear gonna cost more longer to build, after though can really sell the electricity.
Gas plant already built and accumulation of assets the
Year 13 on this display making finally making a unit, and paid off 6 billion in debt.
The nuclear up on +3 units per year, nat gas at +1 unit per year.
Year 18 Nuclear can surpass natural gas in profits.
Seems like a good idea to build the nuclear under alot of caveats.
Gotta watch out for the pass the buckers, the corner cutters.
The long potential for Nuclear is astounding.
“Many governments dont even look beyond the length of time that theyre in office”.
Gotta have that foresight.
Kinda likee the Vegas thing, at the same time its easy to be like no trains of nuclear stuff in my town, got to work around the public.
Make its own infrastructure I dont know. In the ocean, its more free for all. Or like whose gonna stop you.
And the cities and town. Anyways store the shit but not in my town right. The difference here is theyre trying to take the mountain away, and there its a nuclear test range. Its opposite.

_ football stadium.
Nice the Illinois field, 120 mil expansion for a place thats used 6x a year lol. Not tax funded.
Weddings.
Nice spot for reception lol. Premium seats can drink others no.
Private booths.
Talking about a company thats in tune with the town can use this area to meet people business, network.
Named after ww1 veterans on the columns.
lol state law changed for when the NFL bears came to town cause they were having a remodel.
When Americans want football on the weekend.

_ depleted uranium video.
Whats leftover from nuclear fuel.
Youre enriching.
take 6 units at 0.7% enrich to 1 unit of 3.2%
But what happens to the 5 units ‘leftover’ 0.2
This is for a reactor.
Oh yea uranium even denser.
to make say munitions that penetrate armor.
Wow thats crazy on the wiki page says counterweights for aircraft civilian uses. (dense metal) https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Depleted_uranium
Lead and uranium both bad. Dont eat lead or bullets or things on the battle field.
Bullet fragments.
Its like uranium is bad but so is evertyhing else on the battlefield. even the .. W.H.O. https://www.who.int/ionizing_radiation/pub_meet/en/DU_Eng.pdf
Well what I read seems pretty minor. Im thinking like a big bomb blast on a field, like a ww1 style crater or some artillery over an area, like some battlefields in France would be more scarred then they are.
https://www.iaea.org/topics/spent-fuel-management/depleted-uranium
Theres some advice there on the bottom, how it could get or prevent it from entering the food source. Says it just oxidizes away .
Could do some ion adjustments to ground if it was really bad.

_ Getting the good stuff enrichment, nuclear fuels.
U238 is pretty boring.
U235 is the reactor and sought after type. Not very much 235 naturally.
_
Reactor fuel U235 3% number, // U238 97%
_
nuclear bomb 90% u235// 10% U238
https://www.world-nuclear.org/information-library/nuclear-fuel-cycle/conversion-enrichment-and-fabrication/uranium-enrichment.aspx
the steps are power reactor, research reactor bunch of different countries run the centrifuges.
The gatekeeper is that enrichment tech. Its difficult. Difference of 3 neutrons. huge effort.
There is a USA national lab. Oakridge National lab. Cool.
https://www.ornl.gov/content/solving-big-problems
essentially involves the atomic weight difference and making it a gas.
A diffusion calculation some pressures. this takes years.(1940s)
Now the gas comes in a spinner, the middle gas in tube is lighter.
Thats what the inspectors want to see.

_ Uranium from the ground.
Is there enough.
More plentiful than gold.
not that expensive, sea water contains uranium. Russia Canada Australia.
Seeing some charts for Uranium producers in the World. Canada 2nd, Australia after. Kazahstan first.
The production, there enough. If you use, breeder reactor you get much more cause it uses 238.
U3O8 natural, its radioactive, dont rub it all oveer ur face. and say oooh yellow makeup. Gotta extract it from the sands.
Granite smaller content of uranium.
The sand as it decays, its still bad it turns into Radon.
Another thing, dont use that sand for concrete, higher concentration radiation and radon in those houses.
Mill tailing used, cutting corners.reburry in mine.

_Backstage Theatre; taking a break [X]
This quick video apparently actually relates with Chernobyl and Fukushima.
I guess could draw some comparisons, instead of the acting they produce fusion.
But they have a Seam upholstery shop, machine tool prop shop, stage, floors functionality. Office.
Variables could go wrong.
Interesting thing abut the Krannert theatre is some rehearsal rooms matching stages, so the acoustics are the same.
Costume shop, and inventory.
BAckstage curtain and pulleys above the stage out of sight.
Large backstage area.
Acoustics no speaker, chorus section removing the seats.
That was a sweet theatre tour Lots going on in the background some distance to cover.
I could see some similarities maybe.

_ Health effects Chernobyl.
Chernobyl blast all into the atmosphere.
Yea the scientists in Germany testing with the rain they’re like this is a reactor core.
I watched this one already but whatever.
In Sweden the reactor alarms going off
Cesium 137 in air. IRSN https://www.irsn.fr/EN/publications/thematic-safety/chernobyl/Pages/The-Chernobyl-Plume.aspx
And the cesium 137 content
Iodine 131
The first responders.
The Thyroid treatment for nuclear.https://www.nrc.gov/about-nrc/emerg-preparedness/about-emerg-preparedness/potassium-iodide/ki-faq.html
https://www.irsn.fr/EN/publications/thematic-safety/chernobyl/Pages/The-Chernobyl-Plume.aspx

Fukushima watched that.

Aint nothing but shitty news.

_Xenon can be a problem Nuclear
Ok from what I remember the xenon can kill the chain reaction.
Chernobyl shutting down causing some xenon poisoning in the reactor.
Its the kind of poisoning that stops a nuclear reactor.
Reactor is a giant neutron dance, the uranium gives off neutrons, the water hits the neutron, if the neutron goes slow enough its chance its chance of fission get larger It will hit another uranium it fissions and off come some more neutrons.
In a bomb is different than reactor, the bomb doesnt even need a moderator so many neutrons. Its a fast fission and the add up extremely fast tremendous release of energy.
In the reactor. Its more of a sustained chain for the energy. Some neutrons bounce outside the radiator, some neutrons absorbed in the control rods. It wouldnt work without the moderator.
Where does Xenon come from Xe 135. Is really good at absorbing neutrons. With Xenon introduced, could be difficult to stop chain reaction.
Xenon is coming from, absorbing the neutrons.
When that neutron hits N -> U235 | Fission products + extra neutrons. (0.3% of time the collision produces some Xe135) 6.35% making Iodine135
Iodine radioactive, I 135 -> Xe135+ Beta and neutrino
Beta decay .
So the Iodine 135 beta decays to Xe135 in about 6.6 hrs. http://large.stanford.edu/courses/2014/ph241/alnoaimi2/
the graphic shows the xenon waiting for the reactor to stop, to poison it. Every time theres a chain reaction making stuff that leads to xenon.
Explanation here, the Xenon 135 is also radioactive. Beta decays to CS 125 + B in 9.1 hours. Cesium 135 long lived isotopes.
Second part of explanation the Xenon 135 actually absorbing N^1 0 + Xe 135 Makes Xenon 136 stable isotope.
Yea Chernobyl the shut off, the xenon goes way up, since the chain reaction stopped, then also the Xenon neutron eaters stopped. 60 hr xenon poisoning in the reactor
If you ever turn off the reactor you cant turn it back on for another 3 days.
If you keep adding the fuel thee reactivity is going way up in the case of Chernobyl try to get back to started. Accidently turned it off and trying to start it again.
Thats the cardinal rule if you turn it off you gotta wait 3 days, at Chernobyl they waited an hour. Disastrous effect. The reactivity dip wwith xenon.
Its called the iodine pit. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Iodine_pit
Contrary to all the rules at Chernobyl they werent seeing what they wanted so they pulled all the control rods out. Tipped it over the edge , into uncontrolled run away reaction.

_ MRI
What you can do with MRI
This when you drink the chalk solution, and get scanned?
Its the university of Illinois.
Its searching for Hydrogen ions.
So basically what im hearing the hemoglobin contain Iron, surrounded by some oxygens, when the brain is thinking or doing a biological task the oxygens are busy so the Iron in Hemoglobin can be affected by the Magnetic resonance field _ into imaging MRI.
He also talked about another tesla scanner for animals. More power.
Everything from fitness to asking questions distractedness, what happens at the front of the brain trying to work on a task with no distraction.
Talking about brain slices. lol
Holy the tech, its superconductors, cooled with liquid helium.
MRI quench if the magnets get too hot. Just makes a gas plume.
Wires could melt.
Cool measure the viscosity of my brain. Pretty viscous lol.
The Beckman institute singing MRI.
Magnetic field, wow theyre showing a demo roofing nail wrapped in a foam.
Can make you dizzy too by sticking your head in there.
Hmm using the machine to switch the magnetic field, could change youre field of color if done too rapidly . So its done slowly to avoid those sensations.
Color, static, and heat.
Aluminum not attracted to field.
Watching the aluminum fall slower cool.
Its tracking the protons in the water in your brain.
2-3 mil magnets costs.
Cryo.
The MRI proof tv. No rogue transmitters.
Its a siemens machine.
The gas cryo room.
Images from animals and other things that have been imaged.

Learnt about TMI already.
_ Movie theatres in the modern age.
This is awesome that it comes up on the list.
I love movies right now.
During covid last year I seen Spongebob I was pretty stoked.
Now theatres are closed here atleast.
Everything in the digital age.
There are actual ‘film’ theatre still more of a niche thing.
70 mm film with a forklift lol.
Limited places to see that still. Might be interesting one day.
Economics of a theatre its not the ticket sale % Its the popcorn, and the soda.
The new 3d tech. Imax projector per eye.
the glasses polarize, the lens picks up the angle makes the 3d effect.
or the far away effect. If one of the projectors cut off it would be like covering one eye.
Dont wanna lose an eye then go to a 3d movie.
Wow the actual projector.
Its a trolley with wheels.
Pressurized xenon gas + anode cathode.
Most accurate representation of sunlight.
Its a plasma, the Xenon with the most filled noble gas, and the most electrons, Exciting the xenon gas will produce all the colors in the spectrum. https://laserstars.org/data/elements/
Imax 6000 watts running bulb. *pressurized Xenon.
Ok the plasma excites the electrons, and atoms. Most electrons add up all the transitions you’ll cover ever color in the color spectrum.
2x projectors.
Every morning recalibrates itself.
Movie plays with sound. I guess just automated with the double projector, and sound.
Old school movies with the film projectionist sleeping and didnt change the film.
All you gotta do is turn it out or trouble shoot. Ad viewing.
Screen is reflective type of vinyl.

_ Big bangs take a break.[‘X]
Fission the biggest bangs; the biggest hair bangs lol.
The reason for the lecture is to distinguish weapons from the reactor power.
Ok back to the U235 comes outta the ground very litte concentration, you need the 3-4% for reactor. You need to quantify that to a 90% concentration for thee weapons is a far jump from the 3-4% needed for reactor.
Takes long time to process.
Critical mass. It would automatically go off.
Sub critical pieces start separate then connect.
Trinity test from a tower.
Hot gasses rushing up mushroom cloud.
Not just nuclear, any explosion big enough will create the mushroom phenomena.
Hiroshima memorial site. Pretty horrifying if you think of those people. Well and the war in general.
Talking about the moments after blast.
Atomic Cannon.
Using the tamper is effective that neutron shell makes it so less mass is required for the reaction desired.
The plutonium and uranium logic.
Bullet style and implosion style. More engineering on the implosion style. With a more porous core then compressed.
China, France, Russia, UK, and USA.
India, Pakistan. 70s
Treaties, cold war over, some advanced countries simply say no we dont need nuclear weapons, could make em but the world polluted with enough of these.
North Korea, one of the latest in the club.
The hydrogen bomb kinda opposite from the fission bomb uses nuclear fusion (reaction in the sun)
Just as tough even tougher , need to start with that implosion. Need that for the temperatures to be high eneough for Tritium and deuterium to fuse.
Put it inside atom bomb.
This fission triggers the fusion.
Hydrogen sequence.
Bikini Atoll.
Tsar bomba.
2 completely different things, controlled fission reaction can generate that power, that uncontrolled fusion devastating.
Yup heres hoping no nuclear annihilation.

_ Whats in reactor.
I have understanding of reactor.
Fuel rod, moderator, control rod, capture.
Boron, it like neutrons, cadmium, Gadolinium first time I ever heard that one.
So the reactor, in the containment building.
The generator.
The cooling tower.
Example reactor.
Clinton Power Station central Illinois.
The resin beats absorbing those iron atoms coming off the pipes.
Theres a pressurized water reactor style, where the reactor circuit water doesn’t even touch the generator water.
Third loop. Safety boost.
Thats a simplified fission
Chance of a fission graph U235 page 7 https://www.nrc.gov/docs/ML1214/ML12142A051.pdf
The static is complicated.
Something for nuclear engineers to figure out.
The cross section show, higher chance of fission with lower speeds (eVs)
Using the moderator and the pressurized, if the moderator leaves the reaction stops.(shuts down if somehow looses coolant.

_ More fission gone fission.
Splitting up of large atoms into smaller ones.
U235 easy to split.
Neutron any speed and it hits the U235
after, splits into 2 pieces, Fission (products1) (Fission products 2) moving really fast.
E=MC^2
the pre neutron boost weights more, the after products weight less that means that difference turns into speed.
Fuel pellet gets hot.
Also making 2.45 neutrons. per reaction also fast speeds.
Fission splits up Uranium products and makes extra neutrons.
the 2-3 extra neutrons could go on to create more fissions.
That us the chain reaction.
Slow is better for the chain reaction thats why the moderator there.
Solid Uranium reactor core, thats a bomb.
Or use a moderator.
Water neutrons same kinda mass, shared momentum.
Need something same kinda size, cause bouncing a ping pong ball off a bowling ball isnt really capturing that momentum.
Thats why these types of reactors are safe.
Trust the laws of physics not the scrambling operator.
RMBK Chernobyl Graphite was the coolant.
Whose gonna go reach in and take out that graphite after the meltdown occuring.

_ Food irradiation.
Can remove some molds and mildews.
Makes industrialization of fruits more effective.
Flashlight on rock, when you turn the light off does the rock glow?
No.
Same with food radiation, puts out gamma rays that will kill what you dont want bacteria.
Doesnt turn the food radioactive.
Gamma rays cockraoches like 6-15x more resistant but not as resistant as a fruit fly.
Thats why the fruit flies getting the blast at the station focusing on the breeding. (previous chem assignement)
Basically take the gamma rays, from cesium 137.
Beta decay, emits some 0.6617 mega electron volts, as it decays to next state, emitting that gamma ray. cesium 137 that half life of about 30 years.
Cobalt to nickel. a different type.
Sterilize the bugs and longer shelf life.
chemicals , yummy that fruit looks so delicious just eat it. Wash it.
Irradiate it.
gamma ray spectrometrer https://science.nasa.gov/ems/12_gammarays
Concerns radicals, destroying proteins.
Hmm black pepper irradiated.
RADURA label, but what about processed foods. Thats fairly interesting still.
In life its best to use all tools. https://www.kitchenstewardship.com/irradiated-spices-safety/
When your importing food wouldnt you want it to have gone through a standard maybe.
Also the next thing its suggesting; its like you wouldn’t want to gamma ray your whole crop in infantile stage, unless maybe you were doing some atomic gardening.
But, the finished product, Its not growing anymore, its for shelf life.
Its like some choices you have. Some you dont.
Heres this scientist, Nice here a Canadian machine. Gammacell 220 Excel. I think hes wearing a dosimeter. Too bad cant read arabic found an article using that.
lol heres the older model;https://www.nrc.gov/docs/ML0216/ML021630449.pdf
The newer model looks really similar. Its a USA company now, a division of Soltera health.
Watching a demo.
Importance of the liquid nitrogen easy to spot differences when frozen.
Nice example of the research happening at the moment in the video is about the efficiency of the medicine after the medicine itself been irradiated. While the patient getting exposed in a radiation treatment.
Space food. Grilled steak in a bag MRE style.
People that have had organ transplant.
Back in soviet days that army irradiated its food. Theres definetly debate, I think its just a tool you could use depending on the situation.
https://www.epa.gov/radtown/food-irradiation
For example, Clostridium botulinum bacteria produce a toxin that causes botulism, a dangerous illness. Food irradiation can control the spread, growth, and survival of the C. botulinum bacteria, but cannot remove the toxin produced by C. botulinum.
Shielding and core, or the irradiation chamber. Fool proof machine.
Special room for this purpose.
Can be safe so be safe lol.

_ What makes something Radioactive.
Yea during that phase its transitioning to another element giving off rays.
What makes radioactive?
It turns into something else, and during that process emits radiation.
Radioactive substances changes to other material/atoms, when it does that emits radiation.
Half life concept.
Got a jar of green radioactive marbles.
if its half life is a year, itll take a year and half of those marbles changed to white marble.

_Background radiation, I seen Carl Sagan do this experiment. cant find it. Might have to watch cosmos again.
Anyways.
Radioactive materials turn into something else, and emit radiation, Alpha, beta gamma rays.
What kind of dose am I getting.
Dose = (Energy absorbed)/ mass
Internation unit. 1 Sv= is alot of radiaiton. 1Sv = Joule absorbed/ kg
1Sv = 100 Rem
1 mRem (natural sources) per day
10muicroSv = 1 mRem
1 micro SV= 0.1 mRem
Then Pie chart updated https://www.epa.gov/radiation/radiation-sources-and-doses
natrual and man made. Radon, 320 mRem come from nat sources.
300 mRem from man made medical procedures, stats for USA.
Prof talking about changes in nuclear medicine since the 80s.
Ground 15-20 mR from the ground uranium thorium little bits of radioactive particles.
Stone house emits more radiation.
Internal, potassium in your body 20-25 MRem
Space; cosmic rays, stars exploding. 20-25 ml MRem
Radon ~200 mRem
Mile high you get 75-100 mRem.
Other man made radiation: Ct Scans pretty high.
Then you got some specific tumor treatments, cancer treatments.
https://www.cdc.gov/nceh/features/protect-home-radon/index.html
100 mRem per year from the government excess does.
Lantern mantles radioactive.
Theres some mantles back in the day dipped in thorium and cerium nitrates.
Consumer goods.
Smoke detector. Smoke detector demo, the alpha particles discharging completes a circuit, the smoke interrupts that causes alarm. Helium nuclei with +2 charge. If smoke gets in the way the alpha particles are stopped very easily.
Dont eat the radioactive piece inside.
Lantern mantle, just wash your hands.
Ytrium Coleman is using now, instead of Thorium.
Potassium chlorids instead of sodium chloride.
Fiestaware uranium glaze.

_ ABC’s of Radiation.
This is sweet I never knew.
R substances emit radiation.
alpha ray
beta ray
gamma rays went the furthests.
alpha ray is just a helium nucleus. (stopped by clothes paper air)
lead 210 changes to mercury 206 in that process
emits a alpha particle.
Beta ray is a electron.
Cathode ray tube. Old TV shooting electon at the (coated? I think sceen)
Those are electrons.
Ok beta rays (electrons) stopped by aluminum foil,and up.
Chlorine 36, not naturally occuring I dont think, cosmogenic. Cosmogenic cool word.
Paper doees nothing.
aluminum thing stopped it.
Finally gamma rays, simply a source of light.
opposite low energy.
This is high end, ultraviolet, xray gamma ray.
So yea the cobalt 60, need lead to protect from.
Light EM radiation, high energy photons.
How to make something radioactive ?
Many radioactive elements were formed when the earth was formed.
Potassium in your body Potassium 40 a particular isotope very long half life Billion + year.
It was created when earth was created.
Other things, humans can turn to radioactive.
You can do that with neutrons.
take Cobalt, stick in reactor and lots of neutrons hit it, it can turn into the isotope cobalt 60. (Now emits more gamma rays)
do chlorine + neutrons, you get thee chlorine 36. (beta)
Do lead + neutrons, you get Lead 210
So to make something radioactive when neutrons hit them, not when radiation hits em.
Alpha ray, shortest. (helium nucleus) gets stopped by paper.
Beta ray second shortest. its electrons, gets stopped by aluminum plate.
gamma ray, stopped by lead plate. Its high energy light. ITs a high energy photon.
The neutron goes through everything but can collide with other neutron sized molecules in some water. parrafin, theyll keep going till they collide with something similar size, hydrogen nucleus. photon.
Ok more instructional: 3 cookies.
cookie alpha
cookie beta
cookies gamma.
You gotta eat one cookie, sit on one cookie, and can throw one outy the window.
ok Ill sit on the helium, eat the elctron
or sit on the electron, eat the helium, and toss out the gamma rays yea final answer.
answers:
Eat the gamma source cause 1/2 will go through you Its like taking a xray, goes right through you.
Sit on the alpha emitter cause paper stops its. Its just helium nuclei.
You wouldnt want to sit on the electron without some aluminum pants.
Throw out the electron, or send it to my nearest appliance.
a sit
b throw
g eat

_ Why is sky blue: radiation.
the prism.
Red more toward IR
Green rigth in the middle,
Purples more towards xray gamma ray.
Rainstorms shows the prism.
Droplets of water acting as a prism.
So, not only can a trianglular prism reflect the light so can a water droplet.
Nice 42, degrees answer to the universe life and everything.
Need the sunshine, 42 degrees, an observer, water droplets.
Why the sky the blue, cause the sunset is red.
interesting physics formula,scatering= 1/ (wavelenght) ^4
Blue light higher energy, ~400nm
Red light lower energy infrared, ~ 700nm
Stick figure looking at sunset.
figure in hawaii looking up you see the light thats been scattered the most.
Only at the end when the its a straight line the red light just keeps going straight through atmosphere.
Youre seeing the scattered wavelength,.
The max spectrum is green.
Maybe can see green green flash sunset. Thats cool.
After the red see maybe a bit of green.
Sunset can also act same way if you get the conditions right.

_ Walking on water.
Relates to Hydro power, geothermal energy.
1 Oxygen 2 hydrogens.
1 lone pair on the O
H+ H+
Its polar.
dipole.
The fact that its polar h+ h+—O: makes it have high surface tension.
The way to enclose that to minimal molecule on the outside is to make a sphere.
Water droplet bouncing upward on trajectory at its highest point.
Water droplets on a lily pad, thats very hydrophobic.
close up lotus leaf with tendrils, its like a water droplet on a bed of nails.
Paper clip floating on water with surface tension.
Bugs feet.
The slightest extra weight will overcome that surface tension.
Now same test with isopropyl alcohol. C3H8O
added a teaspoon of water.
It just wont.
Water bugs.
extremely light.
The bug would sink.
Basilisk can run across water.
The lizard making some big bubbles of air, that dont close up.
Skipping rocks on water.
water skiing barefoot on the water.
Guy walking on swimming pool lol. plexiglass structure.
Walking on ice.

_ home improvements, Hydro power and Geothermal energy.
Energy increases.
Depression, wars, resolution, oil embargoes.
In USA, energy use hasnt increased but GDP has.
Looking at a graph, energy use per dollar of GDP.
from the 50s, to 2010 almost reduced by half.
How does the energy use go down and product go up ?
Can the rest of the world become as efficient.
Where can we get efficiency gains.
-Green architecture.
Looking at cross section of the double paned windows.
R1 single pane. Terrible insulation.
R2 double paned glass.
Argon gas filled window.
Nice inside the window, you can use some infrared proofing.
Low-e glass.
~R3
Older buildings heater, and AC on at the same time.
Lights, have become more effective.
The non edison bulb.
You got the compact fluoresent, (1/4) energy same light,
then LEDs. Even less energy more light.
Motors. Variable speed motors, industrial improved.
Transportation.
types of vehicles.
Shift from manufacturing to service. Heavy rail to google.
The energy use kinda plateaud, but the GDP going up.

_ Heat for homes.
Some Geo thermal stuff.
Geothermal loops.
The 10 degree earth temperature.
Not super comfortable but ok way to start.
Well theres some differences on the temp but temp is at a stable temperature.
Use the coil yard system vertical or loop systems.
Frostline, permafrost.
The prof himself has loops.
Bonus in the summer.
Pics of prof energy bills.
If it freezes your in trouble.
Impermeable with clay barries similar to drilling.
Some issues using the electricity back up when its cold.
But yea in the summer time its cool.
Pros, and cons to that system.

_Hot rocks
Steam discussion , electricity.
Discussion of old faithful, and someone saying ooh take this nice geyser and were gonna make a power plant outta that.
Put down water down, turns right into steam.
But cant cool it too much or itll just be rocks.
Volcanic rock. heat it
Cant build to lava too close, if you got a stable place though.
Porous rock.
Theres actual geothermal there, geysers.
Called Geysers , thats definetly interesting never heard of that till now.
Electricity production down.
Iceland Reykjavik.
Using the hot water for the heat not just electricity run the water in the radiator.
Maybe on another planet.

_ Power of water, Hydro, and geothermal.
Tidal energies, dependable.
Gravity calcl, 1/ (distance)2
Difference between , center of moon to, center of earth, and center moon to either poles,
226000miles
218miles
222miles

So stronger pull on the closer side, weaker pull on the further side.
Planeet covered in water, watwe can move. bulge towards the moon.
However couple tides.
Bulges and pulls, you get a vacuum. he explains it better , theres rotation and also moon rotates.
Tide advances by an hour, cause the moon rotation.
Average tide is around 1m
Tide can be more dramatic, something like ballasts.
Trap that water. fill up the tanks.
La Rance France was looking at that. 1968
They dam a whole bay. You need the bottle neck.
Ocean creatures or Nutrients get trapped in the pump ?
Ocean currents.
A windmill underwater.
Wave power, like a shake flashlight.
Sea snakes.
The cons the joints really suffer,
and what happens when theres a massive storm and the waves are way crazier.
Theres shore based.
You get the waves or tides into a vaccum space then put a air turbine at the top affected by the water in that space.
Bay of fundy wave power.

_More Hydro power.
Large-scale hydro plant.
How the hydro large scale works, hoover dam.
2000 mw
Francis turbine, most commonly used water turbines today.
3 gorges damn in China thats the newest also uses the Francis turbine./
https://www.ge.com/news/reports/how-the-swiss-turned-an-alpine-peak-into-a-battery-the-size-of-a-nuclear-plant
This one is awesome too.
Three gorges massive engineering project. 22 500 mega watts. 22 or more coal power plants.
Displaced many people.
Free energy, as long as the water lasts.
reservoir takes the land that was used.
One concern is the damn could break. in 66 Hydro dam broke, also in North van the valve just released with no warning.
Wow this 1966 Italy flood.

_ Small scale Hydro.
Hydro is usefull.
small stream, and a watermill house.
Power calc. power = energy/time = ((mass)(height goiing to fall from) (g))/ time
heigth gotta be atleast 2 meters.
https://archives.library.illinois.edu/blog/boneyard-creek/
Measuring flow velocity.
volume ((l)(w)(d))/d mass/volume
density of water. water 1000kg per m^3
Lol hes in the creek.
Process to actually calculate this stream.
Damming the stream calculate the potential energy.
This particular creek has power 333 watts.
doubtfull to capture all that potential energy no loss.
Need that height for more power 2 m +
Pros, and cons.
wave power demo, make power during day, lights at night.

_Energy from garbage.
Biofuel Biomass.
How about that municipal waste incinerator. Someone took that as band name lol, clever.
Garbage incinerator air pollution.
Quality control.
Recycling.
OK getting a tour of particular waste facility at the waste transfer station University of Illinois
Recycling
Sorting
Machine to puncture plastic beverage containers, aluminum cans maybe. So they can drain before being shipped.
Cardboard, up and down.
1200 1400 lbs per bail of paper
Cardboard worth less that paper.
Weighs about the same.
Paper reduction.
This person talking from like 2009 14-15 bails per day to 5 bails a day now.
Aluminum cans in bulk worth quite a bit.
1500 $ a ton at the time of that video.
Ok gotta do the Math class [x]

_ From the well to you.
Its about natural gas. Hey im back had mega math exam
quantum chemical.
Its a story about the fireball from gas plant at quantum chemical corp
https://www.chicagotribune.com/news/ct-xpm-1989-09-13-8901120577-story.html
Natural gas isnt just methane.
Methane CH4
Ethane C2H6
Propane C3H8
Butane C4H10
String, and circular.
Its someones job to clean that gas coming through pipeline.
So its just methane.
Remove the impurities, deliver only methane.
so because that line 2 was down at the plant.
Usually you can liquify the by-product that the plant takes out of the gas, since it was down they were just burning it off.
They store it.
When Chicago needs gas for winter they take it outta storage.
Some interesting looking buildings.
Thats interesting so they store the gas underground in a old dry well.
Stripped of its thicker hydrocarbons, and pressurized in undergrounds rock formations.
Nicor gas.
Methane doesn’t smell, but gas leak.
Theres a small amount of Ethanethiol , or ethyl mercaptan for that reason so you can smell a gas leak.
High enough gas prices youll explore other optionsd like fracking etc.
Its like harvest gas in Siberia, gas prices would have to be pretty high to go harvest in frozen swamp .

_ How cell phone finds you
oil in action
recent cell phone developments around the planet.
Nokia phone.
Old phone new phone.
Calling someones ceell phone how does it know where you are.
Landline, put in all these country codes and phones.
If you phone can see a cell tower ur on the system.
Your phone has 3 numbers.
ESN number, its in the phone.,
Sim cards is your phone number.
Sid number. Your provider.
control channel.
Trying to find signals from cell towers.
Home, or roaming no service.
registration, MIN and registration.
Mobile telecommunication switching office.
MTSO
When the phone rings.
Its like a search engine of numbers of towers and satelites within seconds tracks you.
using all the numbers.
Searches database, assigns two frequencies.
Ever talk on the radio, hey JAck how you doing today, -over . lol
Your turn to talk. both cant talk.
Radios only one frequency cell is 2.
band 820-840 MHz
~1900 MHz
As your moving it communicates auto with next tower to switch you.
Phones and traffic.
Chicago traffic
Enterprising software, on data from the speeds cell phones are travelling. people walking travelling walking speed.
The decrease in speed can send signal on map for traffic.

_Oil economics.
Supply and demand.
North sea supply price drop around 1986
2008 prices higher higher crash.
production and demand.
Demand just above production the production finally exceeds the demand.
price is still high.
demand lower prices crash crash.
Saudi and production costs start of north sea, Iran Iraq war ends
Saudi Opec
This is energy course.
Russia Crimea
Just showing the supply demand data can show some interesting things on the economics.

_Pipelines and contreversy.
Cushing Oklahoma.
Thats a Hub and also Houston
The XL pipeline debate shows map.
Accidents on rail, and truck.
Pipes safest.
“It would be wonderful for Canada..”
Its controversial we dont ‘want’ oil nowadays.
It would make gas cheaper. Its for the green argument so that oil prices raise so that green energy becomes more affordable.
Less expensive domestic supply or save it.
It would be the north American supply tar sands.
Canada supposed to in theory be selling that commodity ‘best price’.
Carbon tax.
Rail car, truck, pipeline, not getting to the heart of the issue.
___
Tar sands the oil sands.
Number of carbon atoms,
1-4 Gaseous
5-13 Liquid
14 or more solid.
heat up the sand enough to make the change from solid to liquid.

_ Oil producers and consumers
Middle east lush and green has made large reserves of oil.
links in the Video Its the EIA https://www.eia.gov/
Venezuela tar sands.
Saudi production infrastructure.
Pie chart of some oil reserves, and reasons why.
The oil will continue to go up, and therefore it will be substituted.
Consumption.
Coal vs oil.
Producers.
USA imports and the effort to reduce.
Saudi Arabia mega production not that much use.
Japan oil importer not much energy resources.
Wow but the gas prices only 22 cents per liter cheaper in Van with a quick look today.
Oil could be subject to the highest bidder.
Volatile prices.

_ Gateway to the heavens
Oil
Its a video about the observatory at the Univ Illinois
Built with 15k.
Back in the day was isolate.
Light pollution.
https://astro.illinois.edu/newsroom/history-department/campus-observatory
Joel Stebbins
All telescopes built on the ground so jumping wont cause vibration, building built around it.
Rotating chair.
Observatories facing east, im guessing so they get the most exposure and be able to track something for the longest time.
Oh it has to do with weather and traditions.
Its like observing star and the high zoom, and adjustments.
What you can see with telescope.
The earth rotate mechanism.
Star twinkle from atmosphere.
The hubble.
Imagine the network of space telescopes and the radio waves communicating all that data.
The newer imprvoved detailed map of universe, or since last observation.
You’d need some wizardry to communicate that data between one end of say the galaxy to the other.

___ Refining Crude conversion.
Refineries take all the hydrocardons of any lenght and turn them into useful products.
Fractional distillation column.
crude + heat.
You get some butane & propane, petrol, kerosene, diesel, fuel oil.
lube oil parrafin wax, asphalt.
Naphtha cyclic, medium length.
Refineries want to make gasoline. Refineries want just over 50% of the barrel to go to gasoline.
So to do that gotta re-arrange the shorter hydrocarbons.
Take the shorter ones reform em, take the heavier ones break em down.
Next is Kerosene is jet fuel.
Then its Diesel. 15% of the barrel of oil.
Home heat oil.
Car oils, less than 1% becomes lubrication.
Coke from oil.
Refineries are subject to accidents.
Its important to keep oxygen out when your boiling oils way above their ignition point.
Shows a picture of the Puerto Rico plant. But that was storage facility pretty wild picture, just search up som CSB 2009
Something like this photo.
You want to do this, takes a bit of energy dont want to just use the crude in your lamp.

_ How to get even more out.
Pumping up salt water.
Settling tanks.
Water goes back in the well.
Extraction well, and the other wells you pump into.
Using steam or water to push the oil toward the extraction point.
Emulsifier, soap detergent pump it back up then seperate oil and soap.
Or pump molasses down the well.
Sugar with bacteria, as waste creates CO2.
differences between Saudi and USA production and well numbers.

_ How to get it out.
How the oil actually found underground and the story of a rig nearby.
Most wells 2-3 km deep.
Oil collecting in the cavity.
Actual fossils.
Drill through hard rock material coming out.
Mud not water.
Its a pipe, with a casing forcing mud will come out the side.
Mud also cools the drill. Theres cement too.
That porous rock in illinois, used for natural gas storage though even there was no oil.
Does oil spray out like 10 % of times maybe.
Its a pump demo. Primary extraction. YHoull get maybe 1/3 of that oil out.

_ how do you find it
the oil.
1/3 worlds energy come from oil
Plants, and animals falling into salt water environments.
fault line cavities, or traps.
Surveying trucks. Thats cools a throttled pad vibrating truck.
Making 3d map from that shockwave.
the density of rock is known so you can find the division.
Mineral rights, leases the 1/8 usual royalty.
Story about the 50 bucks lease forever.

_ How does oil form
plankton small plants dying in salt water.
Buried under time and pressure.
C8H18
Most time people see actual crude oil, sadly its on sea birds during a spill.
Gasoline evaporates.
Usually pretty thin.
Fresh water trap, that makes coal.
Natural gas formed same way just lighter hydrocarbons.,

_ what happens when you flush. Waste water.
This facility takes care of 140k people. 7 Billion gallons per year.
From 200 ppm solid waste to 4 ppm
5 steps to process.
Screening debris.
Smell gets better as you go through plant.
Next step bacteria, introduced. Oxygen. Bacteria. The Oxygen blowers is a significant cost.
Mimicking nature.
12 hr turnaround.
Settling, settling bacteria from water.
The bacteria gets recycled to the beginning.
Settling tank.
Its got like a overflow tank.
Fertilizer.
Nitrifying.
Converting ammonia to non toxic. Nitryfying bacteria its called.
Water drops down a tank the bugs use it, lots of surface area.
Fitration the R&D the engineering 10th generation.
Deep tunnel Chicago wow thats big tunnel and hole.
Its like a walking through garden hose the size of your house.

___ Effects of global warming
House insurance.
coastal waters.
Floating ice demo. Displaces same water.
Floating Ice vs land mass ice like Greenland and Antarctica. If that melts will raise the sea level.
Tectonic effects, and human effect on sea level.
Crop production up or down. Up in Canada, down in Europe if its too hot.
The Gulf stream bringing warmer temp to Western Europe.
Fresh water introduced to the conveyor belt, interrupts its heat could be a problem.

_ How to cool the planet.
Global warming abatement, reduction.
Too much CO2.
Sulfur dioxide
SO2
Block some of the incoming, lets out the heat still.
1883 Krakatowa, and the scream. The skies colored red.(Edvard Munch Norway)
Caused a mini ice age.
Its not a permanent solution.
It is a science thing thats forsure.

_ Kyoto, and Carbon Reduction
Separating the world in zones all agreeing to reduce.
Shows graph GDP, and temperature.
Some places little warmth is good.
CO2 effects on the body.
Occupational limits.
Reducing the carbon producing energy %.
More, and more.

_Earth getting warmer how do we know
temp and CO2 correlation graph.
Ice cores and checking the gasses from thousands of years ago.
General increase in CO2 and temp goes hand in hand.
How much Increase though.
How much can be tolerated, is a bit of a dangerous experiment.

___ Which gasses are bad.
Greenhouse gasses.
CO2 200 300 ppm
Methane more effective at trapping heat and reflecting.
Methane is 18%
CO2 is around half. (sources of greenhouse effects)
Cows digestion.
CFCs really bad for atmosphere.
All those fossil fuels digging it up and setting it on fire.

_ How the greenhouse works.
Trapping heat.
White hot camera.
Energy coming from the sun, = energy radiating from the earth.
Just demo from energy coming off the sun atmosphere, keeping the energy in.
Adding more insulation with CO2
Greenhouse effect made life possible on this planet.
Caused by atmosphere.
Chart about some cloud and reflections. radiating heat %s
clouds and feedback to cool and warm the planet.

_ How things work, what happens to our garbage.
Effects of coal
Its the garbage processing center.
The blue bag visual.
Its offset the budget type of operation.
Its a interesting video.
Metal recycling.
Its the same as the other video except no lecture points.
Shows a few other scenes.

_ Heres the cleaning coal out.
How to get that sulfur dioxide out, that earth cooling poisonous/toxic compound.
Ie Dropping acid.
Coal dust.
Ash gets collected
Fluidized bed modern way to burn coal.
pulverizing it to remove bigger chunk.
upgrading fuel,
fluidizing. Someone had their thinking cap on.
Taking out the ash , SO2 , NOx
Burn some nat gas alongside it.
Everyplant could be come a coal combined gas plant reburner.
Ensuring the carbons are burnt out. You dont want the ash to contain that unburned carbon.
So explanantion continues gas is burning along, still contains thee sulfur dioxide.
Limestone graphite scrubbing reaction on the gas.
CaCO3+ SO2 -> CaSO4
(+oxygen)
So then you’d get gypsum as by-product, naturally occurring.
You do that reaction on the fly.
Its called sorbent injection. https://www.sciencedirect.com/topics/engineering/furnace-sorbent-injection
The ash bin.
Then you do the exhaust water bubbler.
Thats how to get the heavy metals out.
The last part is the scrubber, another water tank with limestone slurry. When you bubble that through you convert SO2 To calcium carbonate CaCo3 im pretty sure. precipitates out as a solid, reaction happened and drained out the bottom. Gets rid epa.
Understanding the science mitigating acid rain.
https://www.britannica.com/science/acid-rain/History

_ effects of coal , trading smoke works.
EPA vs electricity.
Phasing time.
Cap and trade.
Economic incentive to produce less, than they would have otherwise.
Good example of cooperation says the prof.
Rewarding the producers to make that inveestments.
Sell the credits.
Cap it.
Get money for having credit, others have to pay for the credits.
From 1980 to 2007 reduction in half of the SO2
limit, 1-2lb / per million BTU
2012 80% reduction. EPA
Trading these credits, even environmental groups could scoop up some credits and not trade em. Thats interesting. Economic incentives.
SO2 and CO2 reduction should be the same.
Its not really fair due to the, energy use = CO2
Places like India youre like sorry cant have any more power gotta capo it and pay all this$.
Fair and equitable vs un-intended consequences.
The SO2 solution is from a waste product from the energy.
Not the energy itself.

_ acid rain
Effect of coal acid rain.
Big topic in the 70s
Forests dying, and fish dying in rivers, lung problems, sweet.
Mapping the PH or the rain around thee world.
Acids.
PH concentration of Hydronium ion. cation.
7.0 is neutral,
6.0 is 10x times more acidic
5.0 is 100x times more acidic
4.0 is 1000x times more acidic, and so on.

Higher #’s are bases.
Again goes up log scale.
8.0 is 10x more base.
9.0 is 100x more base
and so on.
Chart of PH of rain from the 80s https://pubs.usgs.gov/wsp/2249/report.pdf
Cant find the exact on the in the video this one seems newer in #s .
The PH levels on the east coast higher.
5.6 is the rainwater.
Rain turns to a carbonic acid.
Hitting CO2 in the atmosphere.
Higher the higher thee PH the rain in those areas could kill some vegetation and if you breathed in that rain could cause you some lung distress over time. Could kill marine life.
Ruining marble sculptures.
That’s why coal designed to turn Carbon dioxide.
And sulfur, to sulfur dioxide
Ash +SO2 + 0.5 02 -> SO3 sulfites on the dust surface.
Dry acid precipitate.
SO3 +H2O(on your lung tissue) –> H2SO4 youve just created sulphirc acid on your lung breating in that dust.
Nitrous oxide produced in some power plant.
Ok demo of sulphuric acid on paper towel just burns and dissolves it.
NOx x is a number 1/2 ,1, 2, 3,
These compunds will do same type of reaction
N2O, (0.5). NO, NO2, NO3 turning into nitric acid.
More on paper demo.
Showing the reaction, thats whats happening you get more acid rain at the Sulfur dioxide production.
Skeptics.
Its the calcium carbonate solution. Say you had a lake that evolved, lots of that chalk the sulfur dioxide rain wouldn’t affect it
https://ingeniumcanada.org/channel/innovation/enlightening-canada-carbide Wow I was actually at this site once. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Thomas_Willson Thats what came up when I searched calcium carbide lake.
Rare earths sciences.
“Why should I buy my coal from really far away?” the prof. Cheaper to get it next door.
Nuclear reaction analysis, you go to the coal analyse it for these rare earths. The signature coal. Then you go to the dead lake pull up some muck at the bottom of lake, analyse it.
See the same rare earth and magnitudes. Unburnt parts of that coal ending up in that lake. Clean air act was passed. Theres a # limit. Limit of sulfur dioxide per energy heat made.

_ Coal and gas plant walkthrough.
Tour of Abbot plant. Watched this one previously.
The burning room is just a room of water tubes.
Stationaries and rotaries.
Immediately connected to the generators.
The burner.
Purify the new water coming in or ruin the turbine blades with scale and buildup.
old vs new technology.
You got the coal and nat gas reburner.
This time skip the water its the hot exhausts.
Then use those gasses to also boil water.
better effieency.
Half the modern plant is dedicated to cleaning the water and scrubbing the gases.
10% of the rock cant burn. fly ash.
Electrostatic precipitators, static charge on the dust.
Heavy metals come out with that ash trap.
Heavy metal recovery goes in the scrubber building.
High sulfur coal to burn cleanly at the abbot plant.
The pollution aspect is half the plant. Just gotta learn those hard lessons.
Making Gypsum. You can touch it lol.
Talking about cant have the whole coal mine drain into the river, or say the headwaters of a river.
This abbot plant, designed to be able to be used byu train and even thaw the train, but more economical by train.
Theres the EPA limit 1.2 Lbs of SO2 per million of BTUs produced.

_Geo engineering possible? desirable?
Planes. What are contrails.
Kerosense, CO2, and water vapour.
Hes saying spraying sulphuric acid lol.
Spray out sulphuric acid as athough experiments.
shows a diameter effective for aeroesols and injection velocities, nozzles, diameter.
Staying up there for years instead of contrails.
Talking about the olympics and adjusting the weather lol.
I get what he means, need a different chemical to cool the planet.
Just to get that degree reduction.
Millions of tons of H2SO4
20 Megatons of SO2 every year. Using AC130s.
Thats the logistic, the cost would be 25-50 billion per year.
Evidence from volcanoes. what could go wrong.
The argumemenmt after developping your whole economy on fossil fuels and telling other they cant. If you dont do it well blow you up.
IF you screwed up the geoengineering you could ruin agriculture for alot of people.
Acid rain problems again. change weather
Ocean acidification.
Ozone depletion.
What if only on the poles. you dont want the ice to melt.
Making clouds from sea water.
Make algea ponds in ocean.
Eats CO2 could be a solution in ocean.
Making Co2 into seashells.

_ Inertial Confinement’s Progress.
How to make fusion ,
Need density, time.
10^14 1/cm^3 confimnet time 1 second.
I dont understand all those calcs yet.
Magnets inertia.
Its a dsicussion of hitting a solid glass globe from 2 directions at the same time.
Thats confinment.
Started with something solid, though.
Inertial confiment fusion.
Its a small sphere, filled wiht a section of frozen deuterium, and tritium.
Hit it from a lazer, hit that suspended glass ball from every direction with laser, but not just any laser most powerfully lasers in the world.
National ignition facility in USA. They can hit and compress for a nanosecond.
Cool the national lab, Livermorium.
I wonder what neat experiments happening now.

___ Computer chips.
As many cell phones as people. If not more.
First integrated circuit.
gopne from 10 cm to 10 nm
10^-1 10^-9
number of transistors on a chip.
Same people keep buying the new products.
Talking about solid state and the layers of atoms required, height of 1 layer of atoms.
Quantum computing.
Functionality of an area doubling.
Single patterning process flow.
Changes its properties only where its exposed.
Like a suntan.
Then you take away the pattern that was exposed or not.
Then its a etch. Eat away the bottom layer without touching the top layer so you get a thin strips.
Then repeat, with wires etc. Patter, etch, deposiut.
Wow showes a photo of the final product looks like some modern architecture. Gonna screen capture cause cant find.

Also electron microscope view of SEM cross section.
Thats amnazing you obviously design it with compouter, but Its just fascinating how complicated, and little it is.
https://www.researchgate.net/figure/SEM-cross-section-of-AMD-Opteron-TM-and-AMD-Athlon-TM-64-microprocessors-showing-the_fig1_221669440
Theres another one of the IBM
Complicated sandwich.
The etch part I guess is basically using a laser to etch onto the chip.
The Moores law, its basically saying the laser doesnt follow the same line as the feature size, so the laser cant continue on that size vs time graph.
MAking the lithography wavelength smaller is really difficult.
Oh they figured it out, you ionize something really high, and the light from the plasma can make that micro ligth source.
Plasma EUV thats amazing new tech.
Interference patterns.
Showing some different methods.
Using plasma to remove the resist. Changing the plasma to etch different products.
New tech atomic layering etching, using a neghative Cl wavelenght or something, and a positiv Ar pushing down in a wave.
Ok thats sweet goes, deposits, Cl, then the AR goes and picks up the Cl and the initialy silicone state.
Hmm new metal and silicon layers also require plasmas.
Pvd sputtering devices. getting that metal coating into smaller and smaller places is that purpose.
very informative.

_ Magnetic fusion.
More things i know nothing about.
fusion.
limitless fuel no harm to environment.
Wow prof went to princeton lab, its an American college chartered before the American Revolution.
President Carter again with the magnetic fusion act.
Density temperature confinment time.
PLT abd TFTR stalled aroond 1990s
This ITER https://www.iter.org/mach/Tokamak Tokamak fusion concept
some people think 30-50 years for commercial power.
Fusion device at the profs lab.
Euro project shown the own with link. Break even point, not big enough to make net power.
ITER 2017 – Dec 2025.
Tungsten.
Temperature differences.
building takes a while.
nuclear facility so has those standards.
Harnessing he power the sun.
Plasma engineering.

_ What is fusion. How do you get it to work.
Density sun denser than water.
confinment, time.
The sun is a working fusion reactor.
Deuterium, + tritium makes Helium neutron and energy.
Both positively charged. moving fast, after the conenct the neutron and HE moving waaay faster.
Thats where the energy comes from.
Needs radioactive fuel. is a con, and thats pesky neutron.
The vessel becomes radioactive.
Would havee to become robotic for some maintenance.
Shows a probably evolution of fusion reactors.
2050 no tritium or lithium required.
2100 its a boron making helium4 no radioactivity. High thermal efficiency.
Its a work in progress. The technology is the limiting in this case.
Showing like a plasma like a cathode ray, and a magnet and the interferance and confinment of the plasma.
Cylinder with no magnetic field electrons just going wherere.
Adding a direction and magnetic field the electrons are confined within that path, spin around that magnetic field path.
Doing that with a toroidal field coils.
in a real plasma cant hit the certain wall or could melt, so gotta be under control.
Adding another magnetic field, making it a minimum energy state loop.
The sun, solar flare, makes that same twisting shape.
Thats the goal get that loop in a minimum energy state just like the sun.
needs the coils and the twist.
Tokamac makes twist dfifferent.
Tokamac plasma becomes the wire, needs the Iron frame.
Dont totally undertand but theres a difference in how each creates the twist.
Wow this input power to gety it going is like 2 million watts.
its a 70 ton, research education
Its a tube of light.
Vacuum with a little hydrogen.
Methods to start heat the plasma.
then become ionized trapped by magnetic field.
Density temp and confinment.
for a sustained fusion reaction.

_ What is a plasma?
4 states of matter,
Solid, liquid, gas, keeping pumping energy into it breaks the bonds, plasma
Keep adding energy ripps that electron off the proton.
Plasma is the dominant state of matter in the universe. Thats amazing.
The property that you can switch it direction withj a magnet, then using a magnetic field is how to make the fusion reactor work.
Wow has frequency like radio wave.

_ How microwave works
Industrial processes plasmas.
Homeland security neutron probe lol.
Plasma sputtering devices for the computer chip creation.
Microwaves, drying paint, curing plastics, warming food/water.
Telecomms.
Generating plasma for different purposes.
Microwave energy channels to create a plasma.
Disassemble microwave.
Lesser power microwave say 50% microwave power.
Just reduces the signal all happens really fast anyways would barely notice.
Needs to up the volatge, transformer and capacitor.
The magnotron.
Talks about the hotspots.
Then the turntable to rotate the food around.
The grape plasma.
Low frequency light waveliengths.
The magnet in the middle, the electrons orbit.
The bars cause the bunching up of the electrons. 2.45 Ghz
Ok so it works because theres water in your food.
Tune the frequency to affect/vibrate the H2O.

_ SUper computers.
how things work the super computers.
Demo video at National Petascale Computing facility.
Bluewater supercomputers.
Building 4.5 years old built specifically for this purpose.
Researcher.
Benchmarks to measure the strengths of the supercomputers.
Cray systems.
Graphics and CPUs .. GPUs vs CPU differences.
The cooling volume, and the actual computer space.
Thats kinda like the scrubbing facilities taking up alot of volume.
Infrastructure. Power or cooling.
Hot day at summer, capacity would be 24 MW could* use that amount.
All the campus uses 80MW
Fusion device 2MW
Planning for energy use.
Passive cooling, to save that energy usage.
LEED certification- Leadership in Energy & Environmental Design. This particular design is gold.
National science foundation pays the bills.
Ok I see a large room with some metal tubes probably guessing thats some water cooling.
Cabninets with cards.
Theyres called blades. Interconnects. Multi core CPU proccesors, the copper is the heatsink, the ram in the middle.
Temp controlled room with the wires.
Makes me think of mainframe.
The other cabinets are, the tape storage. Robot arm to pick out HDS. The tubes are for the water cooling.
Floor infrastructure. Making those connections.
Simulations, for the toughest problems.
Building is semi-tornado proof, earthquake too.
tullimonstrum

_ Reactors of the future Gen IV
Today we using Gen 3, passive safe.
Convection to cool the heat, not even water. But prety sure they using the mnoderator for the reaction still.
Gen IV desires, trying to do this higher temp, better efficiency. Fixing the downtime problems.
Higher availability.
Gen IV concept instead of using water use the boiling gas already.
High temp gas cooled reactor. ITs a combined cycle on the generator shaft.
Very high temp also using a helium coolant.
Another would be moving molten metal like lead around, or sodium or salt.
Superphenix commercial reactor. sodium cooled fast breeder reactor.
Geniv includes bunch new things, the pebble bed reactor
Pebble bed the pellets have moderator inside.
continuous fuel cycle.
NEw on top cycle out the bottoms
If they all fell into a control rod bed the reaction would stop.
Liquid bed.
Pebble bed reactor scheme. thats the one https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pebble-bed_reactor
New fuels, Thorium cycle, using fuels more completely, containing wastes, the pebbles already in a contained state.

_ Dealing with used fuel. Reprocessing
When you do fission you get some by products the fission products.
The goal in Nuclear energy trying to get that waste to the level of natural radioactivity found in the natural ore.
500 years, time length for thee fission products to decay, sao humans knowledge of engineering other subjects surpasses 500 years.
The problem line is the actinide, the heavier than uranium products. Plutonium neptunium californium Amerecium, long halflifes.
That graph progresses faster. Link If it dont work search “Decay in radioactivity of high level waste.
Reproccesing in a breeder reactor is, youre gonna have to reproccess anyways cause the plutonium is the fuel rearranging that in the reactor.
Plenty of resources now, could use breeder reactors in the future.
Standard light water reactor.
You make plutonium Pu 239, 240, 241, 242 doesnt equal bomb.
Contrast to breeder reactor. That only makes 239, Can maybe = bomb.
Thats a proliferation note.
So far so good on the being able to contain plutonium on the reproccesing.
Isotopic seperation is tech.
France and Pakistan doing reprocessing.
IFR reactor, the heavy metals never leave the containment building.
Neat concept. Argonne nat lab.
Breeder reactor could be really useful later on.
Liquid metal reactor, like the phenix.
The plant demo showing some differences. ITs basically upgrading fuel rods, integral fast reactors.
Thats probably a big feature of the gen 5 reactors.
Taking out those products before they become fuel

_ New content coming soon.
Only 15 vids left.

_How solar cell works
The magic in a solar cell.
How a solar cell works.
Si4 crystal.
History, someone, placing all the elemeents in the table next to each other, or a box containing all those spots.
Trying to measure the conductivity of the silicon, researcher says its making electricity.
Day makes electriciy night not.
Light is converting something in this rock to electricity.
Something about it being next to phosphorus in the work area.
Then discovering its not the silicon by itself, its a little phosphorus with a extra bond available in the lattice. (as opposed to the 4 bonds possible from silicon)
Its called doping 1of 10000
Extra bond a free electron.
Mobile electron. It increases the conductivity.
Still electrically neutral.
n-type silicon.
negative charge type.
Children and parents demo, the parents are the positive nuclei, with that extra electron now, will have some electron diffusion.
Kids negative parent positive electric field.
They wont wander too far.
Put some n-type silicon on top.
put some on top of the regular (intrinsic)
N-type has the lattice, has the free electon its go a phosphorus somewhere in there.
More things free to fuse on top, some of the elctrons will difuse from top to bottom.
When this happens, this causes a charge imbalance and electric field at that junction.
Doping only top layer
Next step, N-type, and regular.
That region has big electric field pointing down.
This region wont have mobile charge carriers, will be depleted.
Electron diffusion, causes a depleted region
photons have enough energy to break the bond from the electron and its nucleus
Produce an electron ion pair.
Sun does same thing, ultraviolet more energy can break more bonds thats why sunscreen is good.
In the Ntype reagion photon does nothing bonds and absorbed.
The next region if it get there, the ion will feel pull up, the electron will feel pull down.
“If you produce a photon pair in the depletion zone youll get movement of charge = electricty.”
You need a wire electrode on top. another metal on the bottom, connect some wires, discovered by accident.
Solar cell, why blue. absorb all the light. All the photons.
no ligth returning/reflecting. I think i seen this before, but its nice to see again refresh.
_ Why sound sounds good.
_ Why is sky blue
_ back with new markers
11 vids left

_ Energy stats: Then and now
Wrapping up these videos, this looks liek a update on some energy usage.
This one is energy use by source, 2018-2006
The quad unit again, 1 Quad = 10^15 BTU
10^18 Joules.
#1 Oil. 2018 36.1, 2006 39.8
Nat gas.2018 31.0, 2006 22.4 Less CO then coal lowered the amount of CO2
Coal. 2018 13.2, 2006 22.5 Fracking cheaper than coal. American energy independent, if you included Canada.
Nuclear 2018 8.4, 2006 8.2
Hydro electric 2018 2.7, 2006 2.9
Wind 2018 2.5 2006 0.26 X10^ Renewables 5%
Wood (waste) 2.3 2006 2.1
Ethanol Biodiesel 2018 2.3, 2006 0.76 X3^
Solar 2018, 1.0 2006 0.07 X15^
Garbagee 2018 0.5, 2006 0.4
Geothermal 2018 0.2 2006 0.35
Another graph from 50s to preesent.
Cosumption levels off. Make more stuff with less energy.
switch from coal to nat gas.
Renewable line going up.
Rest of the world.
Its showing some data between energy use by country 2016 -2014
China taken the lead in energy use by country.
India growth.

_ Updates video, talent show lol.

_ Lithium for fusion energy.
Making fusion cheaper, with lithium.
using low atyomic numbers IE lithium to withstand the heat during fusion.
Lithium its almost as low as you can go.
Not the opnly reason (low atomic number)
The H or more like the (D,T) Say that was to hit the wall would make some LiH
Or dissolves, in the lithium.
So what, who cares?
Imagine the sun.
Whatever leaves the sun keeps going.
Because of that, any gasses that escape the confinenment, doesnt hit a wall.
But, if it was in a magnetic fusion device the wind would stick and hit a wall.
Eventually the fluix to the wall will equalk the flux going back from the wall, will get saturated with flux.
The temp will be 100 000 000 degrees.
say the wall is 300degrees.
Basically illustrating youre always returnuing cooler to the fusion device, but its ejecting really hot.
Standard fusion reactores, the fusion part in the middle, cooler around the wall.
Small amount of volume participating in the fusion.
This time with lithium is a entire volume participating in the reaction.
Using lithium to make 20times smaller device.
Still new tech.
showing the lab.
Neat. Im looking at a bunch of things no idea, id call research equipment with many warning signs.
Some vessels that look really sturdy.
The fusion device itself.
Basically the idea is your trying to get a molten flowing state.
So that its always getting hit with fresh molten lithium.
On the edge of the plasma.
TEMHD
Its a E rotated 90 degree left.
thats the cooling portion.
The top is the filled in portion, of the a metal Its a thermocouple.
therrmocouple property.
Temperature, = volt
so diff temp different volt.
So the top part heat is at 1.0 volt, the cooler is at 0.9 volt.
Voltage different.
Flowing current.
So it goes down the lithium groove, up the other groove.
Theres a force its the JxB= force
B is the magentic.
Some high tech amd some visuals of lithium flowing.
Wow more actual research they did showing the lithium movement.

_ Thorium, and Modular micro.
Thorium. Discussion.
Basic idea, mine the thorium. Th #90
Expose thorium in a nuclear reactor to create U-233
Thorium 232 isotope.
Shows a chart of the decay.
Minutes decays to Pa91.
27 days later U-233
Run another reactor on U-233 and make more U-233 than you use by surrounding the core with thorium.
This is a breeder reactor.
Not magic still using Thorium but make more U-233 on a cycle.
Once you get one get another one going.
Molten salt reactor.
Showing some graphs on the halflives differences.
Afteer its difficult to make bombs from the material in the reactor due to the U-232 the bomb poison.\
Why bother reasons includingt he bomb things.
Why not bother.
Molten salt is cool, theres passive safe ways to fission.
Maybe 50 yrs ago woulda been better economically.
60 years experience, operating the U-235 maybe technological problems were solved at competitive price.
The argument for starting over is not economically compelling.
Research yes, full scale power plants model maybe not.

_Modular micro reactors
Last video
Small to ship thicker safe.
Put em all togetehr for more power/.
Factory 15 MW thermal, vs standard 3000MW
Sealed and accidnet proof.
20 year later, its returned and facotgry buries em.
Competing with diesel at mining sites, military bases.
Remote mining.
Small enough for a truck airplane.
QA of the assembly line.
Fewer moving parts and smaller than a 737
All of the wastes stay inside never have to open it, its like a 20 year loaner.
Fuel is the key.
TRISO tri structurakl isotopic particle fuel.
Fuel size is liek a grain of sand.
Lots of advantages to this fuel; solid and stable high temp.
Fission products and gasses stay trapped inside.
Negative temp reactivety coefficient, this means if it gets too hot stops fissioning.
Press any button you want you cant hurt it.
If the fuel heats up the neutrons are absorbed by both the U-235 and U-238 before they get slowed, and the fissioning stops. No intervention needed.
Resonances in Uranium.
Even if Helium stops flowing air takes out sufficient heat to limit the temp.
Has carbon moderation, but gas cooling so no phase-change can happen in the core.
Power density is dramatically lower, and therefore passively safe.
https://www.usnc.com/
Interesting webpage.
Goes on about the molten salt cycle and the air cooled.
In space wouldnt need that cooling.
Its expensive but true.
The cons, nat gas 2 cents an hour.
Conventional Nuclear consts. 3 cents KWh
Modular~ 25 cents per KWh could be cheaper mass production.
Its just the initial r/d engineering testing first one is expensive.
He mentions 747 makes me think of the boeing 737 max
The competition is diesel for generators.
no Co2 or air polution.
Ideal for some district heating , and process heat.
Actually more economical than diesel varying on costs + CO2.
Fits together like Lego.
There is a Ultra safe Nuclear plan to build the first one in Canada 2024. Department of Energy competition to have a demo reactor.
Couple on the go USA and Canada. Sold the CANDU tech or exported I mean not even that successfully.

Lol these suggested videos, someone tasting deuterieum. lmao.
Ok well that wraps up that, need a few specific research terms but finish this off finally.

April 13 2021 some news about Fukushima. Releasing some water back in to the ocean and what goes with that.

There’s some current events about an attack on Iran centrifuge facilities.
https://www.pbs.org/newshour/show/news-wrap-slain-u-s-capitol-police-officer-honored-by-the-nations-leaders 60% It seems like an attack on the electrical grid.

Watching this STS1 this was a cool article https://world-nuclear.org/information-library/non-power-nuclear-applications/transport/nuclear-reactors-for-space.aspx
and this other one about cosmic origin of the Uranium. Thats super interesting.

https://www.kamloopsthisweek.com/five-things-about-canada-s-proposed-small-modular-nuclear-reactors-1.24307064
More than 100 environmental, anti-nuclear, community and other Canadian groups signed a statement in November declaring SMRs a “dirty, dangerous distraction” from tackling climate change. They argue the fight against global warming can’t wait for the technology to be proven and deployed and warn SMRs will cost more than other low-carbon energy alternatives, won’t create as many jobs and will result in new streams of dangerous nuclear waste.

April 14 Some debate about the SMR today. Renewables vs R/D. Im all about the upgrading diesel. I fuckin hate diesel lol especially in mouth lol.
Imagine the steam revolution smr powered bird suit or any kind of ridiculous idea, add SMR powered lol. Like a walking mech suit.
Canada’s reputation as a safe and well-regulated leader in nuclear energy.
Id a1rgue, what? maybe in the 70’s otherwise seems like on a steep decline as leaders in anything.
How many days ago I was learning about Ultra safe Nuclear building in Canada for 2024. (Seattle based) . So in that aspect cant argue with the no jobs. Go some news on it today .

___ New Illinois energy prof video.
This new SMR Small modular reactor. Gas cooled.
Last year competition for SMR.
Illinois put in a design, and they lost but here are some other 2 designs.
XE-Energy’ XE-100
Triso fuel , gets too hot, stops working.
Big truck design.
Its a high temp gas cooled
Fuel is the little small beads tri structural isotropic particle fuel.
Outer carbon layer silicon carbide, inner carbon compressiobe,
Fuel UCO and UO2 10-20 % U235. Yea thats the fuel enhancements I rememeber.
So the fuel and fission reaction happens in that little vessel. So the wastes alro remain in that pellet. Even the gasses.
So you take one of those grains of thand, x 1000 make into a liek a steel bal, with thousands of those like pellets. in One bigger ball.
And also container for the nuclear waste.
advantages, wont melt, gassses trapped inside again.
Negativer temp reactivity. coeficient this means if it gets too hot its stops fissionning.
Nuclear reaction: fast neutrons are produced and moderated slowed by the carbon blocks
These slowed neeutrons cause fissions.
N -> U-235 more neutrons really fast.
Moderator.
The explanation on the if it gets too hot, the neutrons are absorbed back into the U-238 and no fission occurs.
Whoever found the resonances of uranium gets top magician prize.
Probably Enrico Fermi top wizard lol.
70 ft long 16 ft diameter.
“pebble bed reactor”
Fuel in out, gas cooled, different liquid for the turbine.
Only helium in reactor core.
Electricity or heat.
Walk away safety.
No phase change can happen in the core
How much. 8.4 cents per kwh
X-Energy will make the fuel and 4 reactors.
Could just make heat too industrial.
Coal is around 3000 MW thermal
X-energy is 200 MW thermal range
Could put one at every coal plant.
Maybe a few. Since the infrastructure is there.

____
Heres the biblio for the latest assignement copy pasting here rather than a new post of links begins now.___

Heres a bibliography of some online searches assignment specific.

Learning more about STS, Science tech society. Has some good images. And the R&D interests me.
https://education.usask.ca/documents/profiles/aikenhead/sts05.htm

Lesson 2 Research:
What Isotope of Uranium exists.
Heres so usefull stuff on that
https://www.radioactivity.eu.com/site/pages/Uranium_Isotopes.htm
Isoptope , one of two or more species of atoms of a hemical eleement.
Same atomic number and position, nearly identical chemical behavior but with different atomic masses and physical properties. Every chemical element has one or more isotopes. Difference in neutrons. New forms of old elements.
JJ Thompson and the neon with 10 neutrons, then neon with 12 neutrons.
https://www.britannica.com/video/216564/What-are-isotopes
https://www.britannica.com/science/isotope
Anyways Its basically U-238, U-234 (descendant of U-238), And U-235 Ca be used as fuel in reactor, very high concentrated for weapons.
Those be the natural abundant, and 238 is the 99.3% natural form.
Some other artificial isotopes are 236, 233, 232 For example presence of U236 is formed from U235 fuel, after the neutrino captures that didnt cause fission. The presence of U236 in a sample concludes the sample has been in reactor.

Candu Process : Its a natural fuel U235 So basically mostly U28 0.7~0.9 % U235
What is Half life: Time it takes for a sample to decrease radioactivity by half. Radioactive decay, going from unstable form to more stable form.
https://www.britannica.com/science/half-life-radioactivity
How long is uranium 235 half life is 700 million years. U-238 4.5 billion years.
https://web.evs.anl.gov/uranium/faq/uproperties/faq5.cfm From the Argonne US national lab.
Proceses for fuel
https://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:19013875
CANDU reactors operate on a once-through, natural uranium fuel cycle. The process of turning the natural uranium into reactor fuel bundles is described. The components making up the fuel bundle are UO2 pellets, zircaloy tubes, zircaloy bearing pads and interelement spacers, zircaloy end caps for fuel element closure welds and zircaloy end plates which hold the fuel elements in a bundle. The five process steps in preparing the zircaloy components for the fuel element and the bundle assembly are described and the quality assurance system explained. Because CANDU reactors use natural, rather then enriched uranium the fuel fabrication is a much simpler process requiring smaller plant. CANDU fuel is fabricated in Argentina, South Korea and Romania as well as Canada. (UK)
Concerns about the tritium emissions.
Heres a really basic answer.
CANDU reactors use natural uranium as their nuclear fuel. Natural uranium is composed of about 0.7% uranium-235, and the remaining 99.3% is mostly uranium-238 which cannot directly be used in a fission process to obtain energy.[7] The uranium-238 is fertile and can absorb high speed neutrons and convert to plutonium-239 which is fissile and then undergoes fission; this process accounts for around half of the energy produced within the reactor.[8] CANDU reactors use about 25 to 30% less mined uranium than a comparable light water reactor (mostly because of the better use of neutrons in the reactor).
In CANDU reactors, fuel in the form of uranium oxide powder is packed into pellets and placed in the fuel rods. Thirty seven fuel rods are bunched together to complete a cylindrical fuel bundle, seen in Figure 2. The fuel bundle is approximately 50 cm in length and 10 cm in diameter.[9] A fuel bundle remains in the reactor between 6 and 24 months, depending on its location within the core.[2]
Its a Uranium oxide powder fuel rod.
http://www.nuclearfaq.ca/

How a Nuclear Reactor Works


Candu is the horizontal fuel rods.
https://web.archive.org/web/20161125110315/http://www.edmontonexaminer.com/2016/04/13/though-there-is-potential-for-nuclear-power-in-alberta-theres-more-than-just-public-opinion-holding-it-back
Article about nuclear power in AB. Lol

Finally, operating a nuclear power plant requires vast amounts of water which, if properly treated, could return to the water system, but Alberta has a “highly variable” water supply, which will be affected by climate change in the future. 
Search for Modular reactor nothing just the mega-waterside plant. Anyways just browsing thoght that was interesting.
What wastes Plutonium about half as much as another style LWR
http://nuclearsafety.gc.ca/eng/waste/high-level-waste/index.cfm
Storing some at Chalk river.
https://world-nuclear-news.org/Articles/Trio-of-organisations-collaborate-on-Candu-decommi
More details on the CANDU fuel bundle.
Storing wastes
http://nuclearsafety.gc.ca/eng/waste/high-level-waste/index.cfm
Wet storage Drystorage
The storing of waste is a hot topic, from vegas to Canadian debate. Shoudl eb stored next to usage. Dont want it touching water. Fukushima theyre releasing it.
https://www.bbc.com/news/world-asia-56728068
Uranium oxides.
Centrifuges.
Naturally occuring uranium is super interesting. Or how Uranium is formed.
Cosmic origins of uranium.
https://www.world-nuclear.org/information-library/nuclear-fuel-cycle/uranium-resources/the-cosmic-origins-of-uranium.aspx
Wow learning some things, semi conductor properties.
https://www.world-nuclear.org/nuclear-essentials/how-is-uranium-made-into-nuclear-fuel.aspx

Lesson 3
Included some naturally forming uranium.
Mining concerns:
Processing concerns:
How have uranium mining, and extraction facilities affected communities. Loaded question.
Uraninite, formally pitchblend
https://ags.aer.ca/activities/uranium
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Uraninite
Trying to find some mine news near me.
https://paherald.sk.ca/2021/05/10/could-have-been-a-whole-lot-worse-new-north-reacts-to-this-years-budget/
This one has a 11 million $ increase to clean the Gunnar mines,.
Shut down 1963
https://www.src.sk.ca/project-cleans/gunnar-mine-and-mill-site
Look at all that cleanup.
Well 1963 isnt the pinnacle of environmentalism, Just profited and left.
So in the case of this particular mine, “Gilbert Labine” Canadas Mr. Uranium. Just makes me think.
Joe Boyle to Gilbert Labine.
https://thestarphoenix.com/news/local-news/northern-mine-cleanups-continue-province-feds-still-divided-on-cost
https://patriciasandberg.com/category/gunnar-mines/
https://www.src.sk.ca/blog/gunnar-uranium-mine-cold-war-darling-ghost-town-part-1
What a time you just prospect pick a spot, dig it all up for the government get a medal and cya later. Later the government is hesitant on the cleanups. And the communities there grateful for a opportunity to clean up the site (jobs). Hes in the miners hall of fame, after they didnt decomission they just flooded the mine and threw some old rock in there. Employed a bunch of people during ‘cold war boom’.
Just interested learning about this Labine character. Thesee people didnt make their money from thin air, they dug it out of the ground. Well he had some issues too. Anyways site looks cleaned up. He got order of Canada. https://www.gg.ca/en/honours/recipients/146-2718
trying to find some ‘extraction facilities’
https://www.epa.gov/radtown/radioactive-waste-uranium-mining-and-milling
https://www.azcentral.com/story/news/local/arizona-environment/2021/05/09/quechan-tribe-prepares-new-fight-over-gold-mine-tribal-land/4067624001/
Heres a interesting story, only mentions the uranium at the very bottom, and concerns in the past with Colorado River, however its a Canadian mining company. And, theyree being negatively impacted by the neighboring mine claim.
On mines and mills
http://www.nuclearsafety.gc.ca/eng/uranium/mines-and-mills/index.cfm
Extraction, im finding mill, I found some neat things Rabbit lake and cigar lake.
https://www.cameco.com/businesses/uranium-operations/suspended/rabbit-lake
https://thestarphoenix.com/news/local-news/cameco-developing-plan-to-clean-up-contaminated-groundwater-at-key-lake
https://nuclearsafety.gc.ca/eng/uranium/mines-and-mills/nuclear-facilities/key-lake/index.cfm
Closest perspective I can find.
https://www.estevanmercury.ca/news/business-energy/saskatchewan-wants-feds-to-pony-up-its-share-of-abandoned-uranium-mine-cleanup-1.24174842

Candu High School Northern Saskatchewan. Abandoned in 1982. from saskatchewan

Saskatchewan, feds at odds over abandoned uranium mine remediation


How do you ask a ghost town what theyre perspective is. Uranium city.
Fun fact – CANDU was handed to SNC Lavalin in 2011 for pennies.
”The transaction will place Candu technology in proven, competent hands to be serviced and deployed in Canada and abroad, meeting energy needs and stimulating a supply chain located largely in Canada.”
This comment aged well didn’t it?

Abandoned uranium mine cleanup a provincial responsibility: Sohi from saskatchewan

Opinion: Small modular nuclear reactors distract from real climate solutions from saskatchewan


another year old Re: SMR
Heres a month old :

Alta., Ont., Sask. and N.B. signing agreement to explore small nuclear reactors from saskatchewan

international
Roisser mine Nambia Its profitable and sensitive to environments. Not a good combo.
Uganda profiting from increaseed nuclear.

Energy and mineral sector makes steady progress


https://thebulletin.org/2021/02/radiation-illnesses-and-covid-19-in-the-navajo-nation/
https://www.monitor.co.ug/uganda/oped/commentary/women-should-have-place-in-mining-sector-3261574
Just of interest, theyre building a crude pipeline through a neighboring country.

L4
What kind of radiation is ionizing,
Basically the Sun , anything that can remove the electron and bring about a charge. Cosmic rays.
Gamma rays, X-rays and the higher ultraviolet part of the electromagnetic spectrum are ionizing radiation, whereas the lower energy ultraviolet, visible light, nearly all types of laser light, infrared, microwaves, and radio waves are non-ionizing radiation.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ionizing_radiation
Nice chart with a graphic left and right of the visible light spectrum
Non-ionising on the left ionizing on the right.
Theres some properties of Ionizing radiation.
Distance, inverse square.
Scattering
Absorbstion. Theres a good graphic of how the distance beams
Becquerel
Smoke detectors, static eliminators. Thats a new onw.
Carbon-14 dating.
Food irridiation, sterile insect technique.
Neutron radiation is for the reactors and weapons.
X-ray gamma used for medical and NDT.

What effect does ionizing radiation have on water.
Well Radiolysis.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Radiation_damage
Different effects per different radiations.
Alpha makes Hydrogen peroxide
Beta makes beta decay can be used in reactor.
Gamma rays; Gamma radiation induces hydrogen absorption by coppper in water. Not linking that.
You can Gamma ray waster water to break down organics.
Why is there concern about changes in matter as a result of exposure to ionizing radiation.
Well basically in laymans terms you dont want the water molecule getting destroyed while its in your body and can destroy DNA molecules.
The EPA has a good page.
https://www.epa.gov/radiation/radiation-health-effects
Has some on the concerns about changes in matter,.
This one too.
https://chem.libretexts.org/Bookshelves/General_Chemistry/Map%3A_Chemistry_(Zumdahl_and_Decoste)/20%3A_The_Nucleus_A_Chemists_View/20.7%3A_Effects_of_Radiation_on_Matter
Non ionizing makes things warm.
The blue radiation glass.
The Illinois energy prof sit eat throw away exercise.

Heres a perspective around the Bruce site.https://london.ctvnews.ca/mobile/saugeen-first-nation-debates-fate-of-canada-s-nuclear-waste-1.5430208
You know A commenter wrote, the government controls everything nuclear except when its time to clean up or pay for clean up costs.
So its no wonder these people dont trust the gov. look at the record. Its like a shitty friend there for all the good times, no where to be found when its time to clean up. Doesnt that describe Seamusa and the current gov well, there for the party thats it. Pure cronyism.

The no number.
Nuclear is like a scale,

1- Its the CANDU scientific & technological perspective
First its my personal perspective. CANDU is a has been. Pildfered and sat on by governments from the 60s. Where we could have been: look at China, japan, leading the way in exports.
If we would have focused on nuclear and recommendations from Chief engineers in the 70’s wed be laughing all the way to the bank now. No, now its lobbyist have left us quite a large gap.
So if we were nuclear powerhouse in the 70s our leader have squandered our opportunities. Throwing a little miniscule investment at the SMR’s another wasted chance. In the USA they have the EPA and argonnes national lab and government benefits to energy makers. Here we have buddy deals and SNC.
Bureacrats keen on nickel and diming projects to oblivion.If its not that its proliferation India bomb, and Romanian corruption. The technology perspective is cool. I mean what im supposed to be in awe with Bruce power. The shits outdated 70s tech and havent invested in anything new since the 70s.
Did I say 70s I meant 40s and 50s. It just becomes silly I mean I read the reccomendations from chief engineer, our government obviously didnt. When youre still talking about transporting the oil by rail in the 2020s. Id say look at Uganda, using logic and reason.
I mean everyone knows a pipeline is the most effective safest way so far to move your resources.Land.
https://www.cbc.ca/archives/entry/a-candu-fiasco-in-romania
https://www.nrcan.gc.ca/energy/energy-sources-distribution/uranium-nuclear-energy/nuclear-energy/international-perspective/7717

https://www.world-nuclear.org/reactor/default.aspx/CERNAVODA-2
I guess I would say on the Cernavoda 2 83 start, and 2007 commercial.
https://www.nucnet.org/news/romania-signs-declaration-of-intent-with-france-10-3-2020
So thats 1983 to 2021. Or 2007-2021 nothing.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_commercial_nuclear_reactors
China has the mega reactor list. The 2/67 CANDU they are using. Almost a whole 3%.
France and its 0% CANDU Reactors. 0% USA CANDU reactors. UK 0% CANDU.
Whats the most important thing with a nuclear reactor, that is safe and it gives power.
So I think the tech is cool it just its not that huge of an export maybe and not top of the line.
South Korea, UK have variety of styles,
South Korea with those impressive build times.
USA went with a couple models Canada went with one.
https://world-nuclear.org/information-library/nuclear-fuel-cycle/nuclear-power-reactors/nuclear-power-reactors.aspx

2- Perspective on the nuclear power
Ok I watched the Three mile island documentary, you can like see the concern in people, and the president going down there. Id like to say I am compassionate with those people and the fear. Though its really nothing comparable to the Chernobyl. No one wants to have loved ones go through those nuclear disaster experienced at TMI, Chernobyl Fukushima or Hiroshima. That being said everyt new reactor some new technology passive safety, the gas cooled. Liquid sodium cooled, high termperature gas cooled. Molten Salt reactor, Thorium. All sorts of cool new tech to lower wastes and improve safety systems. Recycling fuels.
https://www.world-nuclear.org/information-library/safety-and-security/safety-of-plants/safety-of-nuclear-power-reactors.aspx
The weapons vs the power generation, and medical agricultural benefits.
The nuclear weapons to sit at the big table
Ok, im lookingf at more perspectives of nuclear power.
Fly ash, from coal, more dangerous.
Compare what you get for X dollars living next to coal vs next to nuclear.
No news is good news rigth.

Pickering Nuclear Incident from ontario


es_are_fear/
https://www.bbc.com/news/world-us-canada-51084859
picture

More talk on that natural reactor.
https://www.nwmo.ca/ This is on

3- Sale of Candu tech
https://www.cbc.ca/news/business/aecl-sold-for-15m-to-snc-lavalin-1.985786
What the hell you gonna do with 15 million thats not even a whole reactor
Then the Wylfa, cancelling cause 20 billion too much..
https://www.bbc.com/news/uk-wales-54158091.
https://www.bbc.com/news/uk-wales-55833186
old wylfa

4- Residents and CANDU reactor
Living next to reactor.
There is some debate in Ontario still.

Ontario anti-nuclear group with their iron-clad “facts” from ontario

New group distributing information on nuclear waste to 30,000 households in northwestern Ontario | CBC News from ontario

Anti-nuclear flyers sent to 50,000 homes are ‘fear mongering,’ says top scientist from ontario

‘Human error,’ ‘systemic issues’ led to Pickering nuclear false alarm from canada


Its like the pickering incident reminded everyone to be scared again.

Living near a nuclear power plant… what are the dangers? from NuclearPower


Cant explain it better than senior plant operator obviously living in the area.
Obviously its desirable to live next to ontario nuclear cause expensive to live there.
Would you rather live next to Nuclear or coal, diesel.

5- Nuclear exports.
Using this one again.
South Korea
https://www.world-nuclear.org/information-library/country-profiles/countries-o-s/south-korea.aspx

France wants to be world competitor.
Russia leads in Nuclear exports in 2018 China is the only competition.
That ‘test radiological’ equipment is a Canadian export.
Like a Siemens
Then the cobalt 60 therapy radioisotope “External Beam Radiotherapy”
The Iran Uranium refining in the news
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cobalt_therapy
Walt Disney was treated with the cobalt treatment 1966

-Using Nuclear tech
Simply put even if you dont like nuclear tech its still being used around.
US Navy, and Russian Ice breakers.
Space exploration outside solar system impossible without nuclear.
Has the energy and heat required for sensitive equipment. No sun for solar panels.
Alot of that nuclear anti proliferation translates to no nuclear at all.
My opinion should be using nuclear power to phase out coal, diesel.
Mining should be done sustainably.
Not this after all the resources pilfered and land destroyed theres no money for clean up.
Profits. I understand the operation costs and building say a nuclear plant, but everyone should benefit.
Not some nickel and diming customers into oblivion. The prices should be lower to benefit all.
I think I agree with the proff Its should level out (energy usage) then finding ways to get more with less. Every country wants its own industrial evolution. Using the tech for the lower carbon, space junk.
Sulfur dioxide proven to cool the planet after volcano blasts into the atmosphere.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Stratospheric_sulfur_aerosols

Using nuclear tech. Just searching.
https://www.thesun.co.uk/tech/14990543/quasicrystal-formed-after-nuclear-bomb-test/
Quasi crystals thats neat
https://www.britannica.com/science/quasicrystal
https://www.businesswire.com/news/home/20210518005604/en/Global-Baby-Monitor-Market-Outlook-and-Forecast-Report-2021-2026-Growing-Demand-For-Smart-Baby-Monitors-Increase-In-Tech-Savvy-Millennial-Parents—ResearchAndMarkets.com
(Growth In nuclear families)
https://www.manilatimes.net/2021/05/19/opinion/columnists/topanalysis/israel-americas-frankenstein-yet-valuable-monster/873964/
https://www.politico.com/newsletters/morning-energy/2021/05/18/iea-lays-out-narrow-road-to-net-zero-795360
IEA , net zero. Immediate massive deployment of all available clean, and efficient energy technologies.
IEA -USA https://www.iea.org/ https://www.eia.gov/
Whats going on in my backyard, proposed and backlashed, coal expansions and Helium Avanti energy in AB.

ISRO plans for nuclear energy use in space


Thermal nuclear propulsion.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kosmos_954
But also NASA is capable of launching nucleics over civilization.

Extrasolar Object Interceptor Would be Able to Chase Down the Next Oumuamua or Borisov and Actually Return a Sample


Thats super interesting.
And more Advance Nuclear Thermal propulsion.

Canadian researchers tout nuclear-renewable hybrid solution for shipping


Hybrid nuclear solution for shipping.
https://www.thesun.co.uk/tech/14931325/atomik-booze-radioactive-chernobyl-apples-ukranian-spies/
This just a crazy story about atomic Vodka using apples from chernobyl.
https://www.nasa.gov/press-release/nasa-invests-105-million-in-us-small-business-technology-development
Wow investing in super heat resistant cameras.

What does uranium decay into?

The half-life of uranium-238 is 4.5 billion years. It decays into radium-226, which in turn decays into radon-222. Radon-222 becomes polonium-210, which finally decays into a stable nuclide, lead.Jul. 25, 2017

Facts About Uranium | Live Science
Decay chain and Nuclear resonance thats, Enrico Fermi

https://x-energy.com/reactors/xe-100

https://nuclearsafety.gc.ca/eng/resources/news-room/feature-articles/robotic-technologies-at-nuclear-facilities.cfm

https://nuclearsafety.gc.ca/eng/resources/learning-portal/gamma-gear-game.cfm
Play the gamma game lol.

https://nuclearsafety.gc.ca/eng/resources/health/health-studies/eldorado/index.cfm#faq
Eldorado study.

That train truck transport experiment.

https://www.mdpi.com/2076-0787/7/1/5/html mostly abandoned
alex mcpherson story
https://thestarphoenix.com/news/local-news/uranium-city-trip-highlights-our-ties-to-natural-resources

1- my assignment specific Uranium and supernova
https://world-nuclear.org/information-library/nuclear-fuel-cycle/uranium-resources/the-cosmic-origins-of-uranium.aspx
Cosmic origins of uranium.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Near-Earth_supernova
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Parsec#/media/File:M87_jet.jpg Parsec and images
1987A super nova
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/SN_1987A
Archive: Double Rings of a Supernova Explosion (NASA, Chandra, 02/22/07)
The kepler supernova
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kepler%27s_Supernova
https://www.nasa.gov/audience/forstudents/5-8/features/nasa-knows/what-is-a-supernova.html
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Neutron_star
Neutron star merger https://youtu.be/sgkDoSbHHVU
https://www.e-education.psu.edu/eme444/node/264

Depending on what happens forms a black hole or a bigger neutron star.
https://www.space.com/neutron-star-crash-made-gold-uranium.html
This amazing tokamak articificial sun https://www.scmp.com/news/china/science/article/3135332/chinese-artificial-sun-hits-new-mark-fusion-energy-mission
https://www.world-nuclear.org/information-library/current-and-future-generation/nuclear-fusion-power.aspx
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Discovery_of_nuclear_fission
https://www.britannica.com/science/atom/Discovery-of-radioactivity
https://www.radioactivity.eu.com/site/pages/Neutrons_Moderators.htm
https://www.quora.com/Why-do-slower-neutrons-in-nuclear-reactors-have-a-higher-probability-of-causing-fission-with-certain-isotopes-of-uranium-unlike-fast-neutrons
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chalk_River_Laboratories
https://www.nrc.gov/reading-rm/basic-ref/students/science-101/what-are-different-types-of-radiation.html
Chicago Pile-1
Decay chain https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Radioactive_decay_chains_diagram.svg
http://large.stanford.edu/courses/2011/ph241/olson1/
sun fusion used this person photo.

https://pixabay.com/vectors/radiation-radioactivity-nuclear-5407733/
particle penetration photo.

2- More CANDU specifics.
https://www.cns-snc.ca/media/history/ZEEP/ZEEP_CNSBulletin_Fall1995.html
…Canadian Nuclear Program.
Experiments in the NRX, NRU, and WR-1 reactors, and work in AECL’s laboratories and Canadian industry, …
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/NRX
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/National_Research_Universal_reactor
https://www.cns-snc.ca/media/history/wr-1/wr-1_1.html
https://www.cns-snc.ca/media/history/wr-1/wr-1_3.html
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/WR-1
This WR-1 research reactor used water, and “The main problem with using normal water as a moderator is that it also absorbs some of the neutrons. The neutron balance in the natural isotopic mix is so close that even a small number being absorbed in this fashion means there are too few to maintain criticality.”

ZED-2 Research Reactor


Candu 6 , Candu 9
https://energyeducation.ca/encyclopedia/CANDU_reactor
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Atomic_Energy_of_Canada_Limited
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Heavy_water
Its a water molecule but instead of Hydrogens bonded to a Oxygen. Replaces the Hydrogens with Deuteriums. https://www.sciencedirect.com/topics/earth-and-planetary-sciences/deuterium
Adding a neutron to the Hydrogen atom.
https://energyeducation.ca/encyclopedia/CANDU_reactor
http://nuclearsafety.gc.ca/eng/reactors/power-plants/nuclear-power-plant-safety-systems/index.cfm

How a Nuclear Reactor Works


https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pressurized_heavy-water_reactor
CANDU vs light water and the proliferation that did occur.
Its all about the possible upgrades, upgrades in fuel cooling, passive walk away safety.
https://canteach.candu.org/Content%20Library/19980101.pdf
Differences between the CANDU6/CANDU9, and LWR pros and cons.
https://inis.iaea.org/collection/NCLCollectionStore/_Public/30/057/30057728.pdf?r=1&r=1
Talking about SEU fuels slightly enriched Uranium.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Advanced_CANDU_reactor
Advanced CANDU, its the Gen III using more light water and more enricheed fuels
https://thetyee.ca/Analysis/2021/05/26/US-Experts-Trudeau-Your-Nuclear-Dream-May-Turn-Nightmare/
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Operation_Smiling_Buddha

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nuclear_energy_in_Argentina
https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Central_Nuclear_Atucha_I_-_II.JPG

https://www.bnamericas.com/en/news/argentina-power-watch-renewables-tender-new-energy-minister-atucha-iii
https://www.world-nuclear-news.org/NN-Atucha-3-contract-signed-0409145.html

2 billion.
http://www.nucleartourist.com/type/candu2.htm
https://www.canadiangeographic.ca/article/candu-canadian-success-story Im using ur picture (Photo: Bruce Power/Cameco Corp.)
Fuel channel
https://www.energy.gov/ne/articles/5-fast-facts-about-spent-nuclear-fuel
https://inis.iaea.org/collection/NCLCollectionStore/_Public/49/101/49101472.pdf

https://www.weforum.org/agenda/2018/11/destroying-nuclear-waste-to-create-clean-energy-it-can-be-done/
https://www.ivey.uwo.ca/energycentre/blog/2019/06/a-closer-look-at-hydro-quebecs-electricity-price-advantage-over-ontario/
Prices average kWh per Canadian household
Theres so many discrepencies for kwh per hour, the statscan says 117.7 Gigajoules which makes 32685kwh per year. https://www150.statcan.gc.ca/t1/tbl1/en/tv.action?pid=2510006001 (2015 AB)
https://www.eia.gov/tools/faqs/faq.php?id=97&t=3 USA household says low 6296 kWh Hawaii to Higher Louisiana 14787 kWh average of 10649kWh
Just a personal note was much easier finding recent data about USA than it was on the statscan page, stats can was lacking- to say the least. Found some data from 6 years ago
https://world-nuclear.org/information-library/economic-aspects/economics-of-nuclear-power.aspx

Cost of Nuclear Power in Ontario


http://www.world-nuclear.org/uploadedfiles/org/info/pdf/economicsnp.pdf
https://nuclearsafety.gc.ca/eng/reactors/power-plants/regulatory-oversight-report-npp/npp-report-2014.cfm wet storage
https://www.researchgate.net/figure/Overview-of-MACSTOR-11_fig3_323524464
MACSTOR

https://www.iaea.org/newscenter/multimedia/videos/onkalo-a-solution-for-nuclear-waste
Finland, Okanlo site.

Using nuclear tech
Crookes tuber XRAY https://openclipart.org/detail/274838/illustration-of-crookes-xray-tube
HIFU ultrasound https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Diagram_showing_liver_lesioning_using_a_HIFU_transducer_2.png

Marie Curie quote
Nothing in life is to be feared, it is only to be understood. Now is the time to understand more, so that we may fear less.
https://www.pbs.org/wgbh/nova/article/first-nuclear-chain-reaction-changed-the-world-75-years-ago-today/
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/X-ray
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fluoroscopy
https://world-nuclear.org/information-library/nuclear-fuel-cycle/conversion-enrichment-and-fabrication/uranium-enrichment.aspx
https://www.wsj.com/articles/iran-nuclear-fuel-production-drops-sharply-following-natanz-explosion-11622482066
https://www.anl.gov/education/argonne-discovery-offers-new-way-to-coat-nuclear-materials
https://www.anl.gov/article/5-ways-argonne-scientists-are-powering-ahead-on-nuclear-microreactors
https://www.nrc.gov/materials/fuel-cycle-fac/ur-enrichment.html
touching on some laser excitements.
https://www.atomicheritage.org/history/nth-country-experiment
nth country experiment, its a good one.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Crookes_tube
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cathode_ray
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/X-ray_fluorescence
ultrasound
https://www.ob-ultrasound.net/hydrophone.html
https://www.ob-ultrasound.net/history.html
https://www.ob-ultrasound.net/brown-on-ultrasound.html
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hydrophone
M Richardson, in 1912 in response to the Titanic disaster, suggested both airborn and underwater echo- ranging schemes, and, in 1914, RA Fessenden experimentally demonstrated echo-ranging underwater detection of an iceberg. The transducer that Langevin used in the earlier days was a mosaic of thin quartz crystals glued between two steel plates (the composite having a resonant frequency of about 150 KHz), mounted in a housing suitable for submersion. In the underwater community the word transducer means a device that has the capability of both transmitting and receiving sound. A projector is a device that transmits sound underwater. Projectors are used in active systems. In active systems, after the sound has been generated, the sound waves travel to a target and return as echoes to be detected. Projectors are usually used near their resonance frequencies where they provide the highest acoustic output.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Robert_William_Boyle
https://labblog.uofmhealth.org/health-tech/ultrasound-technology-developed-at-u-m-now-clinical-trials-for-liver-cancer
Thats some new histotripsy focused ultrasound.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/High-intensity_focused_ultrasound
Ct scan its xray
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/CT_scan
https://www.siemens-healthineers.com/computed-tomography
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Siemens

AI triage solution for PE and aortic dissection receives FDA clearance and CE mark


https://www.med-technews.com/news/ai-and-vr-in-healthcare/emergency-ai-triage-system-receives-fda-clearance-and-ce-mar/
https://www.ctvnews.ca/health/can-we-use-radiation-to-treat-alzheimer-s-canadian-pilot-study-finds-improved-cognition-after-ct-scans-1.5449139
MRI
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Magnetic_resonance_imaging
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nuclear_magnetic_resonance
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Stern-Gerlach_experiment
https://www.techtimes.com/articles/261017/20210603/covid-19-lung-diseases-observation-better-%E2%80%94-scientists-use-xenon.htm

Mapping How the Brain Organizes Semantic Activity


funny https://www.dailystar.co.uk/real-life/doctor-spills-beans-creepy-reason-24238789
agri
https://www.mcgill.ca/oss/article/health-you-asked/food-irradiation-dangerous
https://www.iaea.org/
https://www.iaea.org/newscenter/news/new-tsetse-sorting-technology-leads-to-more-efficient-pest-control
https://www.iaea.org/newscenter/news/argentinas-newly-recognized-fruit-fly-free-areas-expedite-fresh-fruit-exports-to-china
https://www.iaea.org/topics/food-and-agriculture
https://www.iaea.org/newscenter/news/living-in-harmony-with-mother-earth-user-friendly-instant-tool-kit-helps-indian-farmers-determine-soil-organic-carbon

industrial commercial
https://www.iaea.org/services/key-programmes/nutec-plastics
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Radiocarbon_dating
https://www.iaea.org/newscenter/news/world-water-day-2021-optimizing-water-resources-with-nuclear-and-isotopic-techniques
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Arktika_(2016_icebreaker)
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nuclear-powered_icebreaker
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Electromagnetic_radiation
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Xenon_arc_lamp
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Neutron_poison
https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:%D0%9A%D1%80%D0%B8%D0%B3%D0%BE%D0%BB%D0%B0%D0%BC_%22%D0%90%D1%80%D0%BA%D1%82%D0%B8%D0%BA%D0%B0%22.jpg
icebreaker pic
Enrichments
URENCO Centrifuges

DU munitions
https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:U-238_DU_ammunition.JPG

SLEIC 6
Siemens newer MRI
Siemines wheelie CT scan https://www.fiercebiotech.com/medtech/fda-clears-siemens-wheeled-bedside-ct-scanner
Siemens CT https://www.flickr.com/photos/thirteenofclubs/5490413146
Xenon arclamp and imax
https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Xenon_IMAX_1.jpg

the texas pic

Perspectives
Chief engineer.
https://www.cns-snc.ca/media/pdf_doc/position_papers/421_RNNR_Rpt05_GR-e.pdf
https://cns-snc.ca/media/history/pioneers/g_brooks/gbrooks.html Broken links
https://www.cns-snc.ca/cns/history/
https://canteach.candu.org/Content%20Library/19720103.pdf
http://nuceng.ca/canteachvba/nDan%20Meneley.htm
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1973_oil_crisis
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Three_Mile_Island_accident
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chernobyl_disaster
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Elephant%27s_Foot_(Chernobyl)
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chernobylite
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Trinitite
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Corium_(nuclear_reactor)
https://www.bbc.com/news/world-asia-56728068

https://www.theglobeandmail.com/politics/article-internal-audit-lays-bare-problems-at-public-health-agency-of-canada/
https://www.theglobeandmail.com/canada/article-ottawa-was-told-about-potential-problems-at-public-health-agency-top/
Scientists forced to dumb down reports
https://www.history.navy.mil/our-collections/photography/numerical-list-of-images/nhhc-series/nh-series/NH-85000/NH-85526.html
Pics of former president Jimmy Carter doiung Navy things.
economics of a reactor https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=cbeJIwF1pVY
this germany info about https://www.nber.org/papers/w26598
The social cost of this shift from nuclear to coal is approximately 12 billion dollars per year. Over 70% of this cost comes from the increased mortality risk associated with exposure to the local air pollution emitted when burning fossil fuels. 

https://www.bbc.com/future/article/20210419-the-end-of-the-worlds-capital-of-brown-coal
https://nationalpost.com/news/canada/newsalertopg-says-alert-about-pickering-nuclear-plant-was-sent-in-error
https://www.cer-rec.gc.ca/en/data-analysis/energy-markets/provincial-territorial-energy-profiles/provincial-territorial-energy-profiles-ontario.html

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Steam_reforming
.
https://thestarphoenix.com/news/local-news/northern-mine-cleanups-continue-province-feds-still-divided-on-cost
https://www.mbcradio.com/2018/11/sask-says-ottawa-not-paying-for-gunnar-mine-remediation Im using your picture

https://thestarphoenix.com/news/local-news/gunnar-mine-reclamation-forging-ahead-despite-legal-battle-over-cost
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Depleted_uranium
https://www.cbc.ca/radio/thehouse/chris-hall-there-s-no-path-to-net-zero-without-nuclear-power-says-o-regan-1.5730197
https://oilprice.com/Latest-Energy-News/World-News/Tanzania-Uganda-Finalize-Oil-Pipeline-Deal.html
Even Uganda has a pipeline.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gerald_W._Brown
RC) that the fire testing used to qualify Thermo-Lag was inadequate. By the time of the disclosure, many nuclear plants had already installed the faulty product.
https://www.nei.org/fundamentals/nuclear-fuel
one fuel pellet compared to the rest.
https://www.bbc.com/news/uk-wales-55833186
https://www.bbc.com/news/uk-wales-54158091
https://tradingeconomics.com/japan/exports-by-category
Japan 121.64 billion nuclear exports 2020.
https://www.cbc.ca/news/business/aecl-sold-for-15m-to-snc-lavalin-1.985786
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/SNC-Lavalin_affair

https://www.nrcan.gc.ca/our-natural-resources/energy-sources-distribution/nuclear-energy-uranium/canadas-small-nuclear-reactor-action-plan/21183
action plans and roadmaps.
https://thetyee.ca/Analysis/2021/05/26/US-Experts-Trudeau-Your-Nuclear-Dream-May-Turn-Nightmare/
https://biv.com/article/2021/05/canadas-nuclear-ambitions-linchpin-carbon-free-future-or-path-greenwash-oilsands
https://www.world-nuclear-news.org/Articles/SMR-160-completes-first-phase-of-Canadian-review
https://world-nuclear-news.org/Articles/Report-highlights-economic-benefits-of-Canadian-SM

https://www.forbes.com/sites/arielcohen/2020/10/29/the-future-of-small-modular-reactors-department-of-energy-awards-135-billion-to-nuscale-power-for-smr-development/

https://world-nuclear-news.org/Articles/X-energy-formally-begins-SMR-partnership-with-DOE

https://x-energy.com/reactors/xe-100
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_commercial_nuclear_reactors

Home

Home


https://usnc.com/
https://www.wsj.com/articles/escape-from-yucca-mountain-biden-administration-promises-progress-on-nuclear-waste-11620984602
https://atlantic.ctvnews.ca/n-l-premier-says-ex-pm-chretien-pitched-nuclear-waste-storage-plan-in-labrador-1.5371444

cask test
Natural reactor
https://www.forbes.com/sites/startswithabang/2018/10/04/earths-first-nuclear-reactor-is-1-7-billion-years-old-and-was-made-naturally/?sh=1814fab25d94

Space Future

https://www.space.com/nuclear-power-spacecraft-after-perseverance-rover
https://www.space.com/mars-rover-perseverance-nuclear-power-source-explained.html
https://www.nbcnews.com/mach/science/stephen-hawking-says-humans-must-leave-earth-within-600-years-ncna818926
https://www.energy.gov/articles/nuclear-heart-cassini
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Enceladus
https://www.cnbc.com/2019/07/17/why-jeff-bezos-spends-billions-on-space-technology.html
https://www.vanityfair.com/news/2019/06/jeff-bezos-wants-to-move-industry-to-space-to-save-the-earth

Cosmos
pic
https://www.pbs.org/wgbh/nova/article/Sagan-Time-Travel/
Enceladus - October 2008
Enceladus
https://www.space.com/nuclear-reactor-for-mars-outpost-2022.html
Marsbase nuclear
https://www.space.com/5850-nasa-eyes-nuclear-power-moon-base.html
moonbase nuclear

___
Nothing by authority; Boyle & Anti-Aristotelianism

CANDU 2.1

Its September 15 2020. Heres some homework fodder. Second time in this class I got 51%, It was condensed course. Gotta do another CANDU project. Same exact one.
Im indifferent. Got alot more time this semester. I can build off what I had previously. Lets see I can identify my perspective already, I am for nuclear.. Its a great equalizer, can be a great leveler too. The Candu is outdated. Theres Gen IV reactors available. People that say theres no money in Nuclear are dishonest. Theres also risk. That insurance companies wont cover. Insurance companies they greatest scammers of all time of course they dont want to participate in energy distributed to the poor. Take a wild guess which ‘nuclear perspective’ appears first in my search. First before I reveal the entity. Take note of China and Russia reactor constructions under dictatorship rule, no problems. Here the enemies of nuclear energy are powerful lobbyists like Sierra Club. Sierra Club pushing for renewable only and no nuclear. Like I said powerful lobbyists. What is their ulterior motivations? How fitting bunch of bazillionaires pushing for eugenics and more control.

It is time for people to become educated in Nuclear, meanwhile its booming industry in China Russia elsewhere. Russia also having suffered and caused meltdown problems in the past. Doesnt seem to be holding them back now. Powerfull lobbyists from where, and why holding us back. Its depressing the future of nuclear in the West is dependent on politics , that has nothing to do with science. Clearly a great flaw in democracy. These people trying to debate that inciunerating garbage and trees like the amazon is better for the environment. “Clear those trees for sugarcane for ethanol.” A la planet of the humans how can you ignore that movie almost at 9.7 million views. Ironically doesnt mention anything nuclear. Sure does point some fingers to you know who. Sure ill take it with a grain of salt, but its definitely relavant, and these green illusions. Just like “moronic bold green plans no one asked for JT ’20 ” Yes, we all want to save the planets, except some people really dont. Its not nuclear related so much but BC banned singlke use plastics. Yea i guess the recycling turned out to be a scam. All the plastic heading for the incinerator. Thanks green single use plastics. Meanwhile governments have banned the people from using single use plastics, lets see what happens to Coca Cola sweet fuck all. Maybe that should give you an idea how I feel. My buddy Shawn says: Its like we maxed out the oil energy technology tree. Didnt even look at alternatives cause money.When as a human species should be using all the tools available. Thats how I feel about Nuclear. The one thing ius human corruption. Imagine a perfect world scenario, free energy for all citizens. Would the key-holder turn it on humanity and cause destruction. Maybe with free energy and enough food and water people wouldnt be so focused on destruction, and killing with nuclear arms, or without. They claim its a deterrant. Anyways im grateful we arent in a cold war.Gratefull for those lobbyist before me, lobbying for nuclear disarmament. Now in the 2020s billionaires cant be trusted, doing evil things under the guise of environmentalism, or students. Grateful for opportunity to learn about energy and the world and humbly offer my perspective and solutions. Yea I could do better than this abomination government. Facts. I wrote it in my last one, you should have to complete a basic course on nuclear, before being able to gee fingers in policy. Shouldnt be the other way around. Being taught about nuclear while in a seat of power how backwards is that. Then the experts are left pleading to the dunce politicians. Backwards. In fact the only wayu to achieve better society would be to base politics and policies off science. Instead of money. Money the status quo. yea the one thing about true honesty it cant be bought out. Silenced but not for long.

Not to mention, the world has the right to be worried about nuclear. I dont think i have to post pictures of vaporized people, and cities to prove my point. I see it like this, Deuterium reactors are safe. Good luck convincing people that. And then you see something like the Iran missile launch on a civilian airliner. And these people want nuclear weapon capability.. Im suspect on the “Nuclear Responsibility” displayed, yea by dudes in 7th century wizard robes hell bent on killing people. Get the fuck outta here. Theres ur problem. Governments like Soviet Russia, ignoring the fallout basically until they were caught red handed by Sweden. Is that complete disregard for safety and human lives what we can count on from the Communist China Party. Im sure they really listen to the Sierra Club. More like theyd surely have a interest in anti-nuclear lobbyists in America.
That seems to be a trend, energy for me but not for you. All things considered a balanced approach is what I would be after. A solid mix of oil/gas, renewables, actual environmental policies, not just taxes and destroying economies. Its almost as is these people have no financial, science, resources, or economic knowledge. Its like who is the only ones with 2 campaign planes during a ecological emergency. Maybe nuclear could solve the crisis so that billionaires can keep living decadently.
Alright that settles how i think. Im finishing off this Asimov book. Im on Foundation and Empire. Ive been recently thinking of Asimov and society and what he would think of it now. He wavers between a societal innefective breakdown to a efficient empire. So its like society can work, but people can screw it up just as bad. Processes. Too much law, not enough justice. Well wrote a thousand words on my perspective mostly opinions. Im proud of Candu Tech but its all but inaccessible to me. its a has been, at at the end of the road.
___
Logging a bibliography. Just doing general search.

https://www.newcivilengineer.com/latest/developer-cans-20bn-wylfa-nuclear-power-plant-proposal-15-09-2020/
This one is interesting its the cancelling of proposed Advanced Boiling Water Reactors on UK island. Theres a old Reactor site there. Horizon and Hitachi parent company pulling out some 20 bn pound deal. From the article: “Horizon, which is owned by Hitachi, has yet to comment. The UK government has also declined to comment.

The plans were for two advanced boiling water reactors (ABWR) using a combination of Hitachi and GE technology. If built, the plant would have provided 2.9GW of power to the national grid.

Horizon was hoping construction would get underway in the next year and be completed in the mid-2020s, with design maturity meaning the projects are low-risk, as Hitachi has already built four other nuclear power stations using the same technology.”

https://www.bbc.com/news/uk-wales-54158091
Here is a BBC UK article on the subject. Some interesting things were critics questioning how safe it really is. How green it really is. Its expensive and thats the main reason for them dropping out. Critiques of governments talking big plans and not actualizing anything. Some comments on the Brexit economy. People were going to school to learn the skills for this now cancelled project. I guess that interesting to look at nuclear during economic downturn, and green energy and jobs. Considering 20 billion value was too much. What can that mean for our own deficit.

https://www.horizonnuclearpower.com/ https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hitachi

https://www.castanet.net/edition/news-story-310584-4-.htm
Treasury Board President Jean-Yves Duclos defended Monday the government’s plan to spend more, despite a projected deficit this year of almost $350 billion.
So we coulda had 17.5 nuclear power plants. Instead nothing, but massive deficit, and nothing to show for it. This government doesn’t know the
value of money.

https://oilprice.com/Alternative-Energy/Renewable-Energy/Google-Sets-Aggressive-Carbon-Reduction-Target-For-2030.html
This is google pledging to be carbon zero, but also suggesting nuclear waste be put to good use. Thats kinda interesting. What type of applications could you use nuclear waste

https://hackaday.com/2020/01/29/alternative-uses-for-nuclear-waste/
Thats a interesting link they show the cassini battery, using fuel again . Other reactors dont even use solid fuels. Like LFTR https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Liquid_fluoride_thorium_reactor
The thorium reactor has some advantages and challenges too. Costs. Big lists.

https://www.stripes.com/news/pacific/americans-not-fully-conscious-of-chinese-military-threat-to-us-commander-says-1.645054
https://www.politico.com/newsletters/morning-defense/2020/09/15/pentagon-diversity-push-not-reflected-in-new-hires-790412
‘A STACK OF CAPABILITIES’: The top admiral in charge of the nuclear arsenal warned on Monday that China is developing new offensive nuclear capabilities that are inconsistent with its stated policy of never using nuclear weapons first.

“I see China developing a stack of capabilities that would be inconsistent with a no-first-use policy,” Adm. Chas Richard, commander of U.S. Strategic Command, told reporters at the Pentagon.

China, he noted, has already built 255 ships for its new coast guard in just seven years. “Their strategic forces are next on their to-do list … and I’m trying to posture us for the threat that we’re going to face, not the one that we have today.”

How many months since Hiroshima. 901 months 1 week. Anyways some current events on nuclear weaponry, in the world today.

https://www.miragenews.com/new-study-presents-specific-isotope-responsive-breathing-transition-in-flexible-mofs/
Basically a cost effective solution of making deuterium and separating it from hydrogen gas. Not totally sure how it works but its legit and its on Journal of America Chemistry Society.
Isotopes.

https://www.newsweek.com/iran-enrich-stable-isotopes-atomic-agency-claims-1531872 Iran enriching with centrifuges.

https://www.therailwayhub.co.uk/22378/network-rail-publish-decarbonisation-strategy-by-2050/
Nuclear powered rail in UK no other description.

https://www.israeldefense.co.il/en/node/45306
This one interesting about “advanced electromechanical technologies” global market.

https://www.epmmagazine.com/opinion/improving-cell-delivery-with-abcam/ Bionic nanoparticles, imaghing live cells, delivering nuclear material. Sounds pretty interesting.

Wow alot of covid crap fodder news to sift through, like alot. CBC article about pipeline i wont post.
However this one talks about SMRs small modular reactors.
https://www.cbc.ca/news/canada/saskatchewan/moe-letter-trudeau-green-agenda-1.5724670

so i guess I specifically set the search to “using” nuclear technology which the above isnt ^^

https://prospect.org/world/china-conundrum-deterrence-as-dominance/
“Advanced tech wins wars”
A American perspective
I read the article, I perused the essay.
Essay claims the War no side wants.
American politics.
https://www.nytimes.com/2020/09/15/us/politics/trump-israel-peace-emirates-bahrain.html
“There was at least one potentially discordant moment between them, however, when Mr. Trump said that if re-elected, he would try to strike a deal with Iran, which has so far refused to negotiate with him after he withdrew from the 2015 nuclear deal brokered by the Obama administration.”

https://financialpost.com/pmn/business-pmn/saudi-arabias-atomic-ambition-is-being-fueled-by-a-un-watchdog
Came up in a search but basically: Nuclear non-proliferation experts have long warned that without adequate safeguards, IAEA technical cooperation can unwittingly help countries develop weapons capabilities.

Wow lots of market reports.
Some criticism of Sierra Club actually impeding green energy with nuclear and hydro.
___
Sept 16 2020

In UK theyve cancelled construction of new advance boiling water reactor cause it cost too much 20 billion. (pounds sterling)
Here in the New Greeen Canada, spending 400 bn deficit no reactor, nothing to show for it.
Did the conversion, could have had 11 new Horizon Hitachi Reactors in Canada.
This government is wasteful, during a ‘climate emergency’.
Recent CBC articles I read such garbage, I would never host them on this site.
___
Sept 17 2020
180 days since the border closed, closed to legals. You can still fly in ‘diseased’
Apperently Roxam road is indeed closed

https://bc.ctvnews.ca/were-you-on-these-flights-b-c-adds-to-its-covid-19-exposure-warning-list-1.5107480

https://www.newsbreak.com/amp/n/1531834034272

https://canada.constructconnect.com/dcn/news/economic/2020/09/snc-lavalin-awarded-bruce-power-pump-seal-contract
6.9 mil for a multi-year contract bruce Power. Can8 Pumpo seals. SNC R&D elastopolymer. Corrupt disliked company making seals. Its almost as if youd expect something to go catastrophically wrong.Anyways, the photo of Bruce Power are pretty cool, sen a water tank, some exhaust water lanes. Huge turbine. Every time i think of myself working at the nuclear factory, im like ‘If Homer can do it I can do it too.’ Humorous.

Or, I think of the retro Sim-City when player has a meltdown, you get all these atoms on the field, you cant remove. Build around it.

Chernobyl wildlife refuge.
___
Sept 19

Chris Hall: There’s no path to net-zero without nuclear power, says O’Regan from canada


interesting debate about nuclear
Most interestingly was the formation of ‘green’ parties during the time being against nuclear proliferation.
Thats a core belief then.
//
Case and point about something different.
https://www.world-nuclear-news.org/Articles/Nuclears-flexibility-is-the-magic-to-create-a-clea
Just reading some of this, CANDU tech mentioned by Minister of resources Seamus. Case and point , after wasting billions now hes like oh we need a reactor.
Besides gonna need oil and gas to build that reactor etc. After watching the failed veterans affairs and court cases, as a veteran you’d expect some kind of ‘professional’ or someone with expertise. Just like the failed health minister, clueless on how the pandemic early warning system was essentially scrapped. Thats the one down fall of nuclear: plain corruption. The only way I could expect nuclear to succeed and that’s lead by science not politicians. After being caught swindling money, do your really want these people touching anything nuclear, or safety. That requires common sense. Searching up nuclear SNC contracts. Its gonna be Romania CANDU part 2, here in Canada. Would you rather nuclear in Canada be all hastily built with buddy deals, or built properly. Thats all I found for those parameters within the week.

Found a article bashing Erin Otoole climate policy from ontario lawyer; more alberta bashing.
https://raisethehammer.org/article/3782/erin_otooles_climate_policy_is_insincere_and_unserious

I disagree with carbon tax for farmers, and taxed for what so government can piss away the deficit value of 11 Horizon Hitachi gen iii abwr.
Not even run a parliament, or uphold the law.
This government doesnt know the value of money.
Grown ups is not the adjective I would use.
Meanwhile, no reactors, nothing to show for it.
2 planes in a climate emergency, thats rich.
Claim theyre green.
More like free corruption under the guise of environmentalism. (+students)
Why wasnt it done in 2015 if it was the greatest thing since sliced bread.
Naw: its just flip flopping around 100% virtue signaling.
Its disappointing and disillusioning to this ex soldier.

Searching “Technological\technology.”

https://seekingalpha.com/news/3607566-cameco-bruce-power-to-add-1600-fuel-bundles-for-unit-restart
Heres something different. Cameco, Bruce power.
Schedule restart of Reactor 6.
2 Billion in revenue.
1.7/20 the price of a new reactor in profits. Just going off that Hitachi build.
Showing pictures of ‘greenery’ next to the nuclear is the main effect.
Theres some jobs like dozen maybe. Says, work next to a lake.
The more I do this assignment; If Homer S can be nuclear safety technician so can I. lol.
Inspired by Homer.
Thats jokes, nuclear so safe idiot Homer Simpson can do it. Argument complete.

More market research.
___
Sept 22, I dont care how long it takes me yes im behind though. Gotta get to it.
Right away searching some perspectives.
https://www.albawaba.com/business/pr/green-energy-transition-happening-will-be-tough-some%E2%80%99-qf-leader-tells-global
This just having some realistic perspective on ‘green’ energy people talking about decade, if not more of research and development. R&D to get out of some carbon plan. More then just a carbon tax, thats still prettty muich license to pollute. Get rich from selling resources should be a problem paying the tax. Anwyays could do alot more. Saying money is the driving factor. Theyre not wrong. Hes right switching wont happen overnight. But that is somewhat encouraging.

This one NC
https://www.postandcourier.com/opinion/commentary/commentary-more-work-needed-to-expand-solar-energy-boost-sc-economy-conservation/article_fbb276e4-fc3a-11ea-847a-03f9dcd7f33a.html
Lead me to read about VC Summer plant disaster. Similar to the Ohio story customers overpaying and getting ripped off at the very least. But learning a bit about the ‘leak. Also this promo for solar panels. Kindof disillusioned by solar panels, make your energy bill cheaper. And the mining, acting like its nothing. Someone’s making some money installing that 14 acre field. The only word ‘nuclear’once is right at the bottom of the page. Against the base load review act, where the energy company can charge customers for projects its building or something like that.
its like heavy Math on my mind, cant keep up. I have all the fucking problems piling up and here im researching this crap. As a product being sold, its subject to corruption and lazyness.

– A story about President Trump. Includes the word nuclear. About blocking a vote in the USA nuclear option. Has nothing to do with what im doing.

– A story about someone at Fukushima relating the crisis to covid and how leaders shouldnt be ‘fake’. Thanks geniuses.
https://sloanreview.mit.edu/article/the-two-roles-leaders-must-play-in-a-crisis/?og=Home+Tiled

-A story about Turkey helping Iran for ‘ peaceful ‘ nuclear uses.

More market analyses.
Moderator water for reactors.
Its everywhere saturated.

https://www.timesonline.com/story/news/2020/09/21/virtual-event-discusses-air-quality-county-emergency-management/5856583002/
This one some safety perspective. Beaver county, thats beaver county Pennsylvania. Anyways talks of a nuclear evacuation zone. Guess thats part of living next to nuclear, just hope the technicians are better than Homer and able to get the meltdown message out before the melt into glowing sludge.
Air quality indeed. Its gonna be all virtual meetings from now on. Cause disease and air quality will render face to face meeting obsolete. Considering what ive seen in 2020.
I mean especially what happened at Beirut port you gotta have some safety. Gotta say my research hasnt shown much nuclear error. I did see the leak at VC for something new. Im juts more and more concerned about the corruption aspect, either for money, construction contracts, weapons purposes.I dont think youd get much luck making a weapon with CANDU fuel rods.

Searching those weird things found another perspective article
https://atomicinsights.com/radioactive-isotopes-are-far-too-valuable-to-waste/
Its interesting discussing the nuclear waste, such as of that of a pork factory eww. That makes sense though using all the bi products. Anyways its a waste issue has become a argument counterpoint against nuclear. Its obviously an argument but some of it based on unfopunded fear writes this author. Anyways it was just research im curious.

http://www.ccnr.org/india_press.html
CANDU reactors are the only commercially available nuclear reactors that produce both plutonium and tritium
Oh look its Sierra Club.
Government being irresponsible, mind you this is 12 years old. So Sierra club is against the sale of nuclear tech to Indian specifically in this case. India now has a ‘breakthrough tech’.
Pretty sure I wrote something about India and Pakistan and dont want nuclear war. Nuclear responsibility. Hm seems like the rules are just for North America everywhere else is the real wild west. Either politics should adopt science or we should abandon politics as they are.

https://emm.newsbrief.eu/NewsBrief/alertedition/en/JRCNuclearSecurity.html
Heres a cool page with some recent stories.

https://saudigazette.com.sa/article/598311/World/Europe/Nuclear-icebreaker-Arktika-heading-to-Murmansk
This one shows a Nuclear powered icebreaker. Looks badass its Russian its cool can track it to Baltic Sea. using marine traffic.

linked to Canadian artic sovereignty
https://www.cbc.ca/news/canada/north/russia-says-world-largest-nuclear-icebreaker-arctic-voyage-1.5733729

https://www.cbsnews.com/news/russia-touts-huge-new-nuclear-powered-icebreaker-as-proof-the-arctic-is-ours/

https://aeon.co/videos/could-the-weirdest-solution-to-the-problem-of-nuclear-waste-also-be-the-best?utm_source=Aeon+Newsletter&utm_campaign=29c367f157-EMAIL_CAMPAIGN_2020_09_16_05_54&utm_medium=email&utm_term=0_411a82e59d-29c367f157-71677340
found a silly movie, about nuclear waste, its kinda interesting though . About the cross generational challenges of maybe warning someone about toxic waste and in 10000 years what language will people speak. then using a cat cause cts have been in culture that has to be the most interesting thing. Just the problem solving is weird. Ray cat its a thing probably one of the more interesting things I found lol. Interesting cross generational challenge or speaking to another generation.

___
Sept 24. Not much new on the nuclear research front damned math taking up all my priority, and time. Anyways here I am. “Sale of”
https://canada.constructconnect.com/dcn/news/economic/2019/12/snc-lavalin-is-awarded-chinese-reactor-contract
Nothing like corrupt companies doing safety standards in China. Exclusive Licensee.
https://canada.constructconnect.com/dcn/news/economic/2019/11/snc-lavalin-consortium-wins-13-9m-nuclear-engineering-contract

Something more recent
https://www.humboldtjournal.ca/news/saskatchewan-sets-up-nuclear-secretariat-to-plan-for-reactors-1.24159581

Found some data on the ” Small modular Reactors ”
https://www.world-nuclear.org/information-library/nuclear-fuel-cycle/nuclear-power-reactors/small-nuclear-power-reactors.aspx

smallest modular reactor closest to me, probably Bilibino Siberia
Theres some pictures its cool. On the google earth.

Holtec USA and SNC

Then theres terrestrial energy
https://www.terrestrialenergy.com/
A whole 8 jobs lol.

Starcore Quebec.
This one using some newer tech in china using helium to cool, that cannot becoem radioactive according to the laws of physics! Says so on thepage

Home Page


zero jobs
Starcore with a mining company.

Rolls Royce USA

Ralph Hart from Northern Nuclear but found a youtube video. Otherwise Cant find a site of ‘Northern Nuclear” Apparently Ralph passed on too.\

https://albertapolitics.ca/2020/08/urgent-need-to-squelch-political-fallout-best-explains-jason-kenneys-oddly-timed-nuclear-announcement/
From some AUg 9th.

https://investingnews.com/innspired/global-uranium-supply-athabasca-basin/

https://canada.constructconnect.com/dcn/news/economic/2020/05/snc-lavalin-reports-66m-q1-loss

https://www.northernminer.com/news/top-10-canadian-miners-by-market-cap/1003817842/

Alot of watered down energy news.

Next Item.
Living next to reactor.

Found this thread , still making my way reading all this, but you know gotta keep putting one step in front of the other. Me its just same step in front always. The idea is the same.
https://www.reddit.com/r/NuclearPower/comments/9bqlrf/living_near_a_nuclear_power_plant_what_are_the/
From the post talks about ‘flex’
https://www.nrc.gov/reactors/operating/ops-experience/post-fukushima-safety-enhancements/flex-equipment.html
Lots of redundant safety and back up which is nice, atleast theres a plan. not like, buddy im sleeping.

https://www.reddit.com/r/NuclearPower/comments/ivek2a/zion_lights_once_a_spokesperson_for_the/
https://www.bbc.com/news/uk-54103163
Former extinction rebellion anti-nuclear person, now says “only way to deal with climate crisis”
Interesting name.

https://www.nature.com/articles/d41586-019-01430-0
Blue radiation glowing particles in a vacuum.

https://www.popularmechanics.com/science/a34128801/us-government-makes-new-kind-of-nuclear-fuel/
Thorium fuel newer story

http://www.no2nuclearpower.org.uk/news/
Comments on Wylfa

Movie China Syndrome. maybe ill watch it

That ice breaker again.
Track it again. Its by Gothenburg.

Just learning still about the Aircraft Carrier Admiral Kuznetsov. It has like a jump for the planes to take off. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=D3AMB7ZFF3Q
I think its lovable, described as one the worst carriers in the world in this article:
https://www.businessinsider.com/russia-is-talking-about-scrapping-kuznetsov-its-only-aircraft-carrier-2019-4
As for Kuznetsov himself, Kuznetsov played a crucial role during the first hours of the war – at this pivotal moment, his resolve and blatant disregard for orders averted the destruction of the Soviet Navy. By June 21, 1941, Kuznetzov was convinced of the inevitability of war with Nazi Germany. On the same day Semyon Timoshenko and Georgy Zhukov issued a directive prohibiting Soviet commanders from responding to “German provocations”. The Navy, however, constituted a distinct ministry (narkomat), and thus Kuznetsov held a position which was technically outside the direct chain of command. He utilized this fact in a very bold move.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nikolai_Kuznetsov_(admiral)

I learnt about that from this guys documented trip aboard icebreaker.
Also watched another short doc about Finland Icebreakers. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-_Aq3XkQj3Y
Is what im watching right now super informative.
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=BRRy6t5K3R4
___
Sept 25
https://www.reddit.com/r/canada/comments/izig7j/i_want_to_puke_david_suzuki_reacts_to_oregans/
One commenter
“David Suzuki work against us everyday by promoting non-scientific views on nuclear energy.”

No doubt you got the rich, and powerful saying no power fore you.
He has a tv show, money, platform.
I read the statement on his page, someone giving up air travel.
“After my whole life of travelling im giving up air travel, I cant believe your not.”

Like I like the Tv show growing up.
Has to be a balance with our ‘need’ for zero emissions, and ‘need’ for energy.
If its anything like anything else rent food always increasing, while whose wages have gone up by similar factor.
Why is it always some billionaire lecturing the common folk.
Or some billionaires child.

The person that uses the most energy.
Why some people have access to all most of the worlds resources, and some have little to none.
Its like a birthright get born into the right family.

Anyways, back to work.
That trip to North Pole Was fascinating.

These people trying to get up and close to chernobyl
https://www.reddit.com/r/chernobyl/comments/ivdetz/is_the_actual_power_plant_still_dangerous_mainly/

https://viral-storm.com/could-chernobyl-be-called-paradise-on-earth/

National Geo.
https://www.nationalgeographic.com/environment/global-warming/powering-the-future/
This guy lives on a island. Lives a ‘normal’ life.
Another of these “Heres what you need to know”
Breeder reactors. This person seems to admire China’s reactor construction, but he lives on a secluded island. Yeah the real 1%.

India uses a breeder reactor and
The world’s first peacetime use of nuclear power occurred when the U.S. Government switched on Experimental Breeder Reactor #1 (EBR-1) near Arco, Idaho, on December 20, 1951. The town of Arco* became the first city in the world to be lit by atomic power from a reactor built near EBR-1, the BORAX III, on July 17, 1955. It was only temporary, but the way was paved for commercial use of nuclear power. The Arco reactor later suffered a partial meltdown — another World’s First. There’s no highway sign bragging about that.
https://www.roadsideamerica.com/story/2960

https://www.nuclearasia.com/news/indias-fast-breeder-reactor-delayed-likely-to-be-commissioned-in-october-2022/3893/

Previous author wants to use fission.
Anyways this is all form parameters living next to reactor..

https://www.duke-energy.com/safety-and-preparedness/nuclear-safety/harris
Less than 1 millirems

Next boat video I was watching has diesel engines.
Im just trying to find instances of people living next to reactor of some type.

___
Sept 26 more.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ford_Nucleon

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Supersonic_Low_Altitude_Missile

https://www.space.com/nuclear-reactor-for-mars-outpost-2022.html

https://www.bangkokpost.com/opinion/opinion/1991979/a-saga-of-half-lives-and-half-truths
“Staged protest” says one commenter.

https://www.independent.com/2020/09/24/all-about-diablo-canyon-nuclear-plant/
This one had some things gone wrong with this plant during 2020.
Theres pics of the plant looks interesting.

___
Sept 28
Iodine pills for your thyroid.
https://nuclearsafety.gc.ca/eng/resources/educational-resources/feature-articles/potassium-iodide-KI-pills.cfm

Heres some residents living next to chernobyl.
https://www.nei.org/resources/fact-sheets/chernobyl-accident-and-its-consequences

Satanic covid ritual, couldnt resist.
Im putting this in the project no doubt.
https://www.eyeopeningtruth.com/covid-19-satanic-ritual/

Belgium from 2016 , Searching this Iodine tablet trying to find a training video.
Maybe a isolation in place.

https://youtu.be/1lsUWMPWBJg 2016
https://youtu.be/n9GXz-PY2Lw 2020
few of those comments made me lol.

One comment about the accidental nuclear warning.
From that time period lets dig that up.
https://www.ctvnews.ca/canada/emergency-alert-about-ont-nuclear-plant-was-sent-by-mistake-1.4763686
I gotta say little rant, this is the only perspective I can really find.
Perspective living next to CANDU in Canada, you know id be annoyed too if they sent an error message. like get your sh*t together. Accidents happen ? thats concerning, but the accident is not really an accident, and has nothing to do with nuclear. Its a accident in the phone system, anyways better safe than sorry.
Scorched person at chernobyl anything to say ? ___
Should mine a mountain, or utilize a mined area, for some nuclear infrastructure, a trashed area. Cause clearly no one wants to live next to it.

Just did a rental comparison next to Pickering ON Power plant, insanely expensive rent.
I could get a room in a house to share with 5 other people.
Renting a room in someone’s giant home.
Buying, well you get more bang for your buck than Vancouver. You can buy your own empty giant house.

___29 sept.

https://www.nwmo.ca/en/More-information/News-and-Activities/2020/09/18/19/45/The-NWMO-signs-an-agreement-to-advance-the-production-of-containers-for-used-nuclear-fuel?fbclid=IwAR3gLbiPJx89ARs-tR9SSgG5j1W61HdZq6fQCGj3sPIteqsakmyphx05ib8

http://large.stanford.edu/courses/2015/ph241/sanders1/
https://www.ans.org/news/

___ 30 sept.
https://www.canadiangeographic.ca/article/candu-canadian-success-story
Clicking on the Candu map leads to broken link SNC lavalin.
At the actual Lavalin website only shows Darlington facility, not Bruce Power.
When you click anything CANDU at the Lavalin Site, all it shows is Darlington

https://www.snclavalin.com/en/projects#all/all/all/all

Anyways wasnt even looking for that was looking for, some type of reactor resident club
found this instead lol
https://www.residentadvisor.net/events/399127
Techno reactor

https://www.winnipegfreepress.com/local/us-nuclear-company-seeks-to-make-pinawa-home-to-its-reactor-demonstration-site-487443931.html

Found this story 2018 , Starcore. Starcore US company in Quebec then. Starcore Mining and nuclear.

https://www.washingtonpost.com/news/energy-environment/wp/2016/06/17/the-u-s-is-powering-up-its-first-new-nuclear-reactor-in-decades/
This reactor, has house next to it. Thats kindof what im looking for.
“SPRING CITY, Tenn. — In an immaculate control room at the Watts Bar nuclear plant,…”
This author talking about irrational fears that dont help us today. Thats kinda funny true. Try telling someone theyre having irrational fear lol. Oh your just being irrational. Tell that crocodilian limbic system that you’re in control! I guess with some better understanding of brain, and behaviors , training, can get past those things. I think some AI nuclear is good takes all the emotion and human error out of it. you know test it out on some less critical systems first but if NASA can do redundant software design; launch nuclear materials into atmosphere as asafely as possible (mitigating risk). I think that starcore demo reactor in Manitoba sounds pretty interesting.
The video of the Watts power plant construction was cool. This is the safe helium one ive heard about.

Star core mining interesting company.
Seen it on the TSX. 25 cent shares.
That would be quite the feat first modular reactor demo.
Cause hes right how can you trade that politically without seeing it in opeartion.
So, youll end up at a mining camp with maybe one or 2 truck modular reactors to power the base.
In space probably easier, already lots of radiation. Already cold.

https://stopthesethings.com/2020/09/16/nuclears-new-dawn-small-modular-reactors-offer-ever-reliable-co2-free-power/

https://stopthesethings.com/category/nuclear-power/
Site pro-nuclear, and really against wind towers.

Heres something on Residents.
http://sgnews.ca/2012/12/10/fukushima-after-the-meltdowns/
The government offers “voluntary” evacuees about $1000 apiece if they choose to move away from the area. In addition, children and pregnant women living in the area are eligible for a one-time payment of $5000, to help with any health issues they may encounter.

The current government offered three options for national discussion:

total phase out of all nuclear plants;
maintain current levels of nuclear power, at about 15 percent of energy requirements; or
keep all operating plants and expand nuclear facilities as planned.
After holding public hearings in 11 cities and collecting 89,000 comments, the government announced that nearly 9 in 10 ( 87 percent) support phasing out nuclear power, and 8 in 10 (78 percent) want all nuclear power plants shut down immediately.

Thats a straight copy paste, but no doubt people dont want nuclear after disaster. I guess the question is, is it some other engineers disaster. Every plant isnt destined to meltdown. Better be getting more than 5000 bucks after I turn into the toxic avenger and my face melts off.

___Oct1
https://www.voanews.com/usa/nuclear-arms-race-weaponization-outer-space-high-us-disarmament-agenda
Weaponization of space concerns, including nuclear

Oct 2
https://vancouversun.com/news/local-news/rescue-underway-in-north-vans-capilano-river
This going in the nuclear safety debate. Hydro killed, nuclear no.

https://globalnews.ca/news/7372931/water-rescue-underway-near-north-vancouvers-capilano-suspension-bridge/

wow doesnt generate electricity, im kinda surprised built in 54
https://vancouversun.com/news/local-news/metro-vancouver-reconsiders-generating-electricity-at-north-shore-reservoirs
Anyways still accident happened.
Though it was kinda relevant.

Ok something totally different searching for Ecological.

Not really ecological but interesting.
https://www.nytimes.com/2020/09/29/climate/nuclear-fusion-reactor.html

This is the ultimate in nuclear fusion energy project this one is experimental too. in southern france.
https://www.nytimes.com/2020/09/29/climate/nuclear-fusion-reactor.html
Calls it compact its nearly 100 m long, looking.
Stainless Vacuum chamber looks pretty cool.

https://www.mentalfloss.com/article/586059/chernobyl-animal-facts
Magazine style article about Chernobyl wild animals.’
kind of interesting why one species survives radiation more than another, and why.
___
Oct 4
New green party leader. Annamie Paul
Right away sought the Nuclear statement
https://www.reddit.com/r/GreenPartyOfCanada/comments/hsxsv4/annamie_paul_candidate_for_green_party_leadership/
Support nuclear : No.

Oct 6
https://www.opg.com/news-and-media/media-releases/media_release/opg-paving-the-way-for-small-modular-reactor-deployment/
This is news to me compared to what I heard about Starcore.
Different province.

___
Oct 11 Gotta hand this in soon, Fire under my ass.
Seen a video Carl Sagan Talking about Nuclear proliferation.
https://youtu.be/y02Efix7mM0
wow I was 4 years old.
Just talking about how to be a good citizen in a democracy, and on the planet.
The citizens control the government, not the other way around.
Carl Sagan actually complementing soviets for their progress.

Im gonna put this here too since this is my page and I can be as bias as I want or showcase whatever I want.

Heres a 1975 John Wayne Talking about liberals and the medias and being open to someone’s point of view.
Its like yea hes dead and old fashioned view point but Doesnt take a rocket scientist to see what hes saying.
Hes right, I too have made effort to learn about everyones perspective, while no liberal cares about my perspective meanwhjile making bad decisions for me.
Machiavellian.
Stay iun power at all costs no matter the unethical bvehavior.
Id argue if its so old, and outdated why are we still seein this in politics.
One commenter: makes his own choices not follows others.
He says right in the interview never wanted to do anything thats takes someones humanity away.
Carl Sagan with the fallacy of words the politicians use, its all relevant.
Who here wears black face?

Gravity industries jetpack navy trials, wow.
https://youtu.be/H4FUBfp9kS0

___ for later oct 15
https://www.reddit.com/r/canada/comments/jbzc91/proposed_1500acre_site_mapped_out_for_canadian/

https://www.reddit.com/r/canada/comments/jbunuv/federal_government_invests_in_small_nuclear/

___ Oct 18
More nuclear. Gotta love these search criteria. ‘Uranium’ ‘How to process and enrich uranium’ ‘How to make deuterium’ ‘Molten salt’ That was a godd explosion I seen on youtube.
Go Isotopes, I mean Dodgers.

Omg uranium found everywhere on earth.
People also ask
Where do you find uranium in nature?
Uranium is one of the more common elements in the Earth’s crust, being 40 times more common than silver and 500 times more common than gold. It can be found almost everywhere in rock, soil, rivers, and oceans.

Uranium ore – Wikipedia
.
Im gonna do some funny searches. ” Uh oh I ate a square of Uranium:
How much weight would you gain if you ate a gram of uranium?
One pound of fat is about 3500 kCal or about 3500000 cal, so 1 gram of Uranium would result in about 5,000 pounds worth of fat when comparing energy to energy. you don’t get energy from eating Uranium; you just get cancer.

A gram uranium is roughly 20 billion calories. If our body could …

Eating rocks, people have strange addictions.

Anyways findiung some really good info on the New Mexico site.
https://geoinfo.nmt.edu/resources/uranium/where.html

New Mexico 2% of total Uranium.

https://education.jlab.org/itselemental/ele092.html
. Naturally occurring uranium consists of three isotopes: uranium-234, uranium-235 and uranium-238. Although all three isotopes are radioactive, only uranium-235 is a fissionable material that can be used for nuclear power.

https://www.researchgate.net/publication/228370647_Evolution_of_uranium_and_thorium_minerals

When earth gives you Uranium.

https://www.vedantu.com/question-answer/the-isotope-of-uranium-is-used-as-a-fuel-in-class-11-chemistry-cbse-5f7ea3cae7397c2090a6a512
Cant copy paste that text but theres from some academic to grade 11 materials.

https://www.nationalobserver.com/2020/10/15/news/feds-fund-small-nuclear-reactor-part-plan-reach-climate-goals

Here it says its Terrestrial.
Anyways 20 million, As the government was caught red-handed trying to funnel out 900 million We charity scandal. . This is the first time I seen minister Bains last time he was laughing about questions in the HOC before shut down regarding the deficit.

People health tech jobs conservationism, need all the above.

Not everyone is as convinced as O’Regan and Bains that nuclear is the answer to Canada’s climate change dreams.
Yawn

Not everyone is convinced these 2 have any idea what theyre talking about.

O’Regan said he is also developing a radioactive waste policy,
eye roll.

Corrupt liberals with nuclear policy what could go wrong.
Im suprised SNC Lavalin or even bombardier isnt into some kind of SMR vehicle. Or nuclear vehicle in general. Just with R/D and massive resources.

But imagine a fleet of SMR vehicles with maintenance and ressuply vehicles or airdrop.
In a military application depending on the theatre. Could have a SMR in unconventional locations. Ultimately could be a target. Youd want that reactor that if it got damaged, could just rinse down the area fix a part and turn it back on.
https://ndupress.ndu.edu/Portals/68/Documents/stratforum/SF-262.pdf
The one im not even thinking of is the Navy. Space station
Lithium batteries.

https://th.fhi-berlin.mpg.de/th/publications/FusionEngDesign-2011-2770-2011.pdf
using up all the terrestrial resources in decades is concerning. Then what back to gas combustion.

https://www.reddit.com/r/explainlikeimfive/comments/48urm6/eli5_what_is_the_nuclear_proliferation_treaty_and/
___
Oct 23 Google fix my problems.

After mining, the ore is crushed in a mill, where water is added to produce a slurry of fine ore particles and other materials. The slurry is leached with sulfuric acid or an alkaline solution to dissolve the uranium, leaving the remaining rock and other minerals undissolved.

A small number of reactors, most notably the CANDU reactors from Canada, are fuelled with natural uranium, which does not have to be enriched.The enrichment process requires the uranium to be in a gaseous form. This is achieved through a process called conversion, where uranium oxide is converted to a different compound (uranium hexafluoride) which is a gas at relatively low temperatures.

The uranium hexafluoride is fed into centrifuges, with thousands of rapidly-spinning vertical tubes that separate uranium-235 from the slightly heavier uranium-238 isotope. The centrifuges separate the uranium into two streams: one stream is enriched in uranium-235; the other consists of ‘tails’ containing a lower concentration of uranium-235, and known as depleted uranium (DU).

Thats interesting with the seperation of the heavier via centrifuge. More interestingly is the uranium in gaseous form.
https://www.world-nuclear.org/nuclear-essentials/how-is-uranium-made-into-nuclear-fuel.aspx
lol got distracted googling all the places called Clayton USA. Im gonna visit em all.
___
lol thats funny
OK here comes the dry portion
What isotopes of uranium exist?

Theres like several 23X’s 256’s or something like that 235
A:
How many uranium isotopes are there?
three isotopes
Naturally occurring uranium consists of three isotopes: uranium-234, uranium-235 and uranium-238. Although all three isotopes are radioactive, only uranium-235 is a fissionable material that can be used for nuclear power

Only 0.7204% of naturally occurring uranium is uranium-235. This is too low a concentration to sustain a nuclear chain reaction without the help of a material known as a moderator.

https://pubchem.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/element/Uranium#section=Isotopes
https://pubchem.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/element/Uranium#section=Uses

Learning about Fiestaware. Painted with Uranium discontinued because health reasons . Some fiesta.
Browsing this online museum finding some neat things.
https://www.orau.org/ptp/museumdirectory.htm

what type of isotope for CANDU process?
The uranium conversion process for CANDU heavy water reactors involves converting UO3 to uranium dioxide (UO2). This takes place in Port Hope, Ontario, at Canada’s only uranium conversion facility. Nitric acid and ammonia are added to UO3, which is then fed into a special kiln operating with special gasses to prevent extra oxygen from mixing with the pellets.

The conversion process for light water reactors involves adding fluorine to UO3 to create the gas uranium hexafluouride (UF6). This chemical form is particularly suitable for separating out the different weights of uranium (different isotopes of uranium weigh different amounts).

Enrichment
Natural uranium has too low a concentration of uranium-235 (its reactive isotope) for light water reactors. For these reactors, uranium enrichment increases the U-235 concentration from 0.7 percent to about three to five per cent. Enrichment involves separation of the lighter U-235 atoms from the heavier and more common U-238 atoms.

Yes with the centrifuges.

https://cna.ca/reactors-and-smrs/nuclear-fuel/

Learning about Cameco and the refining in the worlds largest refinery Blind lake Cameco, whopping 5 jobs.
One temp truck swamping job lol

I just seen MP Jenica Atwin statement on nuclear
“Let us also not ignore the fact that some will try to make us believe that nuclear energy can still be considered clean, safe and reliable. ”

https://openparliament.ca/debates/2020/10/8/jenica-atwin-1/

Not only that more expensive to live next to.

Its from Oct 8.
No nuclear: cause.
Not the greatest argument. Considering already using nuclear supplementing coal.

I just want better and im sorry if NASA can do it, society can too. Navy submarines patrolling the earth. The next is the policy announcement i read from 2019
https://www.greenparty.ca/en/media-release/2019-12-03/greens-condemn-plan-spend-27-billion-nuclear-reactors
Some parts I would agree on this, its 27 bil for research and not even a reactor Its for the smrs. I think that having one operational will make the difference, but 27 bil and what to show for it is not good. There is money in it from the research I seen worth debating. I guess if money is being invested into nuclear its not going into the pockets of windmills and renewables. Im down with conservationism, Im not down with anti-nuclear progress. Im down with taking the politics out of nuclear cause what ive seen. Who would want these people in command of nuclear its a farce. I trust the candu tech and the science.Trust engineers. Hard to trust the people/money. Natural disasters. I mean if you can build a nuclear bunker you could do the same for the plant. Mitigating risk . That could bring some real results and what about the future where the north is gradually more occupied.
Imagine Peace River a massive metropolis. Year 2500 im sure it would be so. Considering how old MTL is.

What is halflife of uranium 235 : 700 million years
Low enriched for fuel in reactors high enriched for weapons.
https://www.radioactivity.eu.com/site/pages/Uranium_238_235.htm
charts comparing some half-lives
https://www.radioactivity.eu.com/site/pages/Uranium_Isotopes.htm

From Hypothetical reactor I found.
For the first 600 years the radiotoxicity is due, almost exclusively, to the fission products, and for the following 100,000 years the main radiotoxic isotopes are the “actinides” plutonium and americium.

Heres a bnunch of poisons in spent fuel list
http://www.ccnr.org/hlw_chart.html

http://www.ccnr.org/tailings_wall.html

Stored and disposed right here,
http://nuclearsafety.gc.ca/eng/waste/high-level-waste/index.cfm

More about half lifes https://chem.libretexts.org/Bookshelves/Introductory_Chemistry/Book%3A_The_Basics_of_GOB_Chemistry_(Ball_et_al.)/11%3A_Nuclear_Chemistry/11.02%3A_Half-Life
___
Oct 27. Learnt about some Richard Taylor and Quarks and Gluons. ITs pretty much sci-fi fantasy magic. You deserve the nobel prizes figuring out all that. Specially thats what he and his friends did. Its just fantastic knowing what to do and what to observe etc. For something that can never be seen. Not from the imagination. Then I was reading about Fellowship of Royal Society. And the Canadian part Fellowship of Royal Society of Canada. I wonder what kind of debate happens there.
I wonder if one guy is like aahahah; you counted your gluons wrong you fool!
Then later the physicists prank the new guy making him think he set off a major reaction.
Theres alot of funny potential along with the science of course. When you get all the biggest brains together for cocktails lol. J/k
Interesting all sorts of videos, & series for summer science.
CERN also has a channel. Thats pretty crazy.
___ Oct 28
Reading a retro article about some nobel prizes awarded oct 27 1988. Physicists probing the structure of atomic particle. Which is similar to what ive been working on .
https://search.proquest.com/pagelevelimagepdf/2266036079/pagelevelImagePDF/53C86E961F104139PQ/1?accountid=140093&t:lb=t Just for something different.
I noticed the tongue out like einstein. Maybe you stick you r tongue out for photos and when you have a discovery. Make sense cause its funny.

Its Nov 16 2020
Another article talking about nuclear no change. In fact the government pissed away dozens of new plants.

https://www.reddit.com/r/canada/comments/jv95e6/john_gorman_any_plan_for_canada_to_reach_its/
Literally no change since I last wrote.
It talk about nuclear with some mediocre sugggestions.

level 1
RunemasterP
Score hidden
·
1 hour ago
Isn’t Canada pretty great at producing nuclear reactors?

these commnenters:

level 2
KevDevBot
Alberta
Score hidden
·
21 minutes ago
Canada builds the CANDU reactors, a Canadian designed nuclear power system. They’re considered an old and expensive design now, and people are actively pursuing new technology.

We are a notable player in nuclear projects, but how many of those get built anymore? The NIMBY’s have been winning that fight for decades now (not without good reason, to be entirely fair).

___
Something new for nuclear research.
Learning about Jacobus Vant Hoff. and the carbon tetrahedral .
https://www.chemistryworld.com/opinion/thats-stereochemistry/3007901.article

Nuclear magnetic resonance.
Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) is a physical phenomenon in which nuclei in a strong constant magnetic field are perturbed by a weak oscillating magnetic field (in the near field) and respond by producing an electromagnetic signal with a frequency characteristic of the magnetic field at the nucleus.

___
https://youtu.be/MIjV3ZujduE
Something on a Nuscale reactor simulation.

https://www.reddit.com/r/canada/comments/kxvgnr/opinion_federal_plan_for_small_modular_reactors/

Nuclear tech.

Nuclear tech.
Level the playing field.
Clayton L .
July 16 2020

Whether or not to utilize nuclear technologies, and to what degree. Are nuclear technologies beneficial to human society, and what dangers to they pose.
Pros and cons, opinions, perspectives. From past to current events.

Intro. How did I get here. Im 35, not a ‘nuclear expert’ by any means but had a chance to indulge in some research. I have a perspective, and opinions too. I have discussed with couple friends regarding some pros and cons to using nuclear tech. One of their complaints that opinion pieces aren’t factual. A desire to hear nuclear tech news without a heaping portion of someones varying opinion. I tend to agree with that statement then. I have my own opinions, and the news market is saturated. So there’s no point hiding that I am ‘for the use of nuclear tech.’ Right away an argument against, is that it just a complicated dangerous way to boil water. I think everyone can agree the risk, and dangers associated with nuclear can be higher. Im reading some Isaac Asimov right now “foundation”. Currently on ‘Foundation and Empire’ 1952 book right now. I love this book series though. It looks into a fictional futuristic human societies using nuclear tech. Its a fantasy world, but I can tell Asimov really believed in science and using tech to the maximum to benefit humanity. He was a bio chemist. Even in the Asimov world without divulging too much: has a nuclear dark age. Basically showing an archaic society without nucleics, couldn’t compete with a group that had. Knowledge is power essentially. Even in the Asimov universe there was tyrants, and bad governments.

From Asimov to Carl Sagan another science hero.

Sagan with golden record.

Carl Sagan was a child during ww2. As an adult he became science communicator. Also became involved in nuclear disarmament and politically active. My perspectives lie somewhere along that line. That nuclear tech is necessary for space travel. I like to believe in energy independence that nuclear can provide. Also I acknowledge some of the concerning previous times we have gone through. As if hiding underneath a school desk will protect from nuclear blast. Nevertheless nuclear will remain part of our future for better or worse. Its pros cant be denied.


USA/Soviet nuclear stockpiles by year.

Ill showcase some of the interesting things I have researched. Personally ive used some nuclear tech in the forces, and worn a dosimeter.

Nuclear technologies have markets, and economies. China, Russia are nuclear exporters. Canada has done nuclear exports in the past. In developing countries nuclear is a means to level the playing field. There’s a negative aura around anything nuclear just the word. With just cause, from Hiroshima, Chernobyl, Three Mile, Fukushima. Still, I believe nuclear can be done safely. With many benefits that cant be denied. So how to mitigate the risk . Whose responsibility to learn, or care about nuclear? For me looking at some jobs and reading some comments its maybe an interesting career someone like me could do.

In Pakistan nuclear tech news I found Karachi power generating station. Pakistan Atomic Energy commission developing additional sites to house more nuclear power plant. They’ve been using nuclear power supplementing their power grid for some time. Kanuup plant is the oldest and surpassed design life of 30 years. So here is PAEC CNNC CZEC ACP- 1000 technology. Its a pressurized CANDU heavy water reactor supplied by Canadian General Electric company. Just to say that regardless of opinions here is a massive infrastructure project underway with no signs of slowing down. Here the initial reactor was commissioned from 1972 to 2002.
Raising the quantitative power levels from 33452MW to 35975 MW within a year. PAEC has goals of raising the output all the way to 8800MW by 2030. Safe and successful operation of the Kanuup site for 48 years now.
I found some defense style articles which suggest Pakistan is a nuclear weapon state, and has a credible minimum deterrence posture which provides Pakistan security without costly arms race with India. Definitely the world doesn’t want nuclear war between Pakistan and India. Thats a bit concerning that some heated argument on the other side of the planet could result in nuclear detonation but lets be real has most of the planet consented to nuclear tests? Usage in conflict. In Pakistan have made it a country project including skilled manpower, education and training.

Kanupp 2 & 3

Ohio USA. Ohio is home to two nuclear reactors. Producing 88 percent of the states emission free-electricity.

Perry Nuclear Power Plant Ohio.

Here I found Energy company requiring what seems to be bailout money. One commenter suggesting the tax payers scammers by big business once again so the shareholders reap the rewards. Lots of heated debate here, Im just an observer. Here another commenter suggesting that solar and wind are the cheapest now as the governments can make the taxpayer cover the cleanup costs. Theres differences between the buyback and the bailout apparently. I think I would be pissed too. Lawmakers seemingly profiting the shareholders instead of the taxpayers. Or the energy consumer.


President Museveni addresses some of the UPDF tank officers during the pass out of the commanders course at Kambamba Armoured Warfare Training School.

Uganda is a small sized country. Using CNNC to help develop nuclear energy. I read the state of the nation 2019 address because it came up in my search parameters. Many nuclear projects underway with some national pride. 850 sources in 419 facilities. Under regulatory control supervision. Arguably un-popular in America. Russia, and China busily exporting.

Nuclear technologies aren’t limited to reactors as I found evidence of International Atomic Energy Agency IAEA . Many nuclear tech projects written about, on the IAEA page.

This particular article; working with 60 scientists from several middle eastern countries. Using nuclear and isotopic techniques to improve crop yields on salt-affected soils. Using nitrogen-15 isotopic techniques. I have a transcript of the actual science in my log shared at the end of assignment. Desalination is cool tech that can be helpful for everyone.

In another recent example IAEA working in a partnership with Mauritius agriculture. Using nuclear technology to develop tomato seeds that can thrive in increased temperatures. These seeds then are distributed to farmers a helping protect a multi million national industry. The plant mutation breeding involves exposing plant seeds to gamma rays. The plants are then multiplied and observed for new, and desirable traits. Who would deny the Mauritius’s tomatoes? Its a smaller island 1000km east from another small island, Madagascar.


Theres more. In terms of agriculture nuclear technologies which particularly interests me, so I will include it. Unfortunately same source IAEA but its good, Its a technique I learnt about sterilizing fruit flies to end offspring. Argentina is set to boom with the export abilities to the largest fresh fruit market in world. (China) The fruit fly quarantine checkpoints eliminates the fruit fly population. Exports of stone and pome fruits are expedited reducing post harvest treatment.

“Atomic Gardening”
Mentioned the seed irradiation and testing for desirable traits in plants. Also food irridation technologies. To remove unwanted molds.
To be fair unless I was really starving, and watched someone else eat irradiated food it might be something I avoided. Radiation symbol on food does seem a little counter intuitive. Noted I probably couldn’t tell the difference in a taste test. For the sake of argument I would eat a irradiated mold blasted peanut or something else provided it was safe to consume.


Irradiated fruit label.

“Mutant Fields”
Processes and challenges.

Before

Kuwait institute for Scientific research. Displaying some completed and ongoing scientific research projects. All sorted by accomplished, and ongoing projects.

After

I found some other data of research on edible food packaging. It was interesting to me because there was a lot of data and chemistry perspective in real life application. Especially food packaging industry generates a lot of individual waste. Its encouraging to see some front line science tackling some applied problems.

Countries from Costa Rica to Uganda using food testing labs to check for residues and food contaminants. Mobile labs. Regular testing labs.

My most compelling argument is that of space exploration. Right away without nuclear there is limitations for powering spacecraft away from the sun. If NASA rocket scientists can launch a good amount of Plutonium 238 “airborne hazard” through the the atmosphere, safely above human populations. People can have energy independence through nuclear. Doing this with some redundant safety, with several hundred people working on the team. This proves, and inspires me that humans are capable of safely working on some massive nuclear projects with the safety of earth and humans as top priority. I learnt about the space battery facility in Idaho. These photos not possible without nuclear tech:


Sunset from mars.


Cassini spacecraft first view of Saturn.

Medical:

Chest xray.

Its not the science that is evil, its a corrupt evil intent. There’s without a doubt some negligent disposal of nuclear waste in our past as well as accidents, human error, corruption. However safely disposing of nuclear waste, long monitoring, and safety could be a meaningful job I could do. Douglas point waste facility.

More Jobs. Uranium mines in Saskatchewan. Learnt a technique miners use to find, and extract the uranium ore. It must be extracted refined. Mining is a necessary component of nuclear. 2013 1.2 billion industry in Canada. Mining has a negative connotation and reputation. The pattern; energy companies come make a profit destroy the environment, and when its time to clean up it falls on the taxpayer. Oil companies want oil based energy economies, same with coal. Aforementioned have made energy monopoly niches for profit , in turn using those profits to lobby governments with desired intents. When governments should be developing energy sectors equally. In broad strokes the tesla revolution also using mining for lithium practices. The batteries charging from a mixed energy grid. My concern these miners are doing the dying and shareholders, again getting rich off resources that could be scarce/essential in the near future isn’t a team player strategy.

Cross section mining. Drill the bore hole, attach larger bit, extract ore as it falls down bore hole.

The least compelling argument is the fate of nuclear future, lies in politics not in science. Perhaps completing a basic course on nuclear should be requirements for participating in the democratic aspects of nuclear policy. Considering how corrupt politicians seem these days is a good argument for additional policies to protect the tax payer, more importantly humanity. Separate the politics, and science. There should be rewards for learning the content, and also for any risk hazards associated with the work environment. The ultimate consequence: Nuclear annihilation of earth. Is a pretty bad consequence. Yet energy independence for all humans is nothing to be scoffed at.

Opinions.

Nuclear technologies. Glow in the dark gun sights, smoke detectors. I was a soldier 16 years part of some daily life.

Nuclear medical technologies. They exist. I was never able to use ultrasound. I was in a coma at hospital amputating almost dying 11/30 days waiting for my ultrasound appointment. MRI and similar diagnostics are a useful technology that should be abundant, and readily available.

Commercialization of nuclear tech.
Learnt about Marie Curie and how things were back then. Selling snake oils and tonics. Sadly took many victims of radiation to study and learn the benefits. Just like early car safety nuclear cowboy days are volatile. Both USA and Russia, Japan.
More commercial business, I mentioned the space batteries. Also dosimeter technologies. PPE safety.

Thirsty?

The CANDU tech is proven safe. That being said, it isn’t the energy industry to cut corners. Reading about whistle-blowers. Concerning stories I have read. The nuclear reactor X is commissioned to be built. Safety specs are listed. Construction company sees the specs for fire ratings sensor A, and says: “that’s too expensive, can save a bundle by using sensor B.” So right away during construction, the first safety shut off valves improperly fire rated parts. It was addressed. Its just crazy to think of the designed safety procedures, ignored to save a buck. Meanwhile oil lobbyist rejoice, Nuclear = Danger Oil = Good. Yes the people that sold previous generations leaded gasoline.

Gerald W. Brown. Whistleblower on Thermo-Lag scandal.

Its like we were forced to maxed out the oil tech tree without even considering if that was the best idea. Yea best for profits, short term and un-calculated risk. But best for humanity is questionable. I would argue a balance of all mixed energies based on risk reward location and desired outcomes is best. Some would have earthlings believe its good destroying the amazon for sugar cane and ethanol jet fuel. How fitting for some energy rich dependent in their air conditioned office with ice in their drink to say: “Power for me, but not for you cause I dont understand nuclear.” I got news for you the amount of nuclear submarines in operation without any citizen input is kinda scary. Russia, and China aren’t really halting production for global warming. So what were going into poverty back to the stone age . Anyways CANDU tech was hot after the bomb. Free energy. Public opinion grew much worse with governments hiding nuclear waste. Chernobyl government denial. And so on. Fukushima shows even with strict safety protocols accidents happen.

Nuclear . Level the playing field in more ways than one. The obvious play on words ending ww2 early. Its pretty crazy. Imagine being the Japanese emperor and learning 2 cities have been vaporized, with many walking wounded. Imagine being responsible for so much death.


Enola Gay crew.

Nuclear benefits are undeniable to developing countries modernizing. Theres discussion of micro reactors benefiting communities or small towns is a interesting infrastructure propositions. This fits with a Isaac Asimov advanced society nucleics benefiting civilizations. Simply for the benefit. If such a opportunity for employment were readily available I can attest to more than a few people I know would be interested in long term employment/careers. Especially with the carbon pollution and climate emergency. Nuclear is a powerful too that should be respected, and used to benefit us all. Or, the other option is everyone go back to wood stove and steam. The cross generational clean up costs should be factored into the operating costs with no exception. There should be funds allocated to provide payroll for the half life of nuclear waste. 30-24000 yrs. Cross generational cleanup.
Just look at old abandoned fisheries sites, to see how good cleanup after profit works.

Again with more commercial and CANDU especially. It must have been like the 90’s with a bright future Chernobyll hadn’t happened yet. There was nuclear scientific race. Listening to some of the Scientists in Ottawa talk ambitiously about the CANDU nuclear conference. Really when I learnt about what happened to the Romanian and failed government. Construction problems. Could blame some human error, human greed. Buddy deals gone wrong. I find it find of sad they could have had a reactor. It was hot after the bomb but seems pretty much dead and inaccessible to me right now, unless I were a miner. As for being ‘hot’. Still hot in China construction, and exports with the data posted. In one example Romania dictator went bankrupt 1982. In more recent examples Countries like South Korea are currently involved in the building of four nuclear reactors in UAE under a $20 billion contract. South Korea : +20 B. Canada -343 B just in 2020.

On Reddit I learnt some interesting things. Some first hand accounts of people working in nuclear tech to read put things in perspective. They were able to illustrate the problems with nuclear stigma. Myths. As a beginner in nuclear im glad learning some real life applications helps put things in perspective. Learning step by step takes some of the mysticism out of it.
Perspectives range from dying industry to specialized and covering lots of cool education. If anything reading some comments from real people is informative. For someone pursuing a career in nuclear it would seem that political, and economical are hurdles.

A reactor from a design perspective is designed redundantly with safety in mind . Somewhere with the sale, the physical money, construction down the line, and reporting errors is a disconnect from the original intent. At least there’s evidence of this in the past. Computers like most tech and procedures has gotten better since Three Mile Island. In a ideal world politics, and human tendency for war, corruption, risk could be virtually reduced to zero. Using nuclear abundant energy to lift peoplekind out of poverty, and the climate crisis. Reading scientific bulletins for decarbonization for this research. Funny, I didn’t find any mention at all, about a carbon tax, or shutting down parliament being beneficial for ‘de-carbonization.’ So id suggest I know more about nuclear than most politicians.

Lesson 2 Research :

CANDU part 2

Lesson 3 Research:

CANDU 3

Lesson 4 Research:

CANDU 4

Sources.
Entire research log: https://clayton.bbwebmedia.com/category/chems/
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Carl_Sagan
https://www.planetary.org/blogs/emily-lakdawalla/2002/cassini_firstimage.html
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_nuclear_whistleblowers

Karachi Nuclear Power Plant (KANUPP) Expansion


https://www.nei.org/CorporateSite/media/filefolder/resources/fact-sheets/state-fact-sheets/Ohio-State-Fact-Sheet.pdf
https://oilprice.com/Geopolitics/Africa/Russia-And-China-Face-Off-For-Nuclear-Dominance-In-Africa.html

Nuclear power in China, CNNC
https://www.world-nuclear.org/information-library/country-profiles/countries-a-f/china-nuclear-power.aspx

Uganda: North Korea’s African Ally

https://thediplomat.com/tag/uganda-north-korea-relations/
https://www.iaea.org/newscenter/news/nuclear-technology-helps-to-develop-heat-tolerant-tomato-varieties-in-mauritius

Canada’s coronavirus deficit soaring to $343B as feds warn of ‘permanent change’ to economy

CANDU 4

Another entry in the half ass chem project.

What kind of radiation is classified as ionizing radiation?

https://www.mirion.com/learning-center/radiation-safety-basics/types-of-ionizing-radiation#:~:text=Ionizing%20radiation%20takes%20a%20few,or%20mass%20(or%20both).
Ionizing radiation takes a few forms: Alpha, beta, and neutron particles, and gamma and X-rays. All types are caused by unstable atoms, which have either an excess of energy or mass (or both).
Theres a who link I deleted since theyve been discredited lately.
http://nuclearsafety.gc.ca/eng/resources/radiation/introduction-to-radiation/types-and-sources-of-radiation.cfm
ome types of radiation have enough energy that they can knock electrons out of their orbits around atoms, upsetting the electron/proton balance and giving the atom a positive charge. Electrically charged molecules and atoms are called ions. The radiation that can produce ions is called ionizing radiation.

There are many types of ionizing radiation. The following are some of the relevant ones:

Alpha radiation:
Alpha radiation consists of two protons and two neutrons; since they have no electrons, they carry a positive charge. Due to their size and charge, alpha particles are barely able to penetrate skin and can be stopped completely by a sheet of paper.
Beta radiation:
Beta radiation consists of fast-moving electrons ejected from the nucleus of an atom. Beta radiation has a negative charge and is about 1/7000th the size of an alpha particle, so it is more penetrating. However, it can still be stopped by a small amount of shielding, such as a sheet of plastic.
Gamma radiation:
Gamma radiation is a very penetrating type of radiation. It is usually emitted immediately after the ejection of an alpha or beta particle from the nucleus of an atom. Because it has no mass or charge, it can pass through the human body, but it is absorbed by denser materials, such as concrete or lead.
X-rays:
X-rays are a form of radiation similar to gamma radiation, but they are produced mainly by artificial means rather than from radioactive substances.
Neutron radiation:
Neutron radiation occurs when neutrons are ejected from the nucleus by nuclear fission and other processes. The nuclear chain reaction is an example of nuclear fission, where a neutron being ejected from one fissioned atom causes another atom to fission, ejecting more neutrons. Unlike other radiations, neutron radiation is absorbed by materials with lots of hydrogen atoms, like paraffin wax and plastics.

What effect does ionizing radiation have on water?
https://chemed.chem.purdue.edu/genchem/topicreview/bp/ch23/radiation.php#:~:text=The%20radicals%20formed%20when%20ionizing,electrons%20or%20removing%20hydrogen%20atoms.
The radicals formed when ionizing radiation passes through water are among the strongest oxidizing agents that can exist in aqueous solution. At the molecular level, these oxidizing agents destroy biologically active molecules by either removing electrons or removing hydrogen atoms.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Radiation_damage
Effects on water
Water subjected to ionizing radiation forms free radicals of hydrogen and hydroxyl, which can recombine to form gaseous hydrogen, oxygen, hydrogen peroxide, hydroxyl radicals, and peroxide radicals. In living organisms, which are composed mostly of water, majority of the damage is caused by the reactive oxygen species, free radicals produced from water. The free radicals attack the biomolecules forming structures within the cells, causing oxidative stress (a cumulative damage which may be significant enough to cause the cell death, or may cause DNA damage possibly leading to cancer).

In cooling systems of nuclear reactors, the formation of free oxygen would promote corrosion and is counteracted by addition of hydrogen to the cooling water.[15] The hydrogen is not consumed as for each molecule reacting with oxygen one molecule is liberated by radiolysis of water; the excess hydrogen just serves to shift the reaction equilibriums by providing the initial hydrogen radicals. The reducing environment in pressurized water reactors is less prone to buildup of oxidative species. The chemistry of boiling water reactor coolant is more complex, as the environment can be oxidizing. Most of the radiolytic activity occurs in the core of the reactor where the neutron flux is highest; the bulk of energy is deposited in water from fast neutrons and gamma radiation, the contribution of thermal neutrons is much lower. In air-free water, the concentration of hydrogen, oxygen, and hydrogen peroxide reaches steady state at about 200 Gy of radiation. In presence of dissolved oxygen, the reactions continue until the oxygen is consumed and the equilibrium is shifted. Neutron activation of water leads to buildup of low concentrations of nitrogen species; due to the oxidizing effects of the reactive oxygen species, these tend to be present in the form of nitrate anions. In reducing environments, ammonia may be formed. Ammonia ions may be however also subsequently oxidized to nitrates. Other species present in the coolant water are the oxidized corrosion products (e.g. chromates) and fission products (e.g. pertechnetate and periodate anions, uranyl and neptunyl cations).[16] Absorption of neutrons in hydrogen nuclei leads to buildup of deuterium and tritium in the water. Behavior of supercritical water, important for the supercritical water reactors, differs from the radiochemical behavior of liquid water and steam and is currently under investigation.[17]

The magnitude of the effects of radiation on water is dependent on the type and energy of the radiation, namely its linear energy transfer. A gas-free water subjected to low-LET gamma rays yields almost no radiolysis products and sustains an equilibrium with their low concentration. High-LET alpha radiation produces larger amounts of radiolysis products. In presence of dissolved oxygen, radiolysis always occurs. Dissolved hydrogen completely suppresses radiolysis by low-LET radiation while radiolysis still occurs with

The presence of reactive oxygen species has strongly disruptive effect on dissolved organic chemicals. This is exploited in groundwater remediation by electron beam treatment.[18]

Like drinking heavy water

Why is there concern about changes to matter as a result of exposure to ionizing radiation?
https://www.radiationanswers.org/radiation-introduction/radiation-exposure.html#:~:text=Ionizing%20radiation%20can%20change%20the,they%20might%20divide%20too%20much.
Search Results
Featured snippet from the web
Ionizing radiation can change the structure of the cells, sometimes creating potentially harmful effects that are more likely to cause changes in tissue. These changes can interfere with cellular processes so cells might not be able to divide or they might divide too much.

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK218706/
Ionizing radiation damages the genetic material in reproductive cells and results in mutations that are transmitted from generation to generation. The mutagenic effects of radiation were first recognized in the 1920s, and since that time radiation has been used in genetic research as an important means of obtaining new mutations in experimental organisms.

radiation: energy released or transmitted in the form of rays, waves, or particles
Thats it.

CANDU 3

Wow so far behind this is really futile for this class but not for learning. It July 14
Ive missed using the site and slamming on my keyboard. I Should watch movie from the list soon. Sadness since the rental reviews has ended at hundred episodes. Not sure if it will ever return but

Here I am Candu 3.
How does the Uranium used in a Candu reactor exist in nature?
CANDU reactors use natural uranium as their nuclear fuel. Natural uranium is composed of about 0.7% uranium-235, and the remaining 99.3% is mostly uranium-238 which cannot directly be used in a fission process to obtain energy.Feb 18, 2016
I seen they drill from the bottom up and as it falls down the clearing lane then they extract it.
So thats it first the earth then the solar system.

thanks google.
What concerns exist about the mining and the processing of natural sources of uranium?
Weaponization, meltdown, climate change and mining in general has impact on nature.
Big pits and waste water. Abandoned mines.
Some miners issues.
https://nuclear-news.net/category/1-nuclear-issues/uranium-1-nuclear-issues/

Just the bare minimum moving on in the notebook.

CANDU part 2

Homework fodder.
Soo behind, its gonna be ugly.

What isotopes of uranium exist.
Uranium-238
Uranium-235
Uranium-234

What isotope of uranium is used in the CANDU Process?
Its Uranium 235

What is a half-life
Half-life is the time required for a quantity to reduce to half of its initial value. . The term is commonly used in nuclear physics to describe how quickly unstable atoms undergo, or how long stable atoms survive, radioactive decay.

What is the half-life of the isotope of uranium 235.
700 million years.

I cant find anything on the waste of Candu.
the spent fuel remains Uranium 235,
or what fuel did it use? Not asking what fucking components in the reactor. Basic components of nuclear reactors
The core of a reactor contains the uranium fuel. CANDU heavy water reactors use natural uranium, of which 0.7% is U-235, while light water reactors use uranium that has been enriched so that U-235 makes up about 3 – 5% of the total. Cant find a fucking clear answer.

Nice thats it

Candu project

Its me June 12 2020.
This is some homework fodder.

First thing: Search the Internet about the use of Nuclear technology.
Not even looking for anything particular.

1) https://jewishlifenews.com/uncategorized/nuclear-power-cables-market-growth-prospects-revenue-key-vendors-growth-rate-and-forecast-to-2026/
Nuclear power cables market, what is that.
Well thats just the cables that run the power and or in the facility. Next gen nuclear power cables. Its tech. Prysmian group. General Cable.
So its a forecast period from 2018 to 2026. they want $ 2950.00 for it

2) https://nation.com.pk/12-Jun-2020/paec-to-enhance-nuclear-energy-share-to-8-800-mw-by-2030
This one features the Pakistan Atomic Energy commission. Generation target of quantitative value. MW
Developping additional sites to house more nuclear power plants.
PAEC is the solde deptartment in Pakistan engaged in electricity generatrion using nuclear technology.
Karachi Nuclear Power Plant (KANUPP)
Chashma Nuclear Power Plants (C-I, C-2, C-3 & C-4) at Chashma (Mianwali District of Punjab Province)
The four units of Chashma are amongst the best performing electricity generating plants in the country, in terms of endurance and availability.

3) https://www.thenews.com.pk/print/671530-pakistan-s-power-generation-capacity-increases-to-35-975mw
Heres an alternate of 2)
.. increased by 7.5% MWs
Kanuupp plant is oldest and surpassed design life of 30 years.
…here using idigenous institutes to provide regular skilled labour.

Thats it for past 24 hr.
___ Just a personal note now I set the settings to “using nuclear technology” now within past Month google search and probably got through these.\

4) https://www.thenews.com.pk/print/665020-pakistan-effectively-using-nuclear-technology-for-socio-economic-development
Here is another from same page, so ill be brief.
Pakistan one of only 13 countries effectively using nuclear tech to meet own socioeconomic development needs, capable of sharing the nuclear knowledge and expertise with others peacefully.
Since 98
Foreign Office DG Kamran Akhtar said the huge Indian defence acquisitions and developments in the areas of artificial intelligence, cyber security and space militarisation were destabilising the region and the international community should exercise care and caution in sharing advanced nuclear and other related technologies with India, which was emerging as an extremist and anti-status quo state.
He said the international community had a collective responsibility to dissuade India from engaging in any misadventure as any such step would have grave consequences not only for the region but also for the entire world.
It Discusses Pakistans success with nuclear tech, and in peacefull ways. Listed.
This part states: Dr Naeem Salik said Pakistan became a nuclear weapon state once its security needs were neither understood not met by the world and its several arms control initiatives were not reciprocated and expectations for security assurances were not met.
“Pakistan has a credible minimum deterrence posture, which provides Pakistan security without engaging in a costly arms race with India,” he said.
I find that pretty interesting observing from the other side of the world im afraid I dont have enough for an opinion.

5) https://www.brecorder.com/2020/05/30/601383/national-security-sdgs-benefits-of-n-programme-highlighted/

Here is an alternate on 4)
Comments on PAEC has ensured nat. sec. regional peace. Also atleast 12 sustainable development goals and promote socio-economic develpoment.
Achievements deespite hurdles and heavy odds for PAEC.

6) https://despardes.com/pakistan-nuclear-knowledge-for-sdgs/
Ok here it speaks a little on Pm Modi and some tension between Pakistan and India. Previous wars disputes.. Theres a video of what if Indian and Pakistan go into Nuclear war.
Also a comment on the 2019 pm modi ‘gambit’ Mulsim-majority occupied Kashmir. So i do remember seeing that. Watching the video. Definitely the world doesn’t want nuclear war. Leading into massive starvation. 90% planet stave to death. Civilization destroyed.
Speaker S M Ali, a strategic affairs expert said that Pakistan’s strategic restraint must not be seen as a sign of weakness and any type or level of aggression against Pakistan in any domain will be swiftly and effectively responded through a quid pro quo plus approach.

The 17 sustainable development goals (SDGs) to transform our world by 2030:

GOAL 1: No Poverty
GOAL 2: Zero Hunger
GOAL 3: Good Health and Well-being
GOAL 4: Quality Education
GOAL 5: Gender Equality
GOAL 6: Clean Water and Sanitation
GOAL 7: Affordable and Clean Energy
GOAL 8: Decent Work and Economic Growth
GOAL 9: Industry, Innovation and Infrastructure
GOAL 10: Reduced Inequality
GOAL 11: Sustainable Cities and Communities
GOAL 12: Responsible Consumption and Production
GOAL 13: Climate Action
GOAL 14: Life Below Water
GOAL 15: Life on Land
GOAL 16: Peace and Justice Strong Institutions
GOAL 17: Partnerships to achieve the Goal

7) heres one in a different country.
https://www.iaea.org/newscenter/news/nuclear-techniques-support-crop-production-on-salt-affected-soils-in-middle-east
Offfers a guildeline book https://www.springer.com/gp/book/9783319961897
This one is way cheaper only 52 Euros.
Its discussing Soil Salinity. Nuclear isotopic Techniques. (nitrogen and water required by plants) theres some links. Some photos. Saline groundwater, bad irrigation practices.

heres the actual science; THE SCIENCE
Soil moisture neutron probe and the nitrogen-15 isotopic technique
Soil moisture neutron probes are used to monitor moisture levels in soil. During measurements, the probe is inserted into the ground and the emitted neutrons collide with hydrogen atoms of water also present in the soil. The collision slows down the neutrons – the higher the number of hydrogen atoms, the more the neutrons are slowed down – and this change in neutron speed is detected by the probe to provide a reading that corresponds to the moisture level in the soil. The more of the detected slow neutrons, the higher is the level of moisture.
Nitrogen is a key component of soil and fertilizers that plays an important role in plant growth and photosynthesis, the process through which plants convert energy from sunlight into chemical energy. As nitrogen atoms interact with the atoms in soil, fertilizer and water, they change into forms taken up by plants, released in the air, or absorbed further into the ground. Fertilizers labelled with nitrogen-15 (15N) stable isotopes — atoms with an extra neutron — enable scientists to track the isotopes to determine how effectively the crops are responding to and taking up the fertilizer. This method is called the nitrogen-15 isotopic technique, and by using this approach management practices can be improved, which in turn can help increase crop yield and optimize fertilizer use.

I just had to copy paste that because i didnt want to mess that up. Im not totally sure how that works maybe theres a video but thats pretty interesting. I like de-salination tech because providing clean water for everyone is a noble pursuit.

8) https://www.toledoblade.com/opinion/letters-to-the-editor/2020/05/20/blade-unfair-to-firstenergy-nuclear-power/stories/20200520024
Letters to the editor from Toledo Ohio. Picture of a canal and a nuclear stack in the background. Complaint about this article https://www.toledoblade.com/opinion/editorials/2020/05/15/firstenergy-bad-math-house-bill-6-ohio-nuclear-power-plants/stories/20200513117
Criticism from the editorial board about the 1 billion bailout of first energy and Ohio jobs .. and some profits for shareholders while the company goes under. So yea the energy company needs more money.
Back to the letter to editor. Heres the president with comments saying the companies arent related at all. And that the toledo blade is running a smear campaign. But did the citizens get deceived and ripped off.
The other letter mocking the president calling the coronavirus vaccine is big and fast like the Manhattan project. This person saying from 39- 45 wasnt particularly fast, seemd like a eternity to the scientist trying to defeat the germans.
but in this fast day of communication no one wants to hear vaccine cure in 6 years.. And a presidency run for 8 years if you get the re-elect, people be like whta have you done for me lately. Guess it speaks to the value of investment and time of these projects.. benefits.

9) https://www.technologytimes.pk/2020/05/28/pakistans-nuclear-program-is-helping-meet-national-security-and-12-sdgs/
Heres a link to another same press release as whats above.

10)https://www.iaea.org/newscenter/news/argentinas-newly-recognized-fruit-fly-free-areas-expedite-fresh-fruit-exports-to-china
Talks about application of sterile insect technique. uses irradiation to sterilize mass reared male insects so they cannot make offspring..Quarantine checkpoints to check for bugs..
Argentina set to boom in in the worlds largest fresh food market. eliminating fruit flies spreading populations.

11) https://www.newvision.co.ug/news/1010753/nation-address-2019
This one president of Uganda State of the Nation address.
copy paste the part with nuclkear tech:

The use of various applications of Atomic Energy in Uganda continues to rise in the medical, industrial and agricultural applications. To this effect, government has established a national register of radiation sources and facilities. Currently, 850 radiation sources in 419 facilities using nuclear technology in their operations have been registered and put under regulatory control/supervision.
Goes on to list all the projects and upgrades too many to list.

Well thats a summary for the whole month in recent. With those particular search parameters.
Ill come back for another round.
___
Ok its June 13. Working from the list still. This is me seeking more Nuclear technologies.

12) https://www.planetary.org/blogs/emily-lakdawalla/2011/3276.html
This one is approx 9 years old but was pretty informative. Its the starting process to make a space plutonium 238 battery for the NASA mars curiosity rover. It cam with a video and a tour of the INL Idaho Lab space battery facility. Wonder if they have any entry level jobs because must be a certain caution to working with radioactive materials.
Plutonium 238 is needed for space travel missions that dont rely on solar panels in the dark of space.

Gonna try some other media, youtubes, maps,
13)Canadian Nuclear safety site. https://nuclearsafety.gc.ca/eng/
Douglas point waste facility.

14)https://www.nuclearsafety.gc.ca/eng/the-commission/participant-funding-program/opportunities/pfp-funding-rook-nexgen-energy-ltd.cfm
uranium mine on the Patterson Lake peninsula in the southwestern Athabasca Basin in northern Saskatchewan, approximately 155 km north of the village of La Loche, Saskatchewan.
Just looking still, something closer.

15)https://www.radiology.ca/locations
We got Mayfair Diagnostic. Yea maybe things would have been different for me. Its useless when you need it weeks ago not in 30 days. So the Tech is available yea, but was it available to me no. Anyways could be dead, would that be better?

16) place downtown doing MRI https://www.efwrad.com/
Lots of services. Would be a challenge to explain the theory, and process, of all the processes.

17)https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nuclear_technology
First the wiki page.
Nuclear technology is technology that involves the nuclear reactions of atomic nuclei. Among the notable nuclear technologies are nuclear reactors, nuclear medicine and nuclear weapons. It is also used, among other things, in smoke detectors and gun sights.

18) https://socratic.org/questions/how-is-nuclear-chemistry-used-in-smoke-detectors
Actually found an explanation on the smoke detector usage.
In simplest terms, the metal plates only complete contact when the smoke particles are inside the ionization chamber. with some particles emitting from radioactive americium-241.

19) https://www.arpansa.gov.au/understanding-radiation/what-is-radiation/ionising-radiation
Ionization
This one talks about chemical bonds:
Each ionization releases energy that is absorbed by material surrounding the ionized atom. Ionisizng radiation deposits a large amount of energy into a small area. In fact, the energy from one ionisation is more than enough energy to disrupt the chemical bond between two carbon atoms.
alpha beta gamma rays and the typos. is it (z) is (s) below the equator is (s) here is (z)

20) https://www.mirion.com/learning-center/radiation-safety-basics/the-history-of-radiation
Some history with Marie Curie and I knew about the painting of the watch hands to make em glow in the dark.

21) https://www.mirion.com/
Found this Mirion webpage with some products and applications training thats interesting.
The picture of that stack surrounded by concrete is crazy.
The personal radiation detector just a toolbelt dosimeter with a screen and connects to a network thats amazing.

22) https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dosimeter
how does dosimeter work. differences between its like a film sheet Thermoluminescent or a electronic. To keep a carreer dose log. But it captures dose uptake of external ionizing radiation.

23) https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nuclear_technology
Back on this Nuclear technologies, it speaks of some agricultural processes. Atomic gardening and food irradiation is some I havent heard of yet.

24) https://www.atomicgardening.com/1960/02/21/the-atomic-gardening-society/
The news site have saturated atomic gardening with irrelevant filler. I found a atomic red carrot by name, so which suggests not much happening recently. People using it like figure of speech. This guy is djing analog tape with plant overlay and calling it atomic gardening. Some blog comments about atomic gardening, so. maybe NASA space station ?
Muriel Howorth. Cobalt#.

25) https://www.inspection.gc.ca/food-safety-for-industry/information-for-consumers/fact-sheets-and-infographics/irradiation/eng/1332358607968/1332358680017
Learning about food irradiation
https://www.fda.gov/food/buy-store-serve-safe-food/food-irradiation-what-you-need-know

26) https://www.marketwatch.com/press-release/food-irradiation-market-growth-opportunities-and-competitive-scenario-2028-2020-06-13?mod=mw_more_headlines&tesla=y
Some premium market report on food irradiation.

27) https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7280782/
This is interesting came regarding Non thermal tech ‘Edible Food Packaging’ but includes irradiation.
Heavy with specific tests and details.

28) https://www.iaea.org/newscenter/news/world-food-safety-day-nuclear-techniques-used-to-keep-our-food-safe
Lanaseve in Costa Rica, the site is massive and offering many services they do tests.
Also in Uganda, mobile labs or just regular testing labs have been equipped with nuclear techniques in thew analysis of residues and food contaminants.

29) https://www.iaea.org/newscenter/multimedia/photoessays/barley-in-the-desert-kuwait-progresses-in-the-development-of-a-new-variety-using-nuclear-techniques
A Photo article with some descriptions of the processes and challenges and ‘mutant fields’.

30) http://www.kisr.edu.kw/en/
TYhis is Kuwait Institute for Scientific Research , Its interesting dealing with agriculture. Also aquatic.

I think that’s good for some self directed research. There’s some listed recommended items to check out which I will do now.
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The history of Nuclear power in Canada. & Perspectives that exist about using nuclear technologies.
Perspectives not opinions. That was a wicked thunder storm just now.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nuclear_power_in_Canada
Power provided by 19 commercial reactors, 7 smaller for research and pharma nuclear med. Goes on top say the type of reactor being used. Candu and its pressurized heavy water (type) PHWR
Goes on to talk about nuclear power unique than the uranium mining industry.
Back in 1942, British-Canadian lab in Montreal. ‘The Montreal lab.’ Administered by National Research Council to develop a design for a heavy water reactor called the National Research eXperimental Reactor.
NRX reactor would be the most powerful research reactor in the world when completed. Gotta do some definitions.
Heavy water and deuterium deutrium is just twice as heavy as regular hydrogen. Add it to water you get heavy water. Im no expert but it looks like its one neutron one proton instead of just a single proton. Means the mass is bigger and makes it more “.. increases the strength of water’s hydrogen-oxygen bonds,..” When a cell takes on more than half its weight in heavy water the cell fails and dies. Heavy water first produced in 1932 a few months after discovery of deuterium. They made water with the heavy hydrogen. Then its since inception its been common in reactors, however now they use enriched uranium and regular water.
Theres different types of heavy water, and some with no deuerium or like a half mix, some more oxygen. Physical properties listed…
Some history im reading. Harold Ulrey.discovered it, his mentor isolated it first with electrolysis. So after then they did mass produce it ands use it for reactors.

Chalk river ’44 first independent outside of USA and most expensive 46 montreal lab cklose moved to joined the chalk river. This was the main one for a while zeep
67-70 SLowpokes experimental. Kingston Jamaica and Polytechnique. just smaller ones for research.

Power plants.
so after the war Heavy water moderation /coolant and/ uranium fuel are the ingredients for CANDU formula
after ’61 Atomic Energy of Canada limited built 24 commercial reactors in ontario qc and NB
refurbishment or closure, 95, 99, 08 11, 12

still some active for 16.6 % of the power grind 2015.

Anyways super brief.
___
June 15. I gotta get back to this, I learnt somethings.
Need to research some perspectives.
Scientific perspectives CANDU
Technological perspectives CANDU

Perspective is how something is viewed from an angle or a perspective.

Perspectives of /the study of the natural world with the goal of describing, explaining, and pre-dicting substances and changes
Perspectives of /the skills, processes, and equipment required to manufacture useful products or to perform useful tasks.

Ok so just what I learnt without too much internet ill try to form an amateur perspective here.
I think in terms of CANDU is pretty much solved in terms of science. The only science I can think of is some long term continuing studies on impacts say good or bad on CANDU anything Eco, and community health. The nuclear waste, effectiveness, economics. Thats some broad strokes.

For a C.A.N.D.U. technological perspective, well risk vs reward if the risk can be mitigated seems like a effective power source. Just like rigth away it would seem that oil companies and friends of oil companies wouldnt want that. Oil is usefull but humanity needs to nopt put all its energy eggs in a dangerous experiment. So yea it looks like nuclear power plants in Canada had its golden age but what are we from the stone age right now, seems like could use some of this technology alot more expand upon it. In terms of skills, well i learnt In Uganda they have some training programs. More energy more tech jobs and training required. I can think of handful of people that would work 20-25$ an hour. But is thnat whnat you want the lowest paid labor ores to watch safety at your nuclear reactor. My perspective we as human society should be using all the tools at our disposal and then react upon fact like the leaded gasolines. Right now its dunce politicians in charge leading us in the wrong direction. Its up to science. Why are the rich keeping the poor down and under powered and under educated. Because people waking up is the only thing that will stop these people.’
Anyways. Perspectives on Candu. First of all perspective is moot; the project is all but dead and inaccessible to me.
It was hot after the detonation of the ww2 nuclear bombs, “free” energy experimentation. The radiation stigma and realities are actual risk. If every kid on the block had a reactor is that a good thing ? At this point in Alberta some people would take high risk to gain a living income. In terms of energy its liker all that money is gone in Alberta nothing spent on infrastructure, even out of provincers come get a paycheck spends nothing in AB then bash AB from their BC living rooms. Edmonton the potholes and the amount of money going through that place its shameful. So i guess thats whats interesting about candu technologies developing countries making use oif it, us nah, we marks and getting scammed. We are the bounty. Enmax and direct energy, hell yea id rather invest in community reactor and cut the middle man. Maybe its a job I could do. Even on the moon/ mars would be a good place for a candu probably. Radiation poisoning the eco and community and breathing air basically when something goes bad the place is destroyed. Theres that ever present risk and stigma anytime you use those words.

Ok now i somewhat have some perspectives lets check the web.

a)https://www.hindawi.com/journals/stni/2015/143767/
Heres a massive journal. Research and development. It says its safe theres lots of variables that could potentiall cause some issues. Like chemistry containment and generational cleanup. Whose gonna clean up 150 from now when theres no money left for site clean up. Like what citizens are supposed to go clean this up after billions are made. I dont know fuckin fed up today argh! Anyways moving on.
This journal might be both scientific and technological research perspective.

b)https://www.reddit.com/r/nuclear/comments/h93jsy/is_it_worth_pursuing_an_advanced_degree_in_this/
Thats perspective. So basically why learn all this complicated stuff when theres no work or nothing to do. Otherwise its maybe a good starting point for some careers. This person talking about having 15 years programming experience from a nuclear career. Heres another commenter basically saying the future of nuclear depends on politics and not science that about sums it up.

So heres a big perspective, people are or will be too stupid to even learn operate this equipment. And its stupid politics not science that leads the way. Basically someone with no understanding has the power to destroy the planet. Still Hiroshima like was not very long ago 75 years, this year. Pay someone lowest wage possible to sit at the reactor station and hope Homer Simpson doesnt blow up the town. And even with all that safety got Fukushima plant radioactive water flowing into the ocean today. Thanks alot. Chernobyl another destroyed place. That with top people, with degrees in command, people with families. So people make mistakes. Even the pilots at hiroshima its no joke being pilot they dont just grab some shoe less guy off the street. Then the dread of being responsible for countless deaths. And im sorry CBC maybe back in the 60-70s had some merit, maybe the radio but the cbc today is complete garbage. Liberal payout to the media results in complete crap. Its clickbait favored over content and ignores the Pm and security failures, basically you’re under-informed if you only follow CBC. They miss the most important stories consistently. CBC? excuse me while I go barf. They gave away their best show hockey night in Canada and replaced it with nonsense and buffoons, drivel.

c)http://nuclearsafety.gc.ca/eng/resources/perspectives-on-nuclear-issues/index.cfm
Oh great the professionals, sorry covid lost trust in abomination government. Look it says here the role that nuclear can play in achieving deep carbonization.
right here it says : The Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists focused its 2016 Clock Symposium on the role that nuclear can play in achieving deep de-carbonization..
Nice it doesnt say anything about implementing carbon tax or shutting down parliament. Thats a piss off, that stupid self serving politics are interfering with science and possible progress. Love how the church kept us delayed from space and science too. Theyre the true barbaric heathen sinners, choosing greed over scientific method.

checking my list.

d)http://www.nuclearfaq.ca/cnf_sectionD.htm
Theres just so much informartion.
Whose perspective?, well I got my own figured out. Maybe ill ask some educated people I know on their ‘perspective’.
There aint no candu reactor to talk about. Well i checked reddit already.
So the perspectives are lacking . And everyones getting cancer from Fukushima.

Following the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear plant accident in 2011, which was initiated by a powerful earthquake and tsunami that destroyed all immediate ability to cool the nuclear fuel in three recently operating reactors, the Canadian federal nuclear regulator, the Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission set up a special Task Force to determine how safe Canadian CANDU reactors are against conceptually similar low-frequency, high-consequence natural disasters, and to compile a list of lessons learned. The Task Force, in its final report concluded that the CANDU fleet is safe against such threats, due to the “defence-in-depth” strategy of reactor safety that provides robust and multi-level barriers against a range of scenarios – but also made a number of recommendations that could improve safety even more (see above link). 404sCL

Moving on, Perspective on Nuclear Power.

Me personally I have some perspectives on the bomb and the places affected by reactor meltdown, ill get into that later, but I read Asimov foundation before the class, the storyline involves nucleics and barbarians.
I know nuclear tech is good at least from that story. Something humans need to understand, doing acrobatics with the elements. Its essential for space exploration.

1,https://www.rand.org/pubs/documents/D16568.html
This one called perspective on nuclear energy and its discussion on military uses and technological civilian advances, slight mocking tone but true that the humans went for the most destructive thing first. Its from 1968.

2,https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nuclear_power_debate
This about sums it up.
Something im noting is the clean up of sites and how its suggested to store nuclear waste way underground yet barely anyone does that, theres a couple dedicated waste storage sites.
Nuclear power plants are a complex energy system[141][142] and opponents of nuclear power have criticized the sophistication and complexity of the technology. Helen Caldicott has said
: “in essence, a nuclear reactor is just a very sophisticated and dangerous way to boil water – analogous to cutting a pound of butter with a chain saw.”

Cost of decommissioning plants.

Its like if theres was a one fail safe standard . normal accidents

research money cut ..

According to a Stanford study, fast breeder reactors have the potential to provide power for humans on earth for billions of years, making this source sustainable.[33] But “because of the link between plutonium and nuclear weapons, the potential application of fast breeders has led to concerns that nuclear power expansion would bring in an era of uncontrolled weapons proliferation”.[34]

Cant have unlimited power because someone with the key, will turn it on humanity.

Environmental effects
Main article: Environmental effects of nuclear power
See also: Uranium mining debate and Lists of nuclear disasters and radioactive incidents
Nuclear generation does not directly produce sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, mercury or other pollutants associated with the combustion of fossil fuels.

The primary environmental effects of nuclear power come from uranium mining, radioactive effluent emissions, and waste heat. Nuclear industry, including all past nuclear weapon testing and nuclear accidents, contributes less than 1% of the overall background radiation globally.

Yea thats a intersting stat but they arent denying the catastrophe of those particular events.

Theres some comparison on coal and nuclear.
Then I was viewing the Hanford site. Dupont. Looks like one could make a reasonable living off duties relating to nuclear waste maintenance.
Theres some crazy photos of the hanford site.

Im just imagining futuristic Asimov society with nuclear powers and the duties that would entail.
Its on the Columbia river and you can visit it in real life 10 hrs away.

Maybe if it wasnt always profit and not caring about the future generations we could get somewhere.
Weaponization of the waste. And what happens when a unstable government is ‘replaced’.
anyways, that debate has pros and cons debatable. I mean for developing country to have energy freedom thats amazing.

Sale of C.A.N.D.U. Technology Perspective

A)https://canadiandimension.com/articles/view/why-is-ontario-spending-billions-on-nuclear-energy-when-cheap-renewables-are-available
disagree. This guy hes like climate crisis so bad but ontario good lets use renewables. Since its gonna decommission anyways. In the states the nuclear provides more power to the grid than renewables on what I just read, and anytime i see the liberal government stamp I immediately know: lies.

More getting called racist, and pushing bogus agenda, and Im a colonial. What a crock.
Has barely anything to do with C.A.N.D.U. its strictly politics.
Sponsored : so this drivel get shoved right to the top.

B)https://www.ieee.ca/millennium/candu/candu_achievement.html
Ok this one i like it right to the point has useful information.
But from the design to bottom theres corruption standards arent maintained.
The whistle blower on the fire specs in example,its always some corporate fuck putting everyone downstream at risk with no care or consideration.
I was reading in one example: built right into the reactor safety specs designed to be able to shut down reactor safely with a wired connection , the wire connection wasnt insulated properly enough due to the chem company whatever decided not to do it. Thats just an example.

Still same page
The C.A.N.D.U. is a proven reactor.
Has a fuel cycle has goals to improve.
Its truly a global tech and seeing those increases to economy. That type of freedom should be accessible to anyone in my opinion.
In someone elses words:
“Meeting the needs of the developing world is hard to imagine without recourse to nuclear power. Equally hard to contemplate is the heavy environmental burden that future generations will bear if a massive increase in the burning of fossil fuels precludes the alternatives.

Despite the need for nuclear power, it would be naive to think that the opposition to it will suddenly lessen. Those in the nuclear industry must therefore work harder to ensure that the public receives a balanced picture. While we may not be able to match the rhetoric of the opposition, we are at least accountable, and we owe the public the facts that will help them to make up their own minds. In the final analysis, it is only the appropriate degree of balance in the views of the public that will permit nuclear power to make its proper contribution to the energy supply and to the well-being of the world in the years to come.”

Theres a for-side, theres a lower-mid, higher-mid, opposed, and unknown.
Id place myself between cautious and I like the idea of projects using a failsafe tech.
Its strange that that latest Michael Moore doc didnt mention nuclear power, wasn’t the focus but maybe its rhetorical.
Implied in its non mention, seems unlikely.

More not my words: “The global energy challenge is to meet the potentially vast demands of the next century, while maintaining a healthy environment. Even the most intractable conservationist would find it hard to deny the need for more energy or the right of billions of people, not to luxury, but to the basic necessities that electricity can provide.”

And that relates to this project specifically.

That site its like a institute of electrical ..
About
IEEE Canada is the Canadian arm (as Region 7) of the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) as well as the constituent society of the Engineering Institute of Canada (EIC) for the technical fields of electrical, electronics, and computer engineering.
Has a digital library.

https://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-3-030-47225-2_1
Some 109 USD info on Candu and the mini reactors gen3 genIV

https://www.cbc.ca/archives/entry/differing-perspectives-on-nuclear-power
Look cbc 40 years ago at the national war memorial where I lost my leg ,the only difference is better cbc reporting on science and math.
They can do cassini mission with so many variables so i believe people can operate these things safely. Its like a spy secret you could sell it to the highest bidder if you were the plutonium guy, and from wehat i gather the candu type of fuel isnt the type for weapons, but just the mention of nuclear power suggests nuclear weapons sets people off in a tailspin. Not to mention Chernobyl etc.. The word mutations.

India made the bomb. https://www.cbc.ca/archives/entry/1974-canada-blamed-for-indias-peaceful-bomb

harsh: https://www.cbc.ca/archives/entry/mysterious-millions-spent-on-candu-sales-commissions
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17 June.

https://www.theglobeandmail.com/investing/markets/stocks/SNC-T/pressreleases/5017923/
Sounds like some corrupt money laundering scam.

https://www.cbc.ca/archives/no-money-no-candu-in-1982-recession-1.5594700
Well there a recession. 82 No one can afford.
Botched Romania.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pickering_Nuclear_Generating_Station
This one saying there was false alarm in mass sending emergency message about reactor. Jan 12 2020 that must be fun.

https://www.newswire.ca/news-releases/snc-lavalin-awarded-inspection-contracts-for-cernavoda-unit-1-during-2020-outage-894897229.html
more buddy deals for friends of politicians.

https://nbmediacoop.org/2020/06/02/the-new-nuclear-boondoggle-in-new-brunswick/

From sam,
“The obvious question is this: Why are they willing to continue investing public money in a technology that has never been successful economically or environmentally over supporting well-proven responsible renewable energy development that is succeeding at both?”

So Ive seen some financial viability to the reactor. This Article also pushing for more ‘renewables’ Got the liberal crap stamp. Talking about wasting public money please. However did raise some concern I can respect with the logistical issues with fuel source. Length of life and issues to get the fuel there , what to do with waste fuel. I disagree with the renewable promo. Simply put. I can respect NB maybe isnt the place for that, I dont live there. I guess its really up to groups of people whose more passionate trying to ge some projects ghoing here there, there wont work. Better with debate than delaing with it after the fact with no approval. Thats how I feel about this gov, going around making these important decisions with no approval, feeding their own interests. No one cares about the displaced family. Silenced.

https://www.world-nuclear.org/information-library/country-profiles/countries-o-s/south-korea.aspx
look at this I found:
South Koprea “…and exports its technology widely. It is currently involved in the building of four nuclear reactors in the UAE, under a $20 billion contract. ”
So dont tell me theres no financial viability. Theyre claiming to be closing coal plants. Its gotta be case by case. Use all the tools in that quest for infinite safe energy.
Anyways this government debates, some citizens dont want it.
“Abundant energy to lift humankind out of poverty and the climate crisis.” From the Scientists open letter.

Found some NDT that works in Candu energy fields.

https://www.euractiv.com/section/all/short_news/romania-to-cancel-nuclear-deal-with-chinese-company/

https://www.reddit.com/r/NuclearPower/comments/h10nto/why_are_advanced_small_modular_nuclear_reactors/

https://countysustainabilitygroup.com/2020/06/07/
Same page as earlier posted. This one is Says math doesnt add up: more renewables.

https://fineartamerica.com/featured/pressurised-heavy-water-reactor-model-mark-williamson.html?product=iphone-case-cover&phoneCaseType=iphone10

https://www.sciencedirect.com/topics/earth-and-planetary-sciences/plutonium-oxide
.A few power reactors, most notably the early British gas-cooled reactors and the Canadian CANDU reactors, do not require enriched fuel.

___
Residents and Candu reactor. Society economics health.

https://www.ecoshock.org/2020/05/covid-infects-world-nuclear-plants.html
“..nuclear technology to anyone. Iran? Sure. North Korea, well that transfer of Russian nuclear technology may or may not have been authorized. Now they are building a nuclear reactor in Bangladesh. But why not? Canada gave India nuclear tech that led to their atomic bomb, and trained the Pakistani father of the bomb. Canadian engineers watched as prison slave labor built a Candu nuclear plant in Romania. The Romanians couldn’t really pay, so Canada agreed to take it out in coal and jam. It’s a dirty corrupt business no matter who does it. The on-again off-again felon Mike Flynn was busy trying to selling nuclear reactors to dictators in the Middle East. China wants to make money selling reactors. Nobody makes money selling reactors. Nuclear power is the biggest money pit in the history of money pits. And the cost never ends. Deconstruction usually falls on future taxpayers. The dangerous radioactive waste needs to be secured and guarded for tens of thousands of years. It’s never over.”

Nuclear weapon threat reduced. People checking in at the plant on cell phones..

https://london.ctvnews.ca/no-risk-to-public-after-heavy-water-spill-at-bruce-power-1.4790905

https://nowtoronto.com/news/space-race-nuclear-power-ontario/
opinions.
one commenter:Sensationalistic Reporting
Since when is information obtained from press releases “secret”?
And why would you characterize U238 destined for radioisotope heaters and thermoelectric generators as “dirty”?
This is terrible reporting.

https://www.cbc.ca/news/canada/toronto/ontario-false-alert-pickering-nuclear-plant-1.5424242
This be the only thing that happened to any residents within last year.

https://www.durhamregion.com/opinion-story/9809294-we-have-good-reasons-to-be-alarmed-about-nuclear-reactors/
Opinion. Pickering text is Chernobyl.
I agree when its time to clean up all you get is broken promises.

no news is good news, its almost as if someone set off that warning to get a rise. Stranger things have happened.
Incentives is all you need. Desperate people the way things are now.

I mean for Romania they got screwed and that saddens me.
Whats the ethics of selling nuclear tech, as the insurance scam wont cover it.

So things are working in Canada we dont have a Chernobyl or a Three mile island or Fukushima should be acknowledged then.
Not gonna be with trudeau doing fuck all and parliament suspended thats gonna advance debate on this in any direction.

___
June 18. The BLM protests ongoing in USA, seen a crazy photo of Black man carrying a beat up white man out of the protest zone. Crazy picture cause the black dude looks really strong, and hes just got this skinny white beat up guy and hes carrying him to safety In a type of fireman carry. In the quote he says: “I did what I had to do.” Wow. I bet you buddy was pretty happy to get saved and good on that man. He coulda done nothing. I guess thats just some writing on the comments of that powerful photo. (white)People in government should extend that helping hand more. Other current events Trudeau gov lost their bid to UN and Africa, good on em too. I guess they didnt want a racist loser. Neither does Canada. Its time to recall parliament. I send letters . Politicians be useless! Work on Canada for a bit. Clueless wedge setter.

https://theconversation.com/expensive-dirty-and-dangerous-why-we-must-fight-miners-push-to-fast-track-uranium-mines-139966
This article shows some negative effects of some cleanup and high cost to tax payers. Thats one thing too why is the status quo the tax payers are left with the burden. With the scientific investment should come the cleanup costs. Subsidize it with selling energy.

https://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/blogs/foreign-media/india-and-china-need-to-rebuild-economic-ties-to-stave-off-war-bloomberg/
This is just a copy of an other article posted Washington Post.

https://business.financialpost.com/pmn/business-pmn/u-s-development-agency-proposes-financing-of-nuclear-power-exports-2

This one is debating USA’s green energy tech competing on the world stage exporting nuclear tech with China Russia. One scientist argues that the President /
Ed Lyman, a nuclear power expert at the Union of Concerned Scientists, said it is “utterly irresponsible for the Trump administration to promote the export of unproven and potentially dangerous nuclear technologies to the developing world.” He said Washington should first work with countries to create independent nuclear regulators.

https://www.reuters.com/article/us-usa-uranium/trump-officials-eye-blocking-uranium-from-russia-china-to-help-u-s-nuclear-industry-idUSKCN2252TM
This is the article linked from the previous. Talks a bit about Canada exporting Uranium to USA along with other countries. Dont want mining near grand canyon.

https://themarketherald.com.au/nuclear-enemies-china-and-india-go-head-to-head-2020-06-17/
This one is more about nuclear battle and exports as seperate things, but current events India China.

https://www.forbes.com/sites/davidhambling/2020/06/16/us-to-reinterpret-arms-control-agreement-to-sell-more-drones/#e3860d460cdf
Drone sales. Drones as flying nuclear missiles. Drone tech exporting. China makes drones half the price.

https://www.sheffieldtelegraph.co.uk/news/opinion/columnists/nuclear-expertise-puts-sheffield-heart-clean-energy-revolution-2885999
Heres a quote:
“Last year was the first when the UK produced more electricity from low-carbon renewable and nuclear than fossil fuels and we recently managed two months without burning any coal.”
Theres a combo offers suggestions.

https://www.washingtonexaminer.com/opinion/make-us-nuclear-exports-easier
Opinion should be exporting.

https://www.dailymaverick.co.za/article/2020-06-17-new-coal-and-nuclear-power-proposals-undermine-prospects-of-a-post-covid-19-economic-recovery/#gsc.tab=0

South Africa Energy. Clean coal. They wan to buy mini reactors but where are the commercial mini-reactors.

https://www.newtimes.co.rw/news/use-nuclear-technology-gets-green-light-rwanda
Couple MPs voted against but the wish foir Rwanda to be competitive. Talks about the skills required.

https://www.weforum.org/agenda/2020/05/coronavirus-wont-spell-the-end-for-globalization-but-change-is-unavoidable/
Mentions the China Reactor exports are suffering from coronavirus.
__
https://www.cnbc.com/2019/03/21/trump-aims-to-beat-china-and-russia-in-nuclear-energy-export-race.html

March 2019 Next gen online within 10 yrs
Micro reactors for export
“Terrapower’s traveling wave reactor”
Agrreements in Congress on nuclear tech
About 30 countries adopting Nuclear tech.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nuclear_industry_in_Canada
Canada produces about 30-40% of the global supply of molybdenum-99.
About 85% of the world’s medical and industrial cobalt-60 is produced in Canada.
Canada is the world’s largest producer of uranium with about one third of world production coming from Saskatchewan mines.

https://www.sierraclub.org/policy/nuclear/nuclear-exports-and-plutonium-separation
People riiich from renewables dont want nuclear exports.Interestingly their policies date way back to ’77 . Amendments. They basically just say no plutonium exports and let international law dictate storage of fuel. Concerned about a terrorists proliferating reactors. But stringent surveillance and reporting their way should cover it.

https://www.atlanticcouncil.org/in-depth-research-reports/issue-brief/international-co-financing-of-nuclear-reactors-between-the-united-states-and-its-allies/
” The importance of streamlining domestic policy toward nuclear innovation and foreign policy toward nuclear exports cannot be overstated.”
“in order to facilitate nuclear exports, the USDFC will need to modify the OPIC Environment and Social Policy Statement that prohibits funds from being used for new nuclear projects.”
Recognize and account for the value of low-carbon energy, as well as for the national security benefits of a robust nuclear export program. The federal government should provide financial support to US nuclear energy exports, and bolster financing institutions like the Export-Import Bank, based on the inherent value of a nuclear energy program to US climate security and national security goals.

https://www.world-nuclear.org/our-association/publications/online-reports/good-practice-in-the-compliance-and-licensing-of-n.aspx
Government strict controls on nuclear exports.

https://www.world-nuclear.org/information-library/country-profiles/countries-a-f/france.aspx
France nuclear exports Nuclear tech exports. France wants to be world competitor in nuclear exports.

https://www.economist.com/graphic-detail/2018/08/07/russia-leads-the-world-at-nuclear-reactor-exports
Russia leads in Nuclear exports 2018 / China is only competition.

https://www.nei.org/news/2019/congress-national-security-nuclear-exports
USA holidays 2019 with some Nuclear changes in congress.

https://www.export.gov/industries/civil-nuclear/exporting-guide
How to export in USA

https://truenorthfareast.com/news/canada-candu-nuclear-energy-export-china
Save the planet export Canada nuclear to China. Jan 2020.
Candu plant in China. Thorium

___
June 19 Nates Bday.

Theres a few things left. Chernobyl/Mayak/Three mile Island , Xrays, Ultrasonds, Ct Scans, MRIs.

June 20. Got held up.
Oh yea I had been researching the Chernobyl.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chernobyl_disaster
The good news is its supposed to be cleaned up but 2065. Basically there was a gap in cooling something like that. Testers doing tests on the gap.Test for a power outage. It was hope that therte was enough power in the turbines to cover the minute of no power then could resume naturally.
” It was hoped to prove that the residual rotational energy in a turbine generator could provide enough power to cover the gap. Three such tests had been conducted since 1982, but they had failed to provide a solution. On this fourth attempt, an unexpected 10-hour delay meant that an unprepared operating shift was on duty.[3] During the planned decrease of reactor power in preparation for the electrical test, the power unexpectedly dropped to a near-zero level. The operators were able to only partially restore the specified test power, which put the reactor in a potentially unstable condition. This risk was not made evident in the operating instructions, so the operators proceeded with the electrical test. Upon test completion, the operators triggered a reactor shutdown, but a combination of unstable conditions and reactor design flaws caused an uncontrolled nuclear chain reaction instead.[4]:33

A large amount of energy was suddenly released, vaporising superheated cooling water and rupturing the reactor core in a highly destructive steam explosion. This was immediately followed by an open-air reactor core fire..”
There was an aftermath. Sarcophagus RBMK type.
Theres a difference the Ligth water uses graphite in a way that can prevent total loss of coolant.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nuclear_fallout_effects_on_an_ecosystem
Some ecological effect, noted the mutations on chlorophyll. Reproduction capabilities damaged destroyed.

Mayak
Makay , Kyshtym is a radioactive contamination accident. 1957 @ Mayak.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mayak
In 1957 Mayak was the site of the Kyshtym disaster, one of the worst nuclear accidents in history. During this catastrophe, a poorly maintained storage tank exploded, releasing 20 million curies (740 PBq) in the form of 50–100 tons of high-level radioactive waste. The resulting radioactive cloud contaminated an expansive territory of more than 750 km2 (290 sq mi) in the eastern Urals with the consequence of sickness and death from radiation poisoning.
The Soviet regime kept this accident secret for about 30 years. The event was eventually rated at 6 on the seven-level INES scale, third in severity only to the disasters at Chernobyl in Ukraine and Fukushima in Japan.[5]
Mayak is still active as of 2020, and it serves as a reprocessing site for spent nuclear fuel.[6] Today the plant makes tritium and radioisotopes, not plutonium.[citation needed] In recent years, proposals that the plant reprocess waste from foreign nuclear reactors have given rise to controversy.

Wow so down river of a nuclear factory dumping waste in 1957.
Was after the war. Anmd the nuclear cloud in storage accidents.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kyshtym_disaster
Shows the cloud radius.
It was the cold war in competition to gain more weapon grade plutonium.
Cant tell the cancer type from ‘regular’ cancer so unknown death toll.
Then some of these people wont leave so they become living experiments.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/East_Ural_Nature_Reserve
TRhats inrteresting,l Think of the future eath archeologists diiging up nuclear waste.

Three Mile Island.
Great photos on the google maps.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Three_Mile_Island_accident
Look its pre-Chernobyl in USA.
“In particular, a hidden indicator light led to an operator manually overriding the automatic emergency cooling system of the reactor because the operator mistakenly believed that there was too much coolant water present in the reactor and causing the steam pressure release.[5]”
Human-computer interaction design oversights.
Also the steam to water process had a blockage in a steam to water filter. They blew it out with compressed air in the water that lead to water in air lines, errors down the line. Its amazing to me after the fact theyre able to do the investigative sciences to find all these clues.
Using twelve people with neither strong or opposing views. Public inquiry. So will there always be nuclear disasters ?
The movie, China Syndrome.

https://www.britannica.com/technology/nuclear-reactor/Three-Mile-Island-and-Chernobyl
Human error introduced as factor in disaster.
Some mention on earthquake and tsunami at the same time is another nuclear threat Fukushima

X-Ray technology.

https://scitechdaily.com/showtime-for-photosynthesis-nature-captured-in-breakthrough-molecular-movie/
Well I dont completely get it but sure is interesting showing some photosynthesis imaging video.
Water splitting reaction captured by xray.

https://www.newindianexpress.com/cities/hyderabad/2020/jun/20/hi-tech-screening-introduced-at-customs-department-in-hyderabad-airport-now-2158906.html
Some new hi-tech xray tech in use at the baggage screening

https://wkzo.com/news/articles/2020/jun/18/new-york-city-council-passes-police-surveillance-oversight-bill/1031007/
Xray Vans. Radiation meter overwatch software application.

https://www.foxnews.com/tech/border-technology-combat-illegal-smuggling
A handheld scanner, and a driver-over sensor.
An all in one NDT testing xray machine. Untrained personnel for optimal inspection results.

https://biv.com/article/2020/05/startup-x-rays-earth-goes-commercial

https://bits-chips.nl/artikel/deltaray-debuts-3d-x-ray-technology-for-fully-automated-quality-control/
Similar to above.
Its a box that xrays components and references it vs the CAD drawing. Interesting with zero failure manufacturer the QA Quality control tool hasnt evolved at same pace. ioncreasingly difficult components and tech hasnt evolved as fast until now..

Ultrasound tech

https://www.sciencefocus.com/future-technology/haptic-technology-uses-ultrasound-waves-to-create-braille-out-of-thin-air/
Thats neat.

https://www.straight.com/tech/burnaby-tech-companys-handheld-ultrasound-device-becomes-key-tool-in-fight-against-covid-19
Im bitter ultrasound could have maybe saved my leg was un-available.

https://www.medgadget.com/2020/06/samsung-releases-rs85-prestige-advanced-ultrasound.html
Samsung ultrasound.

CT Scan Technology

https://www.emirates247.com/news/emirates/seha-unveils-uae-s-first-ct-scanning-technology-to-diagnose-pneumonia-caused-by-covid-19-2020-06-16-1.694970
Some recent CT scan tech on Covid

https://happymag.tv/this-200kg-gorilla-was-airlifted-60km-to-receive-a-ct-scan/
Giving 35 year old gorilla CT scan.

https://www.novuslight.com/artificial-intelligence-delivers-greater-clarity-to-low-dose-medical-imaging_N10443.html

AI and CT scan, lower dose.

Magnetic resonance imaging, looks like CT scan but bvetter than CTY scan or xray for some usages.

https://medicalxpress.com/news/2020-05-mobile-mri-van-lorry.html

Im wrapped up pretty much Ill do some specific research as it appears in the content. Bit behind so I gotta on gave myself an indulged look at all these topics. Might be interesting to see in 5-10 years.