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Nuclear for Tyros

Nuclear for Tyros
by Clay ’21

Origins of Uranium.
What is Uranium?
Uranium is a atomic element number 92.
Its a silvery-grey metal in the actinide series. Its a hard dense metal. Uranium is denser than lead, slightly less dense than tungsten, and gold. Uranium can be found in a form called Pitchblende, or Uraninite on Earth.

Earthly origins are believed to be inherited by the solar system in one, or more supernova occurring approximately 6 billion years ago. Supernova is the end of the life cycle of a star. A star that suddenly increases in brightness because of a catastrophic explosion that ejects most of its mass. More recently second theory, that Uranium, other heavy metals, and gravitational waves ejected during a neutron star collision or a ‘merger.’

This artist’s impression shows two tiny but very dense neutron stars at the point at which they merge and explode as a kilonova. Such a very rare event is expected to produce both gravitational waves and a short gamma-ray burst, both of which were observed on 17 August 2017 by LIGO–Virgo and Fermi/INTEGRAL respectively. Subsequent detailed observations with many ESO telescopes confirmed that this object, seen in the galaxy NGC 4993 about 130 million light-years from the Earth, is indeed a kilonova. Such objects are the main source of very heavy chemical elements, such as gold and platinum, in the Universe.

Neutron star is a collapsed supergiant star. A teaspoon of Neutron star weighing around a billion tons. Havoc, and massive explosions if spoonful of neutron star matter suddenly appeared on Earth.
MIT tech video shows a great animation ‘ Neutron stars collide.’ Also the neutron star merger ejects gamma rays, in a pattern. Matter is ejected, many lightyears away. In 1604 Johannes Kepler observed and recorded the Kepler Supernova” in our galaxy.

1987A Hubble

Artist 1987A

Neutrons stars from the cosmos all the way to, bouncing neutrons out when splitting a Uranium atoms, at the atomic level.

Principles of nuclear.
What is nuclear?
Energy is the movement of atoms and molecules within a substance. Nuclear is relating to the nucleus of a atom.
Nuclear fusion is the reaction occurring inside the sun. With gravity the mass of the two atoms of Hydrogen combine together, and create a Helium. High temperatures, ionized, and confined/compressed with gravity.


Thats how the sun, and stars do it.

Experimental Tokamak technology.

‘Nuclear Fusion’ can create around 4 times as much energy as ‘Nuclear Fission’. Nuclear Fission reaction is whats happening in a reactor. In a U-235 fission energy is released, so much energy is released that there is a measurable decrease in mass, that means some of the mass is converted to energy.

In a reactor such as CANDU, the chance of a nuclear fission (energy) event is higher when the ejected neutron is slowed down. How do you slow down that neutron, with a moderator like a carbon, or a deuterium heavy water.


Chance of fission

Its a sustained chain reaction. Rutherford discovered some alpha particle scattering with the gold foil experiment changed the atomic model. Rutherford couldnt figure out why negative electrons didn’t automatically fall into the positively charged nucleus. It was Niels Bohr in 1913, discovered the valence electron levels studying the properties of the Hydrogen electrons.
First ‘Nuclear Fission’ was Dec 1938, Kaiser Wilhem Institute for Chemistry.
Dec 1942 was the Chicago pile -1 first sustained nuclear chain reaction.

Chalk River

In Canada it was Zeep: Zero energy Experimental Pile September 1945. And Chalk river the beginning of Canada CANDU nuclear. ZEEP NRX NRU SLOWPOKE


ZEEP

Accidents in 1952,1958, 2007, 2008, 2009 medical isotope shortage
In layman’s terms, nuclear elements don’t want to stay in a unstable form, so they degrade into more stable elements. This half-life process can take astronomical amount of time, to a few seconds. Radioactive decay means that elements will decay through alpha beta or gamma wave emission into more stable elements. For example Cesium will decay into Barium. While Uranium, Thorium Actinium all decay to different stable isotopes of lead.

During Radioactive decays, different particle/waves along with energy will be released.
Alpha, and Beta Particles. Gamma rays Neutron Radiation. The 4 types of radiation.
They were named in the order of discovery.
Alpha particles stopped by paper.
Beta particles stopped by aluminum sheet.
Gamma stopped by lead.

Cookies.
Imagine you had 4 cookies. One is a alpha emitter, one is a beta emitter, one is a gamma emitter and finally a neutron emitter.
You can throw one cookie away, but you have to put one in your pocket, one in your hand, and eat one.
Alpha particles are bad to vital tissue, so you probably don’t want to eat that one.
The Gamma emitter cookie, the gamma rays are likely to pass right through you inside, or out.
So this is the cookie deemed the one to eat.
Throw away the neutron emitter, like a buried used reactor core.
Keep the alpha particles away from your organs; the cookie in your hand.
Finally the beta particles shielded in your pocket.
The effects of beta particles can be similar to a sunburn effect on skin.

Y = Gamma

Note that it is the beta particles remaining in a carbon-14 sample the principles of carbon dating. Carbon-14 is radioactive. Measuring the beta particles it tells you how much carbon-14 left in the fossil which allows you to calculate how long ago the organism was alive.

CANDU reactor specifics.
Reactors are not all one shape, and size.
Evolutions in designs through R&D, disasters.
Pros and cons to different situations.
For the CANDU specific
ZEEP ’57 Origins of the bundle rod.

WR-1 tests with light water.
Zed-2 Is the test support reactor, Its the successor to ZEEP reactor. Designed by AECL fopr CANDU support It uses the 43 bundle CANFLEX fuel. SEU fuel, is just slight enhanced Uranium. For the Full core simulation. Its a nuclear historic landmark 2010. Its purpose is to test
CANDU 6 (600MWe)/ CANDU 9(900MWe) designs. The feature for selling CANDU was not needing the enriched fuels.

Selling CANDU to India, Pakistan, South Korea. 70s. Issues with some Romanian, and Argentina deals.

Advanced CANDU Reactor ACR project. To reduce costs, and some specific safety systems and redundancy. Moving to a light water reactor. ACR uses a more enriched fuel compared to the previous CANDU 6. But, not by much. ACR purpose was to test with other organic moderators.
The original thought process was that using natural uranium fuel would keep the costs relatively low compared to the more expensive enriched Uranium costs.
Also, it was though that the CANDU model was safer from proliferation because of its non-enriched fuel. However that proved to be untrue with the Smiling Buddha India bomb Canada received some blame.
The ACR , using a slight more enriched fuel, is able to have a smaller core, more output.
After the ACR design there was the sale of AECL reactor division to SNC Lavalin in 2011. And, in 2014 SNC announced a partnership with CNNC to support sales, and construction of the existing CANDU designs. Including a plan for the “Advance Fuel CANDU reactor” ‘AFCR.’
Argentina 2018 reactor. “Atucha III.”Hasnt started yet can speak to some associated extra costs and regulations.
Atucha has a horizontal fuel channel, with crane refueling.

Atucha I & II
Still in Canada every reactor over budget. Commercial reactor company takes the risk, with the loans. From engineer design to the end power customer there is lots of potential for human error from the safety components, to corruption in politicians. Much more regulations than a coal plant. Not much more incentive. Thought experiment: If only the government could fund the reactor, and as tax payers and power consumers, we could pay the plant off and reap some of that 5 cent estimated kWh. Per kWh Ontario Its more than 10x than the kWh prices in USA and abroad. Nuclear Power Economics World-Nuclear.


CANDU Calandria

CANDU Vertical Fuel Channel
The CANDU reactor is maybe the only one I know with a vertical wall fuel channel. This design allows it to be refueled during operation. Put the fuel in. The Uranium fission event occurs with the fuel rod, and moderator. The extra neutrons in the heavy water make the chance of fission higher. Everytime a uranium atom is struck by the extra neutron creates that chain reaction; a extra neutron, and some energy. The heavy water is a coolant moderator. Graphite could also be used. The heavy water pipes around the the boiling steam vessel, so that the radioactive coolant, and steam are separated. That steam spins a turbine attached to generator that creates the electricity. Or, if you only wanted heat you could skip the electricity generation, and pipe some hot water through a pipe network. In the case of too much fission, and need to turn it off, there are control rods. 2 types of rods, fuel rods, and the control rods. Control rods are present in reactors and usually contain the “Neutron poison” Gadolinium Nitrate for CANDU . In a RBMK model its boron carbide. It creates a critical mass poison absorbing neutron and stopping that critical mass chain reaction. After the CANDU fuel is used up there is a period of wet storage.

Wet Storage

Then dry storage. Concrete air canisters, MACSTOR units. Dry storage containers.

MACSTOR

Theres some debate on the waste storage ill get into later. But the main concepts are security, monitoring, cross generational costs. Have the used fuel travel not too far ideally, and keep it dry as to not accidentally get in the water table with the astronomical half lives. Cross multi generational wastes could be troublesome for future humans. On the other hand advance fuel recycling is a real concept that could have reactors re-using fuels. Reprocessing fuels. Thorium reactors burning those wastes into something more manageable, Also some of these ‘fission products’ could be components in future nuclear tech.

Using nuclear tech.
I am for the use of safe nuclear technologies, and against the destruction of the human species.
When nuclear technologies were first discovered it was the wild west of the nuclear days.
I890s, and 1900s fluoroscope experiments with no protections because the dangers of X-ray weren’t yet known. X-ray was discovered after experiments with the Crookes tube. X for unknown. Its a cathode ray tube with more vacuum. Its the successor to the ‘Geissler tube’ which is similar to a neon light. Crookes tube is a vacuum tube with 2 electrodes, and variable voltage. Basically while testing with the Crookes tub scientist discovered two things, the Cathode ray as seen in on tube televisions. And,b more interestingly with the Crookes X-ray tube, deflecting the ray. Take a cathode ray, put stuff in its path. They discovered they could knock around the inner electrons of an atom into a higher energy level. Then, as the electrons return to their original valence level X-Ray is emitted in a process called X-ray Fluorescence. Wilhem Rontgen was one of the first to investigate this new ray. It is a wavelength and not just any random wavelength its was measurable, and consistent with different elements.

A lot of scientists exposing themselves learning about the electromagnetic spectrum. Now we have lead vests, and no longer use x-rays for trivial things like 1950s shoe fitting machines, or entertainment.
In the 1930s People putting radium in their mouths and painting it on things with Marie Curie.
“Radium Jaw.”
I would say Chicago pile one is likely the dawn of a new age nuclear.
The atomic bombs, and the end of ww2, golden age of nuclear. There’s more than just the bombs, reactors, and X-Rays. There are many evolving technologies in medicine, energy, agriculture, industrial applications, and safety.
Ultrasound is a non-ionizing sound wave. Beam transducer, emits and receives beam wave, or beam wave pulses. Its a wider wave. And the tech can be used in medical applications or is used to map, and find large objects under water. How many times have I heard human body is 80% water. Someone decided to ping themselves. A predecessor to the ultrasound was the hydrophone. A device created by M Richardson in 1912 as response to titanic sinking. RW Boyle was a student in Manchester, learning this, then returned to University of Alberta begun ground breaking research on ultrasonics, This tech lead to some sonar and submarine sinking capabilities April 23 1916 first known sinking of a submarine using this tech. Nowadays theres new research on high intensity focused ultrasound, actually able to control to high points in the wave to a focal point. Its non invasive low cost therapy that can at minimum outperform the current standard of care. This tech was developed and discovered in the 1940s but refined in the 90s using magnetic resonance. My understand is using magnetic resonance to alter/adjust the wavelength into desired positions below the skin. The tissue is only destroyed at the focal point. At the intersection, and peaks of the the beams.

CT Scan.
Circular X-Ray. The CT stands for computerized tomography. Everything is motorized the X-Ray source, the detectors, the patients table. And, the display and operation is computer assisted.
CT is thinner compared to the MRI in appearance usually. CT scan radiation dose is 100-1000 times stronger that conventional X-Ray. CT scans are now using AI to triage aorta chest patients. Its a new AI solution that leverages deep learning algorithms for emergency triage of deadly vascular conditions.


Siemens CT

Siemens Wheelie Model

MRI Is Magnetic Resonance Imaging.
Non ionizing.
Its a medical application of nuclear magnetic resonance. Makes use of the nuclear properties of atoms spin, and dipoles correlating data. It uses radio waves, and the properties of a positive Hydrogen Nuclei, and atoms in their regular, and excited phases. The radio waves interprets the data into imaging. Its polarizing all the atoms in the sample, and the radio waves are able to interpret that change. The change is measured in frequencies. Don’t wear jewelry next to the opening, it is very magnetic. MRI requires the system component room Helium, and magnets. Outdoor infrastructure components. Magnetic shielding safety considerations.

Siemens MRI

I couldn’t imagine being the first test subject to have all your water-hydrogen’s polarized.
Recently it has been found that inhaling Xenon-129 gas for a few moments can produce excessively high resolution lung images for example. MRI can be used to map, and track connections in the brain, and where the blood brings oxygen. Xenon arclamps closely mimic natural sunlight in a theatre setting. Ionized gas.

Xenon Arclamp

Agriculture nuclear tech is my favorite.
IAEA has a cool website shows some peaceful applications.
There is food irradiation with cobalt-60 gamma source. Destroys the mold.
Sterile insect technique that (SIT) sterilizes populations of fruit flies. Good for exports.
Atomic gardening, and Isotope analysis. Identifying drought resistant banana varieties for example.

Carbon Soil Detection Kit (IAEA)

Using Carbon-13 to measure and track how CO2 is being absorbed and released
Advanced nuclear spectrometers to analyze the carbon content in soil with test kits. Then custom tailor manure solutions based on the results.

Indian Farmers Using Soil Testing Kit

Industrial & commercial.
Russian nuclear Ice Breakers, arctic tourism.

Artika Class

Nuclear Smoke Alarms utilize alpha particles and detectors. Americium-214. If you removed the ceramic chamber, and swallowed it. Its about six times desired yearly exposure.
Non-destructive testing, method to check welds, or the integrity of components that cannot fail, in mining, pressure vessels, aircraft, machinery.
Ground-penetrating radar is electromagnetic radiation in microwave band.
I mentioned Carbon dating (radio carbon dating) for organic materials uses the halflife of Carbon 14 and the neutrons remaining.
Commercial, and research reactors and the fission products that can be used for variety of purposes, such as health, and other research.

Enriching uranium takes some advanced centrifuge tech. 2 types of enrichment. Enriched uranium for research, and commercial reactors, ill call that 20% U-235. Then there’s the weapons grade enriched at around 90% U-235. So some concerns of Iran recently getting past 60% grade. In the news one of their research facilities was sabotaged.

The quick version is that if your looking for weapons grade your looking for the rarer isotope of Uranium the U-235. It has a different weight than the more common isotope U-238. Change of pressure in a vessel to separate the particles, or spin the gaseous isotopes in a centrifuge allowing you to separate the 2 isotopes.

There is a new laser excitement method being developed right now that sounds interesting. Bomb tech itself has evolved. Im not going to get into that, Id prefer to spend my efforts with the peaceful nuclear applications for humanity. And, despite the fact the Karachi plant was intended for peaceful uses was still ultimately used for bomb tests. The bomb still remains deterrent, and posture. In the 60s there was the NthCountry experiment, where 3 students recently received their PHDs in physics tasked to design a nuclear bomb.

Nth Country Experiment

It was experiment in the proliferation capabilities. Its an interesting experiment because it shows what some determined pros could achieve, and what that would look like.

Chief engineer recommendations.
Gord Brooks was the Chief Engineer for CANDU operations almost 40 years. Reading his content he has a good understanding of all things CANDU. Can be found at CANTEACH

Gord L. Brooks

His perspective was; that there will be many engineer in demand jobs, and cheap nuclear power in Ontario, and out east. Theyre all ambitious, but reasonable, and looking from the 2020s would appear Nuclear in Canada has declined from those days. During the 70s oil crisis, and the oil prices going up. The world was after cheaper power sources.
Three Mile Island happened.
President Jimmy Carter had previously worked in the US Navy nuclear submarine program.

Lt. James Earl Carter Jr. USN

I watched the History Channel documentary. Could really see some panic, and fear in all those involved. Too much data, and incorrect data. I saw that sense of relief when the President arrived with his wife. If it was safe enough for the President to be on scene with his wife was re-assuring. Not only that the President had a background in nuclear. Unfortunately televised, and evacuated nearby towns, the damage in a sense was already done. Financial damage. Actually some house prices still fairly cheap next to that reactor, compared to the Bruce Power generating station.

The economics of a nuclear reactor.
Nuclear power generation will cost more, more regulations and inspections.
The trade off is more power cheaper in the long run compared to a coal or natural gas power plant.

In 1986 was the Chernobyl disaster. Operators decided to run a low power test that proved disastrous, first they shut it down, there was some Xenon gas neutron poisoning. Then they were trying to raise the power back up to pre-shut down levels, and kept inserting more fuel and didn’t know why the power wasnt picking back up. Eventually the reactor had a couple explosions. Theres also excess Hydrogen that causes the roof to blow off in some cases. The meltdown caused a mass of radioactive hot corium elephants foot. Chernobyl made the world take a second look at nuclear. Other reactors in different countries neighboring Chernobyl’s, safety systems were going off. The initial response was to pretend nothing happened. First responders to the Chernobyl site doing some scary clean up. Many perished.

Years later Fukushima showed that even with preparation, and good engineering you can have a earthquake, then get hit by a tsunami. 10 year anniversary of Fukushima disaster occurred this year. Japan is industrialized, and technologically advanced, and still had disaster as the world watched. Planning to begin releasing contaminated water back into the oceans. At a levels deemed safe by world scientists.
Germany In 2011, Chancellor Angela Merkel in response to the Fukushima and some heavy protest. Policy reversal commitment to close their reactors by 2022. Replaced with coal steam generation.
A study: The costs associated from increasing more coal power to the grid estimated in the 12 billion per year in increases in mortality, due to exposure to pollution from burning fossil fuels.
Siemens the German company announced complete withdrawl from the nuclear industry at that time.
At Three Mile Island, there was evacuations, no one was killed though. A fear in the air.
In Canada, maybe its a thought in some peoples mind as they drive by as routine or, on their way to work. Or, on January 12 2020 the Nuclear false alert, as part of a training error Pickering Nuclear Generating station mass message.

If anything, that gave a horrible perspective reminder on living next to nuclear power.
But, better safe than sorry. Lack of trust is the fallout from that scenario.
Otherwise no news is good news.
Fracking made natural gas cheaper.
Methane reforming tech could make the cost even cheaper.
Coal, oil diesel, and natural gas are the Nuclear competition, or alternative.
Natural gas has the combined cycle plant which is pretty competitive.
A fraction of the electricity used is generated from wind solar, bio fuels.
Now seeing the lumber prices skyrocket
Theres arguably some insane house prices next to Pickering and Bruce Power.
TMI plant mostly shut down and houses next to it were looking pretty affordable.
Ontario power generation is around more than half nuclear. The OPG, or Hydro.

Living next to a reactor at sea on a icebreaker, or a Nimitz class aircraft carrier. Under the sea in a submarine. A floating nuclear power plant could travel anywhere its needed. I could just imagine add some nuclear capabilities with the latest big off shore rig disaster you can remember. There wouldnt be anyone around, also that far away the logistics for disaster relief would be horrible.

Perspective living next to old Uranium mining sites like the Rabbit Lake, or Gunnar site.
The mining itself is relatively safe occupation. The clean up efforts in North Saskatchewan leave something to be desired. Especially from the old days, it was all profit. They flooded Gunnar Mine site, and more.


Gunnar Site I

Miners made all the money, and the government still arguing about clean up costs.
Gunnar Mine was abandoned in 1963 tax payers stuck with the clean up that is lame.
There is some tech, and remediation too bad we cant all just go destroy a piece of Canada to get our wealth 60 years ago with no consequence except to the people living now.

Gunnar Site II

There was a urgent need to build the atomic bomb, and Uranium meant wealth. Pop culture, sci-fi movie ‘The Cyclops’ 1957. Just a crazy film based on radiation uranium, and the man that mutated in the cyclops.

Scene from the movie ‘The Cyclops’

Anyways just how convenient the government is there to control everything regarding the uranium and atomic, but when the time comes for clean up , oh they’re nowhere to be found.
Another pattern, another loss of trust. So when they say they’ll clean up new sites, how about these old ones. Cross generational cleanup. I think people are ok cleaning up or doing the nuclear waste storage as long as its done safely, and it can be a decent job for someone like me.
It should be the corporation, and government funding all this, instead its the taxpayer.

Depleted Uranium Munitions

Depleted uranium. Weight of Uranium is heavy use your depleted uranium in munitions. Can actually cause some environmental effects. Don’t want to be inhaling those munition impact aerosols.

Sadly the future of nuclear lies in politics. Often politicians these days are only focused with the time they are in power. Some politicians want nothing to do with a pro nuclear position. And, its no wonder people are concerned with the bad track record cleaning up. Minister O’Reagan claimed there is no way to net zero without Nuclear. We get some lip service, then disappear till the next scandal, or election. Why put a former ‘TV personality’ in charge of nuclear?
Even with the simplest understanding he acknowledges that the best way to reach the zero carbon goals is in the nuclear.
So what are they waiting for ?

Ontario hydro and the debt its left its customers. Its almost like the game of telephone, where the initial message(engineer reactor design) gets so mutilated by politicians, and construction, that by the time it gets to the customer its an abomination of the former self.

Gerald W. Brown for example, it concerns me because, right away the fire safety circuitry to the control room the safety systems implementation, corners were cut.
Nickel, and diming to save a penny in costs. Ends in bankruptcy.
Nuclear is not the place should be cutting corners.
Yet, it is a common occurrence. Happening in Ohio too, electricity customers held hostage.
The Gerald W Brown fire safety incident both shocking, and reassuring that atleast some of the processes work. At least some people care.

Gerald W. Brown

If only we could apply the same science, and physics to the politics as we do the nuclear reactor maybe we’d get somewhere.
What do we get instead Coal expansion on the AB eastern slopes.
Elk river fish poisoned by selenium in BC next door.
Atleast when Uranium is mined, one fuel pellet can create as much energy as one ton of coal, 149 Gallons of Oil, 1700 cubic feet of natural gas.

At Wylfa UK, Nuclear power plant was canceled due to the 20 billion pounds debt too much. It was meant to be a Hitachi. This is maybe one of the unsuccessful projects Ive seen. Japan with the 121.64 Billion nuclear exports in 2020, despite Fukushima mind you. Thats a big number.

Wylfa

How many reactors were constructed here with this massive deficit. Zero.

New(ish) Green Party leader Annamie Paul Nov 6 2020

Thats her twitter statement, completely disagree with. South Korea with the impressive reactor build times. How about Oklo Gabon, the natural reactor found in nature. Scientists also used the Gabon site to see how far fission products could get away from the source, and the answer is not very far.


Oklo Gabon – Natural Reactor

Anyways, government has invested in SMR research. SMR in Canada.
Moltex, has never built as reactor.
And the Hitachi General electric BRWX-300 was studied in a report.
Nothing against Hitachi but I think thats what Chief Engineer Gord Brooks was talking about, with nuclear opportunity fizzling away.
Note instead of Canada designing anything, theyre just awarding some huge contracts.
There’s a SNC design 2 pages online CANDU style no one talks about.
It is true there are many designs, and no government wants to be the first investor in uncharted water. In the USA at the Department of energy, they ran a contest for best SMR, and the design was the XE-100.


Xe-100 Pebble Bed

Theres also the Nuscale power.
I personally think the pebble; bed reactor design and the advance triso fuel is amazing engineering.
The silicon carbides surrounding the fuel means the fuel container, is the waste container. All the fission products remain in trapped within the fuel casing. There will be 4x under construction soon. This is the high temperature Gas cooled reactor. I believe its a evolution from coolant reactors. The benefit of SMR, replacing diesel generators. Modular sections could virtually replace a coal power plant. Passive safety. Walk-away safety. The XE-100, 400 yards safety perimeter vs 10 miles. Place is even hiring.

My opinion on the CANDU reactor.

I got nothing against it. Its had a turbulent business history. I feel bad for the people of Romania and the people promised power and for whatever reason it gets canceled, or costs are ran up.
Lets see though does UK, France, or USA use CANDU? No.

In China, CANDU makes up a tiny 4.3 % of their reactors. If you include the ‘under construction’ the total is 3.07% of reactors in China operating, and under construction are CANDU.

So much for : “Energy prices will be too low to measure.” Line from the 60s. I’m not seeing much of the CANDU chief engineer recommendations followed neither. Now I have read some comments, its just wasting money going for investments in the heavy water reactor that we have technology for.
Time for R&D was years ago, not starting now. On some tech we already had. I look at the department of energy in the states, and then I look at Canada; its a complete joke. Sad looking at the CBC too from the 70s with some scientists having debate compared to now too. CANDU had a bright future, but a bit of a trainwreck as a export, and the nuclear Ontario Hydro power isnt competitive at all.

Its almost like the politicians can behave badly cause nuclear already has a bad rep.
Also I cant imagine oil, and coal barons being pleased about all this ‘free unlimited’ power.
Hypocrites in the west dictating who can have energy freedom. The west, and Europe creating wealth, pollution, and war during industrial revolution, turning around saying no power for you, only me. Developing nations using more energy which is good. Quality of life going up. Here in America energy use has tapered off. Now the challenge is conserving that energy, and doing more with less.


TRISO Fuel Upgrade

Everything evolves; the fuel upgrades, the safety systems, the smart grid housing. Some people will never be happy. In Las Vegas, there is Yucca Mountain which is supposed to be the Countries nuclear waste repository. With all the rail network, mountain, and Las Vegas being a undesirable city in the middle of the desert. Theres some debate, people from Nevada dont want the waste in their mountain. Biden administration is opposed to the Yucca Mountain project. Same thing in Canada with the Chretien nuclear waste agreements in Labrador.

Yucca Mountain

Enter the nuclear flask endurance testing.
Just the most ridiculous obscene testing with rail, road, and used nuclear fuel transport.
Even a rocket powered truck slamming straight into a wall. 1978 cask test. I recommend watching it.

Rocket-Powered Truck, Nuclear Waste Transportation Testing – Cask Test 1978

Ideally the waste would not have to travel far and set into a long term dry location. It could be jobs for the community. Burying underground in a desert maybe not the most ideal. Could always move it later, find another solution. Cross generational.
You’d have to keep people out that want to dig it all up, and eat it probably.

Texas Nuclear Waste Burial Site

Future of nuclear lies in politics, and economics.
I like the Tokamak fusion progress, and research. Id like to see the coal plant be switched to SMR pebble bed. Id like to see some inexpensive enrgy, and government investments.
Id like to see the politics, and politicians taken out of nuclear.
I think we can all agree on safe reliable power, and can do without the cutting corners to save 5 cents on everything. Pilfering politicians.
This assignment, and basic understanding of nuclear took some time.
Thats definitely a con for nuclear. its a complicated way to boil water, that takes time to learn and explain, operate safely. Who wants a disaster, or mine in their back yard.
Nuclear provides a good fraction of the worlds power free from carbon dioxide.
Irresponsible mining is a expensive problem left to communities, and taxpayers. Don’t get me started on the river dumpers too. Maybe don’t live downstream from a reactor in the 1950s. Those costs should be worked in before everyone cashes out. Proliferation, and premature destruction of the species is a concern. Carl Sagan was against proliferation, but in favor of using nuclear technologies.

Lots of work previous generations did to reduce nuclear warheads stockpiles during the cold war. Activists may protest nuclear, but think of this. Life of the Sun, even if humans last forever the bounds of the sun will supersede our current orbit. Stephen Hawking says humans must leave earth within 600 years. We are surrounded by nuclear with the US Navy & more. J. Bezos envisions a future where all the industry is off-world. It would be much better to use the resources, and industry pollute in space. If NASA can send nuclear components in space over cities atmospheres safely, I have hope for the rest of us.
Maybe if someone has access to power, internet, drinking water, they wont be in a nuclear terrorist killing mood.
Terrorist asides how many nuclear tests occurred anyways without my consent, or permission.
Proliferation of space is also becoming a concern. Must not allow space to become militarized.
Putting nuclear weapons in orbit would be stupid, and potentially catastrophic to the species.
Unless maybe it was a joint mission to nuke an asteroid.

Space. Id like to know more about the waters on Encaldus, and if I was astronaut dependent on that nuclear power Id want it to best tried tested, and reliable. Not the first test run.


Enceladus

How are you gonna power the Perseverance rover, or the Casssini spacecraft without nuclear?
How are you going to explore beyond the solar system without nuclear?

“No X-ray, medical hope, or electricity for you because I cant be bothered to learn nuclear.”

The heat, and power source are necessary for exploring beyond the reaches of our sun, when solar panels wont function. The recent Lunar Rover announced by Canada Space Agency, I bet you will have a nuclear power/ heat source. Utilizing computers, and components within operating temperatures in the cold of space. Any lunar base, any mars base will utilize a reactor of some type.

Moon Reactor

Even the design drawings include the reactor. Seems to me its worth the investments and experience. Im reading a sci fi book series, Asimov Foundation.


Harri Seldon

I really enjoy it. Its the story of the future of humans. They go through a nuclear rise, and fall in space. A society with no nuclear capabilities, or understanding cannot survive. The planet Trantor, the center of the empire outputs only law. I. Asimov was a biochemist and I like his view of nuclear in the future.

Lesson 2 Research
Isotopes:
U-238, U-234 (descendant of U-238), And U-235 Can be used as fuel in reactor, very high concentrated for weapons.
Those be the natural abundant, and 238 is the 99.3% natural form.
Some other artificial isotopes are 236, 233, 232 For example presence of U236 is formed from U235 fuel, after the neutrino captures that didnt cause fission. The presence of U236 in a sample concludes the sample has been in reactor.
CANDU Process :
Its a natural fuel U235 So basically mostly U28 0.7~0.9 % U235
What is Half life:
Time it takes for a sample to decrease radioactivity by half. Radioactive decay, going from unstable form to more stable form.
How long is uranium 235 half life is 700 million years. U-238 4.5 billion years.
Neptunium Plutonium traces fission.
Wastes wet storage and the MACSTOR , air cooled concrete, underground one day.

~

Lesson 4
Ionizing can remove a electron and cause charge.
Ionizing effects on water.
Different effects per different radiations.
Alpha makes Hydrogen peroxide
Beta makes beta decay can be used in reactor.
You can Gamma ray waste-water to break down organics
Why is there concern.
Basically you don’t want your body H2O molecules getting destroyed, you dont want your DNA destroyed. Causes Cancers. Too much radiation and youll get sick, and die, or vaporized in a blast.
Glass turns blue after long exposure to radiation its called Cherenkov Radiation.

BIBLIO for this assignment.
___

Heres a bibliography of some online searches assignment specific.

Learning more about STS, Science tech society. Has some good images. And the R&D interests me.
https://education.usask.ca/documents/profiles/aikenhead/sts05.htm

Lesson 2 Research:
What Isotope of Uranium exists.
Heres so usefull stuff on that
https://www.radioactivity.eu.com/site/pages/Uranium_Isotopes.htm
Isoptope , one of two or more species of atoms of a hemical eleement.
Same atomic number and position, nearly identical chemical behavior but with different atomic masses and physical properties. Every chemical element has one or more isotopes. Difference in neutrons. New forms of old elements.
JJ Thompson and the neon with 10 neutrons, then neon with 12 neutrons.
https://www.britannica.com/video/216564/What-are-isotopes
https://www.britannica.com/science/isotope
Anyways Its basically U-238, U-234 (descendant of U-238), And U-235 Ca be used as fuel in reactor, very high concentrated for weapons.
Those be the natural abundant, and 238 is the 99.3% natural form.
Some other artificial isotopes are 236, 233, 232 For example presence of U236 is formed from U235 fuel, after the neutrino captures that didnt cause fission. The presence of U236 in a sample concludes the sample has been in reactor.

Candu Process : Its a natural fuel U235 So basically mostly U28 0.7~0.9 % U235
What is Half life: Time it takes for a sample to decrease radioactivity by half. Radioactive decay, going from unstable form to more stable form.
https://www.britannica.com/science/half-life-radioactivity
How long is uranium 235 half life is 700 million years. U-238 4.5 billion years.
https://web.evs.anl.gov/uranium/faq/uproperties/faq5.cfm From the Argonne US national lab.
Proceses for fuel
https://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:19013875
CANDU reactors operate on a once-through, natural uranium fuel cycle. The process of turning the natural uranium into reactor fuel bundles is described. The components making up the fuel bundle are UO2 pellets, zircaloy tubes, zircaloy bearing pads and interelement spacers, zircaloy end caps for fuel element closure welds and zircaloy end plates which hold the fuel elements in a bundle. The five process steps in preparing the zircaloy components for the fuel element and the bundle assembly are described and the quality assurance system explained. Because CANDU reactors use natural, rather then enriched uranium the fuel fabrication is a much simpler process requiring smaller plant. CANDU fuel is fabricated in Argentina, South Korea and Romania as well as Canada. (UK)
Concerns about the tritium emissions.
Heres a really basic answer.
CANDU reactors use natural uranium as their nuclear fuel. Natural uranium is composed of about 0.7% uranium-235, and the remaining 99.3% is mostly uranium-238 which cannot directly be used in a fission process to obtain energy.[7] The uranium-238 is fertile and can absorb high speed neutrons and convert to plutonium-239 which is fissile and then undergoes fission; this process accounts for around half of the energy produced within the reactor.[8] CANDU reactors use about 25 to 30% less mined uranium than a comparable light water reactor (mostly because of the better use of neutrons in the reactor).
In CANDU reactors, fuel in the form of uranium oxide powder is packed into pellets and placed in the fuel rods. Thirty seven fuel rods are bunched together to complete a cylindrical fuel bundle, seen in Figure 2. The fuel bundle is approximately 50 cm in length and 10 cm in diameter.[9] A fuel bundle remains in the reactor between 6 and 24 months, depending on its location within the core.[2]
Its a Uranium oxide powder fuel rod.
http://www.nuclearfaq.ca/

How a Nuclear Reactor Works


Candu is the horizontal fuel rods.
https://web.archive.org/web/20161125110315/http://www.edmontonexaminer.com/2016/04/13/though-there-is-potential-for-nuclear-power-in-alberta-theres-more-than-just-public-opinion-holding-it-back
Article about nuclear power in AB. Lol

Finally, operating a nuclear power plant requires vast amounts of water which, if properly treated, could return to the water system, but Alberta has a “highly variable” water supply, which will be affected by climate change in the future. 
Search for Modular reactor nothing just the mega-waterside plant. Anyways just browsing thoght that was interesting.
What wastes Plutonium about half as much as another style LWR
http://nuclearsafety.gc.ca/eng/waste/high-level-waste/index.cfm
Storing some at Chalk river.
https://world-nuclear-news.org/Articles/Trio-of-organisations-collaborate-on-Candu-decommi
More details on the CANDU fuel bundle.
Storing wastes
http://nuclearsafety.gc.ca/eng/waste/high-level-waste/index.cfm
Wet storage Drystorage
The storing of waste is a hot topic, from vegas to Canadian debate. Shoudl eb stored next to usage. Dont want it touching water. Fukushima theyre releasing it.
https://www.bbc.com/news/world-asia-56728068
Uranium oxides.
Centrifuges.
Naturally occuring uranium is super interesting. Or how Uranium is formed.
Cosmic origins of uranium.
https://www.world-nuclear.org/information-library/nuclear-fuel-cycle/uranium-resources/the-cosmic-origins-of-uranium.aspx
Wow learning some things, semi conductor properties.
https://www.world-nuclear.org/nuclear-essentials/how-is-uranium-made-into-nuclear-fuel.aspx

Lesson 3
Included some naturally forming uranium.
Mining concerns:
Processing concerns:
How have uranium mining, and extraction facilities affected communities. Loaded question.
Uraninite, formally pitchblend
https://ags.aer.ca/activities/uranium
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Uraninite
Trying to find some mine news near me.
https://paherald.sk.ca/2021/05/10/could-have-been-a-whole-lot-worse-new-north-reacts-to-this-years-budget/
This one has a 11 million $ increase to clean the Gunnar mines,.
Shut down 1963
https://www.src.sk.ca/project-cleans/gunnar-mine-and-mill-site
Look at all that cleanup.
Well 1963 isnt the pinnacle of environmentalism, Just profited and left.
So in the case of this particular mine, “Gilbert Labine” Canadas Mr. Uranium. Just makes me think.
Joe Boyle to Gilbert Labine.
https://thestarphoenix.com/news/local-news/northern-mine-cleanups-continue-province-feds-still-divided-on-cost
https://patriciasandberg.com/category/gunnar-mines/
https://www.src.sk.ca/blog/gunnar-uranium-mine-cold-war-darling-ghost-town-part-1
What a time you just prospect pick a spot, dig it all up for the government get a medal and cya later. Later the government is hesitant on the cleanups. And the communities there grateful for a opportunity to clean up the site (jobs). Hes in the miners hall of fame, after they didnt decomission they just flooded the mine and threw some old rock in there. Employed a bunch of people during ‘cold war boom’.
Just interested learning about this Labine character. Thesee people didnt make their money from thin air, they dug it out of the ground. Well he had some issues too. Anyways site looks cleaned up. He got order of Canada. https://www.gg.ca/en/honours/recipients/146-2718
trying to find some ‘extraction facilities’
https://www.epa.gov/radtown/radioactive-waste-uranium-mining-and-milling
https://www.azcentral.com/story/news/local/arizona-environment/2021/05/09/quechan-tribe-prepares-new-fight-over-gold-mine-tribal-land/4067624001/
Heres a interesting story, only mentions the uranium at the very bottom, and concerns in the past with Colorado River, however its a Canadian mining company. And, theyree being negatively impacted by the neighboring mine claim.
On mines and mills
http://www.nuclearsafety.gc.ca/eng/uranium/mines-and-mills/index.cfm
Extraction, im finding mill, I found some neat things Rabbit lake and cigar lake.
https://www.cameco.com/businesses/uranium-operations/suspended/rabbit-lake
https://thestarphoenix.com/news/local-news/cameco-developing-plan-to-clean-up-contaminated-groundwater-at-key-lake
https://nuclearsafety.gc.ca/eng/uranium/mines-and-mills/nuclear-facilities/key-lake/index.cfm
Closest perspective I can find.
https://www.estevanmercury.ca/news/business-energy/saskatchewan-wants-feds-to-pony-up-its-share-of-abandoned-uranium-mine-cleanup-1.24174842

Candu High School Northern Saskatchewan. Abandoned in 1982. from saskatchewan

Saskatchewan, feds at odds over abandoned uranium mine remediation


How do you ask a ghost town what theyre perspective is. Uranium city.
Fun fact – CANDU was handed to SNC Lavalin in 2011 for pennies.
”The transaction will place Candu technology in proven, competent hands to be serviced and deployed in Canada and abroad, meeting energy needs and stimulating a supply chain located largely in Canada.”
This comment aged well didn’t it?

Abandoned uranium mine cleanup a provincial responsibility: Sohi from saskatchewan

Opinion: Small modular nuclear reactors distract from real climate solutions from saskatchewan


another year old Re: SMR
Heres a month old :

Alta., Ont., Sask. and N.B. signing agreement to explore small nuclear reactors from saskatchewan

international
Roisser mine Nambia Its profitable and sensitive to environments. Not a good combo.
Uganda profiting from increaseed nuclear.

Energy and mineral sector makes steady progress


https://thebulletin.org/2021/02/radiation-illnesses-and-covid-19-in-the-navajo-nation/
https://www.monitor.co.ug/uganda/oped/commentary/women-should-have-place-in-mining-sector-3261574
Just of interest, theyre building a crude pipeline through a neighboring country.

L4
What kind of radiation is ionizing,
Basically the Sun , anything that can remove the electron and bring about a charge. Cosmic rays.
Gamma rays, X-rays and the higher ultraviolet part of the electromagnetic spectrum are ionizing radiation, whereas the lower energy ultraviolet, visible light, nearly all types of laser light, infrared, microwaves, and radio waves are non-ionizing radiation.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ionizing_radiation
Nice chart with a graphic left and right of the visible light spectrum
Non-ionising on the left ionizing on the right.
Theres some properties of Ionizing radiation.
Distance, inverse square.
Scattering
Absorbstion. Theres a good graphic of how the distance beams
Becquerel
Smoke detectors, static eliminators. Thats a new onw.
Carbon-14 dating.
Food irridiation, sterile insect technique.
Neutron radiation is for the reactors and weapons.
X-ray gamma used for medical and NDT.

What effect does ionizing radiation have on water.
Well Radiolysis.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Radiation_damage
Different effects per different radiations.
Alpha makes Hydrogen peroxide
Beta makes beta decay can be used in reactor.
Gamma rays; Gamma radiation induces hydrogen absorption by coppper in water. Not linking that.
You can Gamma ray waster water to break down organics.
Why is there concern about changes in matter as a result of exposure to ionizing radiation.
Well basically in laymans terms you dont want the water molecule getting destroyed while its in your body and can destroy DNA molecules.
The EPA has a good page.
https://www.epa.gov/radiation/radiation-health-effects
Has some on the concerns about changes in matter,.
This one too.
https://chem.libretexts.org/Bookshelves/General_Chemistry/Map%3A_Chemistry_(Zumdahl_and_Decoste)/20%3A_The_Nucleus_A_Chemists_View/20.7%3A_Effects_of_Radiation_on_Matter
Non ionizing makes things warm.
The blue radiation glass.
The Illinois energy prof sit eat throw away exercise.

Heres a perspective around the Bruce site.https://london.ctvnews.ca/mobile/saugeen-first-nation-debates-fate-of-canada-s-nuclear-waste-1.5430208
You know A commenter wrote, the government controls everything nuclear except when its time to clean up or pay for clean up costs.
So its no wonder these people dont trust the gov. look at the record. Its like a shitty friend there for all the good times, no where to be found when its time to clean up. Doesnt that describe Seamusa and the current gov well, there for the party thats it. Pure cronyism.

The no number.
Nuclear is like a scale,

1- Its the CANDU scientific & technological perspective
First its my personal perspective. CANDU is a has been. Pildfered and sat on by governments from the 60s. Where we could have been: look at China, japan, leading the way in exports.
If we would have focused on nuclear and recommendations from Chief engineers in the 70’s wed be laughing all the way to the bank now. No, now its lobbyist have left us quite a large gap.
So if we were nuclear powerhouse in the 70s our leader have squandered our opportunities. Throwing a little miniscule investment at the SMR’s another wasted chance. In the USA they have the EPA and argonnes national lab and government benefits to energy makers. Here we have buddy deals and SNC.
Bureacrats keen on nickel and diming projects to oblivion.If its not that its proliferation India bomb, and Romanian corruption. The technology perspective is cool. I mean what im supposed to be in awe with Bruce power. The shits outdated 70s tech and havent invested in anything new since the 70s.
Did I say 70s I meant 40s and 50s. It just becomes silly I mean I read the reccomendations from chief engineer, our government obviously didnt. When youre still talking about transporting the oil by rail in the 2020s. Id say look at Uganda, using logic and reason.
I mean everyone knows a pipeline is the most effective safest way so far to move your resources.Land.
https://www.cbc.ca/archives/entry/a-candu-fiasco-in-romania
https://www.nrcan.gc.ca/energy/energy-sources-distribution/uranium-nuclear-energy/nuclear-energy/international-perspective/7717

https://www.world-nuclear.org/reactor/default.aspx/CERNAVODA-2
I guess I would say on the Cernavoda 2 83 start, and 2007 commercial.
https://www.nucnet.org/news/romania-signs-declaration-of-intent-with-france-10-3-2020
So thats 1983 to 2021. Or 2007-2021 nothing.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_commercial_nuclear_reactors
China has the mega reactor list. The 2/67 CANDU they are using. Almost a whole 3%.
France and its 0% CANDU Reactors. 0% USA CANDU reactors. UK 0% CANDU.
Whats the most important thing with a nuclear reactor, that is safe and it gives power.
So I think the tech is cool it just its not that huge of an export maybe and not top of the line.
South Korea, UK have variety of styles,
South Korea with those impressive build times.
USA went with a couple models Canada went with one.
https://world-nuclear.org/information-library/nuclear-fuel-cycle/nuclear-power-reactors/nuclear-power-reactors.aspx

2- Perspective on the nuclear power
Ok I watched the Three mile island documentary, you can like see the concern in people, and the president going down there. Id like to say I am compassionate with those people and the fear. Though its really nothing comparable to the Chernobyl. No one wants to have loved ones go through those nuclear disaster experienced at TMI, Chernobyl Fukushima or Hiroshima. That being said everyt new reactor some new technology passive safety, the gas cooled. Liquid sodium cooled, high termperature gas cooled. Molten Salt reactor, Thorium. All sorts of cool new tech to lower wastes and improve safety systems. Recycling fuels.
https://www.world-nuclear.org/information-library/safety-and-security/safety-of-plants/safety-of-nuclear-power-reactors.aspx
The weapons vs the power generation, and medical agricultural benefits.
The nuclear weapons to sit at the big table
Ok, im lookingf at more perspectives of nuclear power.
Fly ash, from coal, more dangerous.
Compare what you get for X dollars living next to coal vs next to nuclear.
No news is good news rigth.

Pickering Nuclear Incident from ontario


es_are_fear/
https://www.bbc.com/news/world-us-canada-51084859
picture

More talk on that natural reactor.
https://www.nwmo.ca/ This is on

3- Sale of Candu tech
https://www.cbc.ca/news/business/aecl-sold-for-15m-to-snc-lavalin-1.985786
What the hell you gonna do with 15 million thats not even a whole reactor
Then the Wylfa, cancelling cause 20 billion too much..
https://www.bbc.com/news/uk-wales-54158091.
https://www.bbc.com/news/uk-wales-55833186
old wylfa

4- Residents and CANDU reactor
Living next to reactor.
There is some debate in Ontario still.

Ontario anti-nuclear group with their iron-clad “facts” from ontario

New group distributing information on nuclear waste to 30,000 households in northwestern Ontario | CBC News from ontario

Anti-nuclear flyers sent to 50,000 homes are ‘fear mongering,’ says top scientist from ontario

‘Human error,’ ‘systemic issues’ led to Pickering nuclear false alarm from canada


Its like the pickering incident reminded everyone to be scared again.

Living near a nuclear power plant… what are the dangers? from NuclearPower


Cant explain it better than senior plant operator obviously living in the area.
Obviously its desirable to live next to ontario nuclear cause expensive to live there.
Would you rather live next to Nuclear or coal, diesel.

5- Nuclear exports.
Using this one again.
South Korea
https://www.world-nuclear.org/information-library/country-profiles/countries-o-s/south-korea.aspx

France wants to be world competitor.
Russia leads in Nuclear exports in 2018 China is the only competition.
That ‘test radiological’ equipment is a Canadian export.
Like a Siemens
Then the cobalt 60 therapy radioisotope “External Beam Radiotherapy”
The Iran Uranium refining in the news
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cobalt_therapy
Walt Disney was treated with the cobalt treatment 1966

-Using Nuclear tech
Simply put even if you dont like nuclear tech its still being used around.
US Navy, and Russian Ice breakers.
Space exploration outside solar system impossible without nuclear.
Has the energy and heat required for sensitive equipment. No sun for solar panels.
Alot of that nuclear anti proliferation translates to no nuclear at all.
My opinion should be using nuclear power to phase out coal, diesel.
Mining should be done sustainably.
Not this after all the resources pilfered and land destroyed theres no money for clean up.
Profits. I understand the operation costs and building say a nuclear plant, but everyone should benefit.
Not some nickel and diming customers into oblivion. The prices should be lower to benefit all.
I think I agree with the proff Its should level out (energy usage) then finding ways to get more with less. Every country wants its own industrial evolution. Using the tech for the lower carbon, space junk.
Sulfur dioxide proven to cool the planet after volcano blasts into the atmosphere.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Stratospheric_sulfur_aerosols

Using nuclear tech. Just searching.
https://www.thesun.co.uk/tech/14990543/quasicrystal-formed-after-nuclear-bomb-test/
Quasi crystals thats neat
https://www.britannica.com/science/quasicrystal
https://www.businesswire.com/news/home/20210518005604/en/Global-Baby-Monitor-Market-Outlook-and-Forecast-Report-2021-2026-Growing-Demand-For-Smart-Baby-Monitors-Increase-In-Tech-Savvy-Millennial-Parents—ResearchAndMarkets.com
(Growth In nuclear families)
https://www.manilatimes.net/2021/05/19/opinion/columnists/topanalysis/israel-americas-frankenstein-yet-valuable-monster/873964/
https://www.politico.com/newsletters/morning-energy/2021/05/18/iea-lays-out-narrow-road-to-net-zero-795360
IEA , net zero. Immediate massive deployment of all available clean, and efficient energy technologies.
IEA -USA https://www.iea.org/ https://www.eia.gov/
Whats going on in my backyard, proposed and backlashed, coal expansions and Helium Avanti energy in AB.

ISRO plans for nuclear energy use in space


Thermal nuclear propulsion.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kosmos_954
But also NASA is capable of launching nucleics over civilization.

Extrasolar Object Interceptor Would be Able to Chase Down the Next Oumuamua or Borisov and Actually Return a Sample


Thats super interesting.
And more Advance Nuclear Thermal propulsion.

Canadian researchers tout nuclear-renewable hybrid solution for shipping


Hybrid nuclear solution for shipping.
https://www.thesun.co.uk/tech/14931325/atomik-booze-radioactive-chernobyl-apples-ukranian-spies/
This just a crazy story about atomic Vodka using apples from chernobyl.
https://www.nasa.gov/press-release/nasa-invests-105-million-in-us-small-business-technology-development
Wow investing in super heat resistant cameras.

What does uranium decay into?

The half-life of uranium-238 is 4.5 billion years. It decays into radium-226, which in turn decays into radon-222. Radon-222 becomes polonium-210, which finally decays into a stable nuclide, lead.Jul. 25, 2017

Facts About Uranium | Live Science
Decay chain and Nuclear resonance thats, Enrico Fermi

https://x-energy.com/reactors/xe-100

https://nuclearsafety.gc.ca/eng/resources/news-room/feature-articles/robotic-technologies-at-nuclear-facilities.cfm

https://nuclearsafety.gc.ca/eng/resources/learning-portal/gamma-gear-game.cfm
Play the gamma game lol.

https://nuclearsafety.gc.ca/eng/resources/health/health-studies/eldorado/index.cfm#faq
Eldorado study.

That train truck transport experiment.

https://www.mdpi.com/2076-0787/7/1/5/html mostly abandoned
alex mcpherson story
https://thestarphoenix.com/news/local-news/uranium-city-trip-highlights-our-ties-to-natural-resources

1- my assignment specific Uranium and supernova
https://world-nuclear.org/information-library/nuclear-fuel-cycle/uranium-resources/the-cosmic-origins-of-uranium.aspx
Cosmic origins of uranium.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Near-Earth_supernova
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Parsec#/media/File:M87_jet.jpg Parsec and images
1987A super nova
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/SN_1987A
Archive: Double Rings of a Supernova Explosion (NASA, Chandra, 02/22/07)
The kepler supernova
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kepler%27s_Supernova
https://www.nasa.gov/audience/forstudents/5-8/features/nasa-knows/what-is-a-supernova.html
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Neutron_star
Neutron star merger https://youtu.be/sgkDoSbHHVU
https://www.e-education.psu.edu/eme444/node/264

Depending on what happens forms a black hole or a bigger neutron star.
https://www.space.com/neutron-star-crash-made-gold-uranium.html
This amazing tokamak articificial sun https://www.scmp.com/news/china/science/article/3135332/chinese-artificial-sun-hits-new-mark-fusion-energy-mission
https://www.world-nuclear.org/information-library/current-and-future-generation/nuclear-fusion-power.aspx
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Discovery_of_nuclear_fission
https://www.britannica.com/science/atom/Discovery-of-radioactivity
https://www.radioactivity.eu.com/site/pages/Neutrons_Moderators.htm
https://www.quora.com/Why-do-slower-neutrons-in-nuclear-reactors-have-a-higher-probability-of-causing-fission-with-certain-isotopes-of-uranium-unlike-fast-neutrons
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chalk_River_Laboratories
https://www.nrc.gov/reading-rm/basic-ref/students/science-101/what-are-different-types-of-radiation.html
Chicago Pile-1
Decay chain https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Radioactive_decay_chains_diagram.svg
http://large.stanford.edu/courses/2011/ph241/olson1/
sun fusion used this person photo.

https://pixabay.com/vectors/radiation-radioactivity-nuclear-5407733/
particle penetration photo.

2- More CANDU specifics.
https://www.cns-snc.ca/media/history/ZEEP/ZEEP_CNSBulletin_Fall1995.html
…Canadian Nuclear Program.
Experiments in the NRX, NRU, and WR-1 reactors, and work in AECL’s laboratories and Canadian industry, …
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/NRX
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/National_Research_Universal_reactor
https://www.cns-snc.ca/media/history/wr-1/wr-1_1.html
https://www.cns-snc.ca/media/history/wr-1/wr-1_3.html
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/WR-1
This WR-1 research reactor used water, and “The main problem with using normal water as a moderator is that it also absorbs some of the neutrons. The neutron balance in the natural isotopic mix is so close that even a small number being absorbed in this fashion means there are too few to maintain criticality.”

ZED-2 Research Reactor


Candu 6 , Candu 9
https://energyeducation.ca/encyclopedia/CANDU_reactor
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Atomic_Energy_of_Canada_Limited
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Heavy_water
Its a water molecule but instead of Hydrogens bonded to a Oxygen. Replaces the Hydrogens with Deuteriums. https://www.sciencedirect.com/topics/earth-and-planetary-sciences/deuterium
Adding a neutron to the Hydrogen atom.
https://energyeducation.ca/encyclopedia/CANDU_reactor
http://nuclearsafety.gc.ca/eng/reactors/power-plants/nuclear-power-plant-safety-systems/index.cfm

How a Nuclear Reactor Works


https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pressurized_heavy-water_reactor
CANDU vs light water and the proliferation that did occur.
Its all about the possible upgrades, upgrades in fuel cooling, passive walk away safety.
https://canteach.candu.org/Content%20Library/19980101.pdf
Differences between the CANDU6/CANDU9, and LWR pros and cons.
https://inis.iaea.org/collection/NCLCollectionStore/_Public/30/057/30057728.pdf?r=1&r=1
Talking about SEU fuels slightly enriched Uranium.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Advanced_CANDU_reactor
Advanced CANDU, its the Gen III using more light water and more enricheed fuels
https://thetyee.ca/Analysis/2021/05/26/US-Experts-Trudeau-Your-Nuclear-Dream-May-Turn-Nightmare/
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Operation_Smiling_Buddha

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nuclear_energy_in_Argentina
https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Central_Nuclear_Atucha_I_-_II.JPG

https://www.bnamericas.com/en/news/argentina-power-watch-renewables-tender-new-energy-minister-atucha-iii
https://www.world-nuclear-news.org/NN-Atucha-3-contract-signed-0409145.html

2 billion.
http://www.nucleartourist.com/type/candu2.htm
https://www.canadiangeographic.ca/article/candu-canadian-success-story Im using ur picture (Photo: Bruce Power/Cameco Corp.)
Fuel channel
https://www.energy.gov/ne/articles/5-fast-facts-about-spent-nuclear-fuel
https://inis.iaea.org/collection/NCLCollectionStore/_Public/49/101/49101472.pdf

https://www.weforum.org/agenda/2018/11/destroying-nuclear-waste-to-create-clean-energy-it-can-be-done/
https://www.ivey.uwo.ca/energycentre/blog/2019/06/a-closer-look-at-hydro-quebecs-electricity-price-advantage-over-ontario/
Prices average kWh per Canadian household
Theres so many discrepencies for kwh per hour, the statscan says 117.7 Gigajoules which makes 32685kwh per year. https://www150.statcan.gc.ca/t1/tbl1/en/tv.action?pid=2510006001 (2015 AB)
https://www.eia.gov/tools/faqs/faq.php?id=97&t=3 USA household says low 6296 kWh Hawaii to Higher Louisiana 14787 kWh average of 10649kWh
Just a personal note was much easier finding recent data about USA than it was on the statscan page, stats can was lacking- to say the least. Found some data from 6 years ago
https://world-nuclear.org/information-library/economic-aspects/economics-of-nuclear-power.aspx

Cost of Nuclear Power in Ontario


http://www.world-nuclear.org/uploadedfiles/org/info/pdf/economicsnp.pdf
https://nuclearsafety.gc.ca/eng/reactors/power-plants/regulatory-oversight-report-npp/npp-report-2014.cfm wet storage
https://www.researchgate.net/figure/Overview-of-MACSTOR-11_fig3_323524464
MACSTOR

https://www.iaea.org/newscenter/multimedia/videos/onkalo-a-solution-for-nuclear-waste
Finland, Okanlo site.

Using nuclear tech
Crookes tuber XRAY https://openclipart.org/detail/274838/illustration-of-crookes-xray-tube
HIFU ultrasound https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Diagram_showing_liver_lesioning_using_a_HIFU_transducer_2.png

Marie Curie quote
Nothing in life is to be feared, it is only to be understood. Now is the time to understand more, so that we may fear less.
https://www.pbs.org/wgbh/nova/article/first-nuclear-chain-reaction-changed-the-world-75-years-ago-today/
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/X-ray
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fluoroscopy
https://world-nuclear.org/information-library/nuclear-fuel-cycle/conversion-enrichment-and-fabrication/uranium-enrichment.aspx
https://www.wsj.com/articles/iran-nuclear-fuel-production-drops-sharply-following-natanz-explosion-11622482066
https://www.anl.gov/education/argonne-discovery-offers-new-way-to-coat-nuclear-materials
https://www.anl.gov/article/5-ways-argonne-scientists-are-powering-ahead-on-nuclear-microreactors
https://www.nrc.gov/materials/fuel-cycle-fac/ur-enrichment.html
touching on some laser excitements.
https://www.atomicheritage.org/history/nth-country-experiment
nth country experiment, its a good one.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Crookes_tube
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cathode_ray
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/X-ray_fluorescence
ultrasound
https://www.ob-ultrasound.net/hydrophone.html
https://www.ob-ultrasound.net/history.html
https://www.ob-ultrasound.net/brown-on-ultrasound.html
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hydrophone
M Richardson, in 1912 in response to the Titanic disaster, suggested both airborn and underwater echo- ranging schemes, and, in 1914, RA Fessenden experimentally demonstrated echo-ranging underwater detection of an iceberg. The transducer that Langevin used in the earlier days was a mosaic of thin quartz crystals glued between two steel plates (the composite having a resonant frequency of about 150 KHz), mounted in a housing suitable for submersion. In the underwater community the word transducer means a device that has the capability of both transmitting and receiving sound. A projector is a device that transmits sound underwater. Projectors are used in active systems. In active systems, after the sound has been generated, the sound waves travel to a target and return as echoes to be detected. Projectors are usually used near their resonance frequencies where they provide the highest acoustic output.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Robert_William_Boyle
https://labblog.uofmhealth.org/health-tech/ultrasound-technology-developed-at-u-m-now-clinical-trials-for-liver-cancer
Thats some new histotripsy focused ultrasound.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/High-intensity_focused_ultrasound
Ct scan its xray
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/CT_scan
https://www.siemens-healthineers.com/computed-tomography
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Siemens

AI triage solution for PE and aortic dissection receives FDA clearance and CE mark


https://www.med-technews.com/news/ai-and-vr-in-healthcare/emergency-ai-triage-system-receives-fda-clearance-and-ce-mar/
https://www.ctvnews.ca/health/can-we-use-radiation-to-treat-alzheimer-s-canadian-pilot-study-finds-improved-cognition-after-ct-scans-1.5449139
MRI
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Magnetic_resonance_imaging
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nuclear_magnetic_resonance
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Stern-Gerlach_experiment
https://www.techtimes.com/articles/261017/20210603/covid-19-lung-diseases-observation-better-%E2%80%94-scientists-use-xenon.htm

Mapping How the Brain Organizes Semantic Activity


funny https://www.dailystar.co.uk/real-life/doctor-spills-beans-creepy-reason-24238789
agri
https://www.mcgill.ca/oss/article/health-you-asked/food-irradiation-dangerous
https://www.iaea.org/
https://www.iaea.org/newscenter/news/new-tsetse-sorting-technology-leads-to-more-efficient-pest-control
https://www.iaea.org/newscenter/news/argentinas-newly-recognized-fruit-fly-free-areas-expedite-fresh-fruit-exports-to-china
https://www.iaea.org/topics/food-and-agriculture
https://www.iaea.org/newscenter/news/living-in-harmony-with-mother-earth-user-friendly-instant-tool-kit-helps-indian-farmers-determine-soil-organic-carbon

industrial commercial
https://www.iaea.org/services/key-programmes/nutec-plastics
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Radiocarbon_dating
https://www.iaea.org/newscenter/news/world-water-day-2021-optimizing-water-resources-with-nuclear-and-isotopic-techniques
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Arktika_(2016_icebreaker)
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nuclear-powered_icebreaker
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Electromagnetic_radiation
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Xenon_arc_lamp
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Neutron_poison
https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:%D0%9A%D1%80%D0%B8%D0%B3%D0%BE%D0%BB%D0%B0%D0%BC_%22%D0%90%D1%80%D0%BA%D1%82%D0%B8%D0%BA%D0%B0%22.jpg
icebreaker pic
Enrichments
URENCO Centrifuges

DU munitions
https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:U-238_DU_ammunition.JPG

SLEIC 6
Siemens newer MRI
Siemines wheelie CT scan https://www.fiercebiotech.com/medtech/fda-clears-siemens-wheeled-bedside-ct-scanner
Siemens CT https://www.flickr.com/photos/thirteenofclubs/5490413146
Xenon arclamp and imax
https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Xenon_IMAX_1.jpg

the texas pic

Perspectives
Chief engineer.
https://www.cns-snc.ca/media/pdf_doc/position_papers/421_RNNR_Rpt05_GR-e.pdf
https://cns-snc.ca/media/history/pioneers/g_brooks/gbrooks.html Broken links
https://www.cns-snc.ca/cns/history/
https://canteach.candu.org/Content%20Library/19720103.pdf
http://nuceng.ca/canteachvba/nDan%20Meneley.htm
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1973_oil_crisis
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Three_Mile_Island_accident
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chernobyl_disaster
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Elephant%27s_Foot_(Chernobyl)
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chernobylite
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Trinitite
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Corium_(nuclear_reactor)
https://www.bbc.com/news/world-asia-56728068

https://www.theglobeandmail.com/politics/article-internal-audit-lays-bare-problems-at-public-health-agency-of-canada/
https://www.theglobeandmail.com/canada/article-ottawa-was-told-about-potential-problems-at-public-health-agency-top/
Scientists forced to dumb down reports
https://www.history.navy.mil/our-collections/photography/numerical-list-of-images/nhhc-series/nh-series/NH-85000/NH-85526.html
Pics of former president Jimmy Carter doiung Navy things.
economics of a reactor https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=cbeJIwF1pVY
this germany info about https://www.nber.org/papers/w26598
The social cost of this shift from nuclear to coal is approximately 12 billion dollars per year. Over 70% of this cost comes from the increased mortality risk associated with exposure to the local air pollution emitted when burning fossil fuels. 

https://www.bbc.com/future/article/20210419-the-end-of-the-worlds-capital-of-brown-coal
https://nationalpost.com/news/canada/newsalertopg-says-alert-about-pickering-nuclear-plant-was-sent-in-error
https://www.cer-rec.gc.ca/en/data-analysis/energy-markets/provincial-territorial-energy-profiles/provincial-territorial-energy-profiles-ontario.html

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Steam_reforming
.
https://thestarphoenix.com/news/local-news/northern-mine-cleanups-continue-province-feds-still-divided-on-cost
https://www.mbcradio.com/2018/11/sask-says-ottawa-not-paying-for-gunnar-mine-remediation Im using your picture

https://thestarphoenix.com/news/local-news/gunnar-mine-reclamation-forging-ahead-despite-legal-battle-over-cost
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Depleted_uranium
https://www.cbc.ca/radio/thehouse/chris-hall-there-s-no-path-to-net-zero-without-nuclear-power-says-o-regan-1.5730197
https://oilprice.com/Latest-Energy-News/World-News/Tanzania-Uganda-Finalize-Oil-Pipeline-Deal.html
Even Uganda has a pipeline.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gerald_W._Brown
RC) that the fire testing used to qualify Thermo-Lag was inadequate. By the time of the disclosure, many nuclear plants had already installed the faulty product.
https://www.nei.org/fundamentals/nuclear-fuel
one fuel pellet compared to the rest.
https://www.bbc.com/news/uk-wales-55833186
https://www.bbc.com/news/uk-wales-54158091
https://tradingeconomics.com/japan/exports-by-category
Japan 121.64 billion nuclear exports 2020.
https://www.cbc.ca/news/business/aecl-sold-for-15m-to-snc-lavalin-1.985786
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/SNC-Lavalin_affair

https://www.nrcan.gc.ca/our-natural-resources/energy-sources-distribution/nuclear-energy-uranium/canadas-small-nuclear-reactor-action-plan/21183
action plans and roadmaps.
https://thetyee.ca/Analysis/2021/05/26/US-Experts-Trudeau-Your-Nuclear-Dream-May-Turn-Nightmare/
https://biv.com/article/2021/05/canadas-nuclear-ambitions-linchpin-carbon-free-future-or-path-greenwash-oilsands
https://www.world-nuclear-news.org/Articles/SMR-160-completes-first-phase-of-Canadian-review
https://world-nuclear-news.org/Articles/Report-highlights-economic-benefits-of-Canadian-SM

https://www.forbes.com/sites/arielcohen/2020/10/29/the-future-of-small-modular-reactors-department-of-energy-awards-135-billion-to-nuscale-power-for-smr-development/

https://world-nuclear-news.org/Articles/X-energy-formally-begins-SMR-partnership-with-DOE

https://x-energy.com/reactors/xe-100
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_commercial_nuclear_reactors

Home

Home


https://usnc.com/
https://www.wsj.com/articles/escape-from-yucca-mountain-biden-administration-promises-progress-on-nuclear-waste-11620984602
https://atlantic.ctvnews.ca/n-l-premier-says-ex-pm-chretien-pitched-nuclear-waste-storage-plan-in-labrador-1.5371444

cask test
Natural reactor
https://www.forbes.com/sites/startswithabang/2018/10/04/earths-first-nuclear-reactor-is-1-7-billion-years-old-and-was-made-naturally/?sh=1814fab25d94

Space Future

https://www.space.com/nuclear-power-spacecraft-after-perseverance-rover
https://www.space.com/mars-rover-perseverance-nuclear-power-source-explained.html
https://www.nbcnews.com/mach/science/stephen-hawking-says-humans-must-leave-earth-within-600-years-ncna818926
https://www.energy.gov/articles/nuclear-heart-cassini
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Enceladus
https://www.cnbc.com/2019/07/17/why-jeff-bezos-spends-billions-on-space-technology.html
https://www.vanityfair.com/news/2019/06/jeff-bezos-wants-to-move-industry-to-space-to-save-the-earth

Cosmos
pic
https://www.pbs.org/wgbh/nova/article/Sagan-Time-Travel/
Enceladus - October 2008
Enceladus
https://www.space.com/nuclear-reactor-for-mars-outpost-2022.html
Marsbase nuclear
https://www.space.com/5850-nasa-eyes-nuclear-power-moon-base.html
moonbase nuclear

Spontaneous combustion ’90 and boxing 2x

Placeholder this movie been on the liost months.
Im watching the Navarrete // Diaz fight.
Prelim Vargas/ Shaw fight. Looks like Vargas gonna win round 3.
Gotta do some chores just finished math onward to the next awesome thing.
This Edgar Berlanga the “Real Hasta La muerte”.
Undefeated 16-0 all in the first round – till tonight

___ Wow its been a week already.
Tonight is the Andy Ruiz Jr vs Chris Arreola fight
Im gonna watch this movie.
Ruiz lost to Anthony Joshua tHis first time seeing him since then.
Where Deontay Wilder Bombsquad! lol
Loved me some Boxing Saturday nights.
Also spAce X crew 1 heading home live on youtube.
Watching with 42k people.
Fernando Molina wow young up-and-comer.
Wow some highlights of the Ruiz Joishua 1, that was crazy.
Then the Joshgua Ruiz 2 that was his decline.
Sometimes need to fall to rise back up stronger that before.
Need those experiences.
I think Ruiz can do it.
Learning from loss.
2019 currrent lol, thats some major changes.
I dont know anything about Arreola.
Montage.
Some mutual respect buty IOve never seen him figth I dont think.
Thats funny hes like one time he wanted to be like me, now I want to be like him.
“Ruiz disciplined inside the ring undicsiplined outside the ring” lol thats funny.
Could Chris win, he could very well.
Hosted Shawn Porter & Mikey Garcia.
Lol Andy Ruiz eats snickers before the fight. Snickers jokes.
Lennox Lewis ringside.
Joe Goosen trainer.
Whoa Lennox Lewis got style.
Hes got a suit jacket, liner.
With the Lennox Lewis Tyson fight card as the liner.
J.Ramos vs J.Molina Ramos is the 20 yr old. Molina the former olympian and more years pro.
Ramos undefeated southpaw.
Lennox Lewis moved to UK since Canada didnt have boxing infrastructure the, goes on to face Holyfield, Tyson.
Lewis Plays chess, and created a chess student after school program thats awesome.
Ramos good fighter pretty sure he got this.
Molina gave him a run though.
All the cameos.
I appreciate the Lennox Lewis commentary the Champ.
Learning some Mexican boxing history.
Salvador Sanchez Awesome boxer sadly died in car crash at 23.
During the 80s.
next fight, Cota vs Fundora
Fundora younger.
Gabriella fundora upcoming.
Fundora fighters frame 6’6″!
Lanky tall reach.
These Tv notes lol. Fundora, built a house for sparring partners in back yard lol.
Cota figthing for his son, so his son can see his dad never giving up.
Wow Sebastien Fundora is no joke man.
Cota put up a awesome fight though wow.
Thaty was pretty wild.
Mystery song i heard I know the tune but cant pin point it, thats too bad.
Abel Roamos VS Omar Figuroa JR.
After seeing Jesus Ramos.
Omar looks ok just hasnt fought since 2019.
Figueroa Jr is a unorthodox fighter, seeing some unique moves. some good defensive moves.
He figths from a weird angle unconventional. How do you break from the pack and learn a completely new style.
Its always cool wehn theyre having a good time too.
Nothing against the other 2 figthers those Ramos family woo! Ok nephew uncle right on.
Aint nothing easier than writing about boxing. Personal stories.
Humbleness in victory, and defeat.
An exceptional rendering of ‘Star Spangled Banner.’
Whose gonna win. If it follows theme of the evening young , I like Andy Ruiz.
Chris Nightmare Areola wearing Dodger colors. The traineer from befopre Joe he wearing all white thats funny.
Ruiz walks on with young family member yellow smoke with purple rhinestone trim.
Rolls up witha thug song. Buddy this is exciting. Go Ruiz!
Chris is fighting outta Riverside CA His last fight 2019. He a scary looking dude still lol..
Joe Goossen the only trainer ive seen wear white lol.
Wow this fight is crazy. Ruiz was knocked down for a sec. Ruiz is hurt.
Chris got a good hit on Ruiz left ear, ruiz is shaky. Ruiz disbalanced. This might be an upset. Chris looks strong with some solid stance and solid shots. Ruiz back on the offense.
Andy looking better in that last round.
Barnburner.
Lol Chris is the 40 yr old nightmare. He seems more on the offense.
Joe Goossen I was learning he helped bring Ruelas brothers to world titles. Gabriel Ruelas fought a man that later dies of his brain injuries, contemplated retiring, instead continued and donated some winnings to the Jimmy Garcia family. Andy ruiz just slightly up in punches %.
Chris A shoulder got hurt. Ruiz definetly got this now. Just the small victories more consistent.
Chris A just got one round seems a like too little a score, I though it could be an upset. He quoted Dre.
That was epic nigth of boxing.
OK supposed to watch a that movie but alas here I am lol. Gonna try to compare this movie to a couple nights boxing.

___ Movie
Watching this movie to get shit done, its been on the queue forever.
Watching before boxing this weekend.
Ill just starty it from the beginning and ignore any previous posts or drafts on the matter. Then Ill watch the Canelo Billy Joe Saunders.
Billy Joe says: “im not afraid of greatness.”
Alright excited for that.
Excited for this. Long time in the making of procrastinations. then ill do the list items.
The intero is sweet its flames and people screaming sound effect.
Valves and ignitions, plasmas.
Hot gasses lol.
Taco bell ass lool.
Burning ring of fire Johnny Cash.
Found this movie on youtube huzzah.
Oh some plot. Its the first nuclear family.
I guess thats thyroid inject.
Lol those goggles, that just makes me laugh personal reasons.
That device is shaking like a ride in front of the supermarket.
Bomb shelter demo. p[retty fallout esque.
The new old footage is always cool.
It just doesnt always look so vintage.
Not like Forrest gump that was awesome.
A good old fashioned dance and a guy smoking in the background.
Atomics is like nearly what brought on that golden age, or the one theyre portraying in the film.
That shelter experience, they say boy can it take it, I dunno there was steam shooting valves bustin up like a universal studios ride.
Theres been some content on cinnemassacre about the fear and loathing and can probably mesh it with those first opening scenes.
I cant imagine the 40’s being a very fun time to be alive. To the 50’s more optimism, American dream, one arcticle suggest conformity. Young old conforming. Well thats not so much the same I was thinking whats its gonna be like post covid. 60s wave counterculture. 70s depression economics, Music for profits FM radio Albums;. 60s really the end of that post ww2. Good music in the 70s though. 80s to now. Thats a fictional 44. And just quick exploring. Increase in consumer spending 50s, conformity not really seeing that lol/sigh . 20s aftermath of ww1, post spanish flu.
Ok I remember this, nuclear family has a kid. Is this the flame baby.
Correction its the nuclear flame baby. Human torch.. 39s Frank R paul 61s reactivation
Well right away the nuclear family catches fire lol. Thats quite bizzare. What the hell now its the 90s or 80s .. Its a play.
I was just googling actual spontaneous combustion thats so strange.
hydrocarbon on fire, with no heat. I mean some things combust in presence of oxygen so.
If these are highschool kids they look older than me. At this School or whatever. Theres like anti-radiation something armbands and posters.. Some foreshadowing. Why do they combust is what I want to know. is it cause the nuclear fire baby is mad? Stop nuclear power is what it says. Well id would tent to agree if people be catching fire all over the place. Nuclear power and bombs Id say are completely different one frees humanity the other destroys. That red car scene was weird. I wouldnt even know how to descrive that car, its got a center cylinder chrome jet intake looking piece.Its like a mini hubcap in the center of the grille. Its kinda ugly in my opinion. Novelty but ugly.
Interesting its about nuclear power shows a spherical room design. Power plant going online, in the movie. Theres the intro theres the learning about this guy, who looks fairly familiar.
Trinidad beach fictional plant.
Going around turning lights on theyre really pushing this spontaneous combustion, everyone just catchin fire around the town. late 80s 90s theme. This guy hes getting flashback looking into the globe of the fire. This character mega distraught. Imagine when he learns hes causing all thee combustions lol. Just his face says it all. Wow I like thos blue building accent lights. Omg that neon pink phone lol and the layered mirrors I forgot about the layered mirrors!
That neon phone omg. Had to take a break was laughing so hard. Talk on the funny phone to the doc. The radio doctor to be clear. Ok so the birthmark growing mega pain. HBE remembers his mom. Use his flame gift to help the world. lol Human Torch. I found it its all Dapy phone dapy speakers. Some back and forth telephoning anxiety trying to get ahold of Marvin Monroe lol, caricature. Ok tech guy bursts into flames theres some gross skin effects. Black ooze, and the neon phone its just ridiculous. Face says it all hes like oh damn. Thats like a Chernobyl under the skin ouch. Lol the guy, previously baby. Hes like really selling the acting with the other one looking right at teh camera. I dunno it has its charm. The shields on clothing and bowties are just outrageous lol. Strange if you google 90s fashion you might get some late 90s fashions. Nothing like this cringeworthy sand cast pieces. Adorned with stuff ok. It has a life of its own online thats strange dont see anyone reppin the real 90s trends im seeing here lol. Ok theyre in the hospital or something. The guy has a hole in his arm, looks super flush. The doctor / doctors assistant just has his mask drooping down as per norm,nowadays lol. Dunkaroos shirt lol. Next. ew gross a unnesecary surgery scene maybe. Hes radioactive. Ok i seen some funny items. They show the dr monroe tech on the TV. Man tube box tvs, tvs, got thin and stayed that way.
U of Illinois credited with a flatscreen invention thats cool. 06-09 There was a shift in market before even. Oh ya movie, so theres a moment its like reanimator, I must inject you with this fluorescent goop . Itll all be over shortly, looks at clock 35 mins left..
Ok re-animator turns into another combustee. Reunion with previous baby and the surviving nurse I guess. Tolerance to nucleics thats just crazy lol. Dusty suitcase. Charred up merry go round. Why would he blast his parents that makes no sense. Movie time lol. The footage from his flashback.. Lew company made tthe radiation drug and been interfeering with the previous baby. Im not sure his name still. The car from the 40s still in perfect shape. This other guy has a bug painters mask lopl that was horrible scene lol. Lol its Lew. That was such a lame scene. Horrible lol. Finally knew what to search for, its the tucker 48 or a similar 2 door model. love the phone booths. More Neon, like 89. The lew corp. He blasted the phone booth. Phone booth is really clutch. Eye swollen. Wow his card is so electrified. More victims. Wow he just points and burns now. Hes definetly a monster. I guess that swollen eye thats the closest thing I can compare to these 2 boxing nights I never really meant to write about. Imagine a boxer that could make people catch fire. Back to the 90s dream pad. Everything neon and mall-like, plastic bedside phone. A pillar. That black furniture with gold trim. That looks old fashioned to me. Not like i care that much, just if I was buying new bedroom furniture that plastic gold trim looks so tacky lol. SSSSSSSMoking lol. Theres that whit black tile floor. Floor bust chandelier. Some sweet flame effects. Its like the sky in ghostbusters. lol that 90s room its just tacky but I cant look away lol. Oooh an answering machine. Believe it or not George isnt at home. Where could I be.. Believe it or not im not home! Heres Lew with the seryinge. Lew is now SMMMMMOOOOOKINg lol THats the effect its like they get blasted out after sticking a fork in the socket. Neon meltdown, stairwell scenes, just like scenes draggin on. Lew throws himself off the stairwell and lands in a heap of SHC. Ur making it worse the ex wife now in this scene really milking evcery scene caharacter lol. Lol Lew back from the stairwell facemelting off musta had some good drum and bass.
Lew disappears in a flash of light the combustion gone. Omg its over. That was a chore not gonna lie. Now its done im super glad. Nice distraction, nice little hobby thing, ive been doing homework for the past forever that was pretty fun. Movie wasnt the top tier but the action of paying attention to that mish mash of scenes and screaming oh man lol. Alright that was nice escape from dull Tuesday feeling motivated to get my tasks complete. Movie was a slow ride, wasnt the worst some of those scenes were great and horrible. Love me some retro room decor. Brad Dourif good actor. I recognize him from deadwood too wow./
_
John landis Cameo
Hes in Chucky lol, the voice of chucky.. hehe (Brad Dourif)
Lol that was a good one next, From hell it came ’57
__I did feel better after enjoying all that so a little overworked stressed out. Still i think im ready for some more. Schoolwork that is.
Is it escapeism ? I mean I feel more content when I do something. I said I would do. Fanstasy, monster movies, i like the log inventory. From Oxford is better. I used the word more loosely.
Distraction vs escapeism. Theres a James Brown Escapeism song
catharsis vs distraction, therefore escapism Too much escapeism bad.

Godzilla vs. Kong 2021

Seen this last Saturday it was awesome! Highlight of my year.
If youre expecting plot youre at the wrong place!
THis is the best kind of movie story telling in though the doors.
Quick scenes barely explaining anything, kinda like Star trek, and that the reason this gets high praise from me.
When I was a kid in the 80’s THIS is the movie we wanted to see.
Right away I knew this was gonna be awesome they show the monsters for more than 5 seconds.
The cockpit scenes I knew were amazing then one of the characters one of the monsters kills so you know this is hardcore.
Ive seen a couple times in the MARVEL UNIVERSE/ MONSTERS UNIVERSE , the plane vehicle gets destroyed and the viewer is like no one survived that!
Its like Ok! the movie giving it to us action destruction emotion.

Anyways whats really to say about the movie. Im in awe. Not to mention I blogged about the OG 1933 Kong, so its a whole futuristic take.
The movie plays out in quick scenes, it keeps on giving.
When you think its over it just gets better.
Special effects unlike Ive ever seen in my life!
Just amazing to watch that piece of work, and the animators.
The scenes of Godzilla swimming fast are awesome.
Lots of Neon like James said.

I dunno I like my action movies like a ride. This movie delivered.
Some fantastical elements when your watching its silly, but its fun so youre liker lets roll with it.
Sign language was a nice touch.
Its like the ulti-evolved ape, thats in touch with humans through sign language its clever, and cute!
Shout out to Bryan Tyree Henry best acting in this movie.
Not like i didnt like the other acting so much as Loved Bryans acting!
The villain was the guy in Machete kills thats where I recognize from. also Hateful eight. OK.
ok and the hacking scene. With Julian Dennison really funny was laughing my ass off.

Anyways I totally recommend this movie.
Gonna have to revisit these old flicks.
Watching Rodan was aight anyways this probably the highlight of my year.
Dont usually watch new movies on the blog, theyre always rockin my socks off lol.
Well onto the next ones.
Thats the problem with the world these days, cant leave a comment box cause some SEO asshole wont stop harrasing me.
Just like the fuckin telescammers, youre the problem with the world these days..

Beverly Hills Cop II

SN11

SN 11 bveing delivered to launch pad today It was on the road @
March 8 18:27 UTC
Now at 21:03 UTS its being hoisted up to the launch platform, cool.
Theres some additional black patches along the right side.
So i wonder will they drag 2 out to the launch site then.
___
Yes Im watching on youtube. (labpadre)
March 9 17:40 UTC
Its almost as if Elon be reading my blog, re cranes, lights, The black patches have now been rotated out of sight. I see several people on site. 1 mega crane. In the foregrond of mega crane is a extended cherry picker. Couple people in the bucket working midship left side. Moving to the right UIT appears the SN11 just dangling there lol. On the rigth is a steel rebar cylinder for an additional launch pad im guessing. Hard to asee whats going on under the Starship, but assuming some rocket engines getting installed. I see a concrete pile machine and steel basher or both on the right. Man that post pounder is lound I remember seeing one in MTL and in Vancouver in docks scenarios. Cool. HJere we go another cherry picker now working on the left visible bottom flap.
22 C, winds 22 mph. 35 kph. Just cherry pickers galore, I see 2 in foreground of crane. Theres different angles. Nice some good shots from launch pad cam. More entrance infrastructure. Should probably log a couple photos to be able to see the difference, its that im a student, not a reporter. Ill spend some extra curricular time is fine, I cant ignore my responsibilities. Finnaly, beach cam. wow theres parasols out, thats a stretch from the winter storm we seen.
___
Aeee its March 10 17:09 UTC. cherry picker at same place as yesterdays observations. the white crane however has turned around completyely isnt suspending SN11 anynore. I see another cherry picker at the base of the launchpad. Couple trucks, one concrete on the left side by the black tank farm. Reminds me gotta make stew huzzah. Wow can see far with sapphire cam. Some people riding the elevator at the starship factory vertical structure. A red van stops with hazards as Im observing. Wow lots of vehicles at the launch pad parking lot. Beach cam looks windy. People fishing.
___
March 12 14:49 UTC this looks live, foggy gray The road is closed, yet a couple underneath the SN11 in a scissor lift. Stioll some people on site so, the static fire could occur.Big crane just sittin there.
sapphire can still see pretty far, some clouds still. looks wet.
Sentinel there a cop there with the lights on road closed at the radio towers assembly. Yep couple vehicles got let through. One with trailer. Maybe its a part they need from trhe factory driving down last minute; special delivery ! lol. Launch pad not as many vehicles as last time. Just the sights and ligthts of this area. The way the lights have a certain aura around em
___
watching a space walk nasa. Just tuned in. Homeworkday lol.
March 13 1435 15:02.
foggy cranes, some activity. Maybe there will be a static fire soon, havent been paying too much attention. I just like to check in everyday for a few observations. Sapphire cam amazing its clear and the trailer park. Definetly found it at Isla Blanca checkin out the sights. That Pier 19 looks kinda fun. see a couple nose cones at the sentine cam
Construction at the launch pad like concretre and forklifts, back hoes. Beach cam looks amazing deep blues and that orange sand. Ignored a bit of spacewalk happening this morninng.
___
March 14 17:35 UTC
Oh Cranee suspended in the wind. White and blue crossed beams, ready to support weight, and pulley it up.
22 mph winds Theres a parking lot. Theres some clouds. Pavement ends, in more ways then one, or sometimes its only pavement. Facilities in construction. The labpadre and nasa chats are horrendous. youtube lives lol.
Sapphire cam thats a hit. Maybe 30 cars in a high up shot. Traffic circle type intersection.
Predator see some hot cars drive by lol, white hot.
Sentinel I see a cylynder now in tall building. Love that building. Elevator on the outside, its like scaffolding for the rocket assembly with what must be crane building. also that trianglular building is neat.
Beach cam, looks wet but clear little windy. Could chill there and read a book maybe.
___
March 17 16:51 UTC
seeing some new infrastructure on the right.
See the black ellipse 3/4 up midship.
2 cranes one post pounder, 34 cherry pickers. skidsteers. No road close today, but there was a SpaceX videos yesterday. RE: SN10
so the days go on.
Looks overcast sapphire ca, no winds.
Factory theres a stack in the vertical tent. couple nose coses.
Nice panning view at launch pad, still traffic not as many workers but still quite a few.
Beach cam so nice its bright today. Got your beach parasols depth looking at ocean.
Yea beach cam is my favorite Im one of the 18 people. 20 people.
the vehicles on the other side of the bay and fishing channel looks fun.
looks overcast.
Theres actually vehicles as far as you can see so some people be working forsure.

___ Marcgh 20th 13:13 utc
Its dawn. couple cranes in sight looking pretty quiet.
17:58 checkin in. 3 neat black patches on the rocket. People are out on the road ditch taking pictures. Theres people working on Saturday. I wanna see the rocket too. 1 person can fit like 2.5 peoples on a fingers and the rocket is 8 finger high.
person is like 1.7 m, x 2.5 oh yea the distance well. see how far off I am. 34 m high. 50m actual. So that must cover the distance person on road 0.7 cm. rocket 12 cm 4.16 m per cm, but apply that to the 0.6 cm person would make em 2.5m. There would be a way to calc the distance from road kinda tough. A person at the correct scale would have to be like 0.42 cm

_ March 22 2021 15:47 UTC, did I miss the static fire?
Yes I did early this morning 8:50 am local time, just watching the replay.
Gas be swirling.
Kicking up dust.
Ok cool looks like they did it.
Live now looks not super busy, 1 post pounder, 1 crane 1 cherry picker.
Beach cam thats my favorite, oranges and blues. People are chilling at the beach.

___
Some observations
March 23 15:28 UTC
Scissor lift under the rocket couple people on board.
Cherry picker bucket driving around near the left base of the rocket.
Sky is a uniform gray misty not smog so much but isnt 100% clear.
Looks more humid yea. 22C 0 mph winds.
I saw a truck drive by can really see the scale.
Whoa theres some cool things going on at the factory seeing some yucca,. some jeep in safari action. The tall building has some cranes and things are going on . On thee righ there some nosecones, one in the middle holding a crane.
Saphire, orange parking lots, green greenery. Cars driving in the roudabout.
Sentinel, Oh the tall building is open. Crane is outside though, front obscured.
Infrastructure looks nice. Guess I should log a photo, Since its already changed so much. Cars up to the sign of workers.
Thertes the palm I see sometimes.
Surely Elon checks out the rockets

All copyrights to live images are owned explicitly by LabPadre.
Beach cam 3 cars on the other side of the fishing channel. Boat just went through.
Not much action at the beach like 3 people.

___ March 24 15:27 UTC
seems foggy, busy sounds like theyre trying to launch march 26 or March 27 thats exciting.
Fogghy, truck at base, the top of rocket is obscured.
There was supposed to be road closures now there isnt.
So theyre doing it another day.
Seen some progres on that 4 inclined pillers launch pad.
Some action at the factory. foggy and some yuccas.
Lol beach cam obscured. Got homework launch soon then.

___ Speculation of launch today.
March 26 14:32 UTC
Got some spot lights got some orange sands, a blueish gray sky.
Guess they did a static fire earlier. like couple hours ago.
Set to launch maybe today tommorow. gonna have to watch the YouTube notifications.
go spaceX and SN11
17:14 UTC 12.5 k people watching now, Including astronaut Chris Hadfield. All around awesome science badass.
So im thinking this might go down, there appears to be some light activity around the pad.
The hype is pretty cool.

___ March 27 14:12 UTC
Is today the day?, just some light activity but the pad mostly clear.
Seen 1 truck on the road go there and maybe back if it was same truck.
Elon tweets hopefully Monday.
He tweeted about the crane lol.

___ March 28 12:52 UTC
Right launch mount coming along.
Crane on the right.
Couple trucks out, maybe tommorow is the day now.
Its dawn a couple hours earlier than here.

___ March 29th 14:12 UTC
Clear day could this be launch day.
18 mph winds kinda windy. Theres some activity with a forklift skidsteer and guy in a yellow jacket.
Structure on the right looking bigger.
March 30th 00:13 – 00:33 mega foggy rainy maybe.
I like the glow in the fog. Very sci-fi.

___March 30th 13:45
Missed the launch.
Gotta say that was the most anti climactic launch ive ever not-seen.
So foggy cant see a thing, then when then thing ‘lands’ the camera froze.
Anywways well onto the next one!

_ Well thats sad its over, Elons twitter; At least the crater is in the right place. Thats pretty funny.
Cant be too attached to smoldering wrecks. Just a little sad after watching it for so long to be gone.

_ April 5 a new tank slowly approaches the launch pad 20:40 UTC
Maybe its a tesla at the front of convoy

_April 6 18:30 UTC
lifting a big tank onto something. has a lifting harness.
Cranes in action.

_ April 22. The crew 2 mission launch happening now. 5:27 UTC https://youtu.be/lW07SN3YoLI
Not the same thing as SN, but related still. I remember the crew test mission that was awesome BoB & Doug. Still Watching.
Go SpaceX!

___
May 12.
Justy a note I seen the SN15 launch and land properly
There some design changes to be implemented imediately.
and, then Elon was on SNL that was awesome as Wario in court lmao.
Then the main body. The Jeff Bezos and Blue originin compared to spaceX is diddly squat.
How long has the BNlue origin been in operation they dont even have aprototype and telling space X to stopp working on the lander.
Im sorry its just proof ‘just money’ cant solve every problem.
My opinions of Blue origin fucking garbage man.
Sellin it to the highest bidder.
I own amazon and now I own space; Jeff Bezos probably.
Empty shallow husk of a Man cant wait to escape earth will all his money while we all fight for the last tree and drink of water.
Amazon!? what a fucking oxymoron.
And fucking Microsoft if your reading thanks for the windows update that ruined my computer.
If I had a presentation or meeting this morning Id be done.
Too much to ask for a laptop that works more than 5 years!
Go back to the drawing board, my 386 ran faster and more stable.

___
May 14 15:32 UTC not UTZ the sunflower seedz lol
Havent seen any UTZ thius year.
anyways SN15 launched that was cool, I hear theyre gonna double fly this one.
most IRL sci fi thing ever.

Coming to America II 2021

Eddie Murphys 40th movie with mega cast.
James earl jones, SNL friends.
I was stoked to see Eddie Murphy on the movie screen again.
The dude is a legend.
Beverly hills cop 3 is childhood favorite movie.
I just usually watch older movies so when I see something new its pretty wild.
Sometiumes take for granted those older movies that ran reruns on tbs for some long.
Im thinking too of trading places. I like those movies reminds me of being a kid.
VHSs.
Heards some opinions about the blueray too gotta say I kinda agree.
I guess its just media types that will come, and go.
Im just over all glad i seen that take a joke or two, see some fancy dinner parties on screen.
Fancy houses.
Just the world seems like its been through alot lately I can appreciate people trying to bring us together for some laughs, Its a job for them too.
Then near the end the movie was a big party.
Its really like after setting up the stage so extravagantly they coulda take the jokes maybe a bit further.
At the same time I was crylaughing a few times.
No way reading the wiki page, He said in 16 years hed do it again for number 3.
Hell yea.
But also looking at my age thats a scary number, cross that bridge when I get to it.
I gotta do homework, but that was a nice distraction.
___
After reading a few more reviews, this guy saying this movie gives a warm feeling form 3 decades of movies of Eddie Murphy silliness. Totally right

Newest Nuculars News Notes

a href=”https://www.cbc.ca/archives/entry/differing-perspectives-on-nuclear-power”>https://www.cbc.ca/archives/entry/differing-perspectives-on-nuclear-power
1977 5% to 40% mixed energy, with the public involved. Back in the day the real concerns of proliferation. Then uising those fears and disasters as a argument against the abundant energy. The first speaker talk about vigilance and completelky agree dont use the cheapest things on nuclear, and quit looking to cut corners on the process.

Gerald W Brown.

https://globalnews.ca/news/7631633/ontario-off-peak-electricity-rates-february-22-coronavirus/

https://www.cer-rec.gc.ca/en/data-analysis/energy-markets/market-snapshots/2017/market-snapshot-canadian-electricity-prices-generally-increasing-faster-than-inflation-but-trends-vary-among-provinces.html

https://nationvalleynews.com/2021/02/07/will-province-flip-switch-higher-hydro-prices-week/

https://www.reddit.com/r/ontario/comments/eaue68/whats_your_hydro_bill/

https://www.atomicheritage.org/history/nth-country-experiment
https://www.reddit.com/r/todayilearned/comments/leq2uz/til_that_in_1964_three_physicists_who_just_got/?utm_source=share&utm_medium=web2x&context=3

https://www.cnbc.com/2021/02/25/bill-gates-nuclear-power-will-absolutely-be-politically-acceptable.html

https://www.cer-rec.gc.ca/en/data-analysis/energy-markets/provincial-territorial-energy-profiles/provincial-territorial-energy-profiles-ontario.html

https://globalnews.ca/news/7427396/ontario-hydro-rate-hike-covid19-savings-end/

https://cns-snc.ca/media/history/pioneers/g_brooks/gbrooks.html

https://www.newswire.ca/news-releases/joint-statement-by-canada-s-minister-of-natural-resources-and-the-saskatchewan-minister-of-energy-and-resources-following-the-energy-and-mines-ministers-conference-873210379.html

___
Im pissy but im on the case.
Fuckin politicians destroy everything thats good followed by general scumbags.
Take something thats amazing, and use fears to make it work for another purpose.
Cut every corner, syphon every last penny and resource.
Imagine a science world where lowest bidder wasnt a thing.
guess it partially worked for space tech. Gus Grissom, Challenger.
All the nuclear disasters are concerning learning from em, holding governments accountable.
I cant believe some of the things that have transpired on this planet regarding nuclear.
Yet despite all that I believe in a future with nuclear tech benefiting humankind.
Already looks corrupt as fuck with SNC and the libs. Do you really want these people fiddling with nuclear safety protocols.
Or, would you rather it out of their hands.
Look at Ontario, and the Chief engineer, they did them wrong.
now the future I see SMRs as being beneficial to some remote areas here in Canada.
Space. Make it deliverable on a truck, have a fleet of trucks.
That could be usefull for military operations.
___

https://nationalpost.com/news/email-destruction-case-highlights-ontario-liberal-moves-that-have-added-billions-to-electricity-costs
In 2015, a year after the new premier won her first election, auditor general Bonnie Lysyk issued a scathing report that suggested Ontarians had paid $37 billion more for power than they should have between 2006 and 2014, partly because the province had allowed exorbitant prices for wind, solar and other alternative energy sources.
Vic Fedeli, the Tories’ finance critic, alleged that many of the current government’s policies have benefited donors to the Liberal party.

“This government has been using Hydro One as their play thing to raise money for the Liberal party,” he said Wednesday. “This has been a cash machine for the Liberals for far too long.”

lol 37 billion more for power.

Thats almost like the coal, and elk river destruction.
https://thenarwhal.ca/for-decades-b-c-failed-to-address-selenium-pollution-in-the-elk-valley-now-no-one-knows-how-to-stop-it/
Teck Resources, which posted profits of $6.1 billion in 2017, was the single largest donor to the BC Liberal party. The practice of corporate political donations has since been phased out in B.C.

What fraudsters.
under the guise of students and the environment.
___
https://nuclearsafety.gc.ca/eng/resources/news-room/feature-articles/nuclear-regulation-by-the-decade-1956-1965.cfm
Just some 50s research. Chalk river zeep.

This headline,
https://www.hilltimes.com/2020/12/03/canada-re-enters-nuclear-weapons-business-with-small-modular-reactors/274591

https://www.forbes.com/sites/jamesconca/2020/09/22/aneel-a-game-changing-nuclear-fuel/?sh=28c8e3c814ea
Thorium headlines stories similar to a candu bundle.

1940
https://www.thecanadianencyclopedia.ca/en/article/history-of-the-armed-forces-in-canada
National resources mobilization act. 61 years ago, conscripted. About 2500. Theres some crazy war cartoons.

Ok 1957
200 MW NRU,.

1960s SLOWPOKES, and the China commercial slowpokemodel of their own.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nuclear_industry_in_Canada

More 50’s 1951 first cobalt 60 treatment Ontario.
Uranium Boom in the 50s.

https://torontopubliclibrary.typepad.com/local-history-genealogy/2019/08/going-nuclear-in-ontario-historic-photos-of-chalk-river.html
Photos, and archive of chalk river.

https://inis.iaea.org/collection/NCLCollectionStore/_Public/13/697/13697006.pdf?r=1&r=1
Speech coal, CNA director from 40 years ago. Nice defict and coal still. Led astray by all talk no action wasting government.

https://cna.ca/
Lol the one job available where you need 5 years experience lobbying parliamentarians.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Atomic_Age
I love this; energy would be to cheap to meter..

https://www.world-nuclear.org/information-library/non-power-nuclear-applications/overview/the-many-uses-of-nuclear-technology.aspx

Since Im reasearching 50s theres a duck and cover movie sure I can find on youtube.
Has a jingle.

Atomic parties drink till dawn watch the nuclear blast. Take a quick shower, duck, and cover.

Some Kodak discoveries, interesting. Wine forgeries. Paint. carbon dating. Fogging of photographic papers Webb JH.
___
Seeking more 60s but learning more about Marie Curie
https://www.britannica.com/biography/Marie-Curie
Marie, and Pierre Curie discovered polonium, and radium 1898

The gram of radium
https://artsandculture.google.com/exhibit/the-leaden-box-and-the-gram-of-radium/vAJyom1aXb5nJw

Or the box atleast, the gram of radium costs 100000 $ at the time.
Its at the currie museum France, they have a road named after them.

Ok the museum is cool, and all im back focused on the 60s.
Specifically canada and nuclear tech in the 60s.

https://nuclearsafety.gc.ca/eng/resources/news-room/feature-articles/nuclear-regulation-by-the-decade-1966-1975.cfm

This one talking about power demonstration NPD. Accident at Chalk river ’52. Shows a cool pic of the rector in 1966

https://www.cns-snc.ca/media/history/canadian_nuclear_history.html
Nov Federal Food and Drug Directorate approved irradiation of potatoes for human consumption. {I&I}
Kariachi Kanuup plant. Pakistan.
Theres mega time line on this link.

https://www.theglobeandmail.com/opinion/editorials/canada-and-india-the-nuclear-genie-40-years-on/article23978162/
Its a story about india and uranium
Ok here 1956 ottawa and india agree to the , 1974 bomb. Cameco corp uranium, restarted in april 2015.

https://www.ourcommons.ca/DocumentViewer/en/42-1/RNNR/report-5/page-39 china expected to build 150 reactors of the the next 20 years and here theyre suggesting SNC try to get a piece of 50 reactors. What the hell have they been doing since 2017. Talking about investements and reactorws we could had, cause now, mega debt, no reactor.
‘Continuing to invest.’ Continuing to train wreck more like. Im not seeing any recommendations being followed. Long term investments. We are at a government crossroads more like in 2021. With proroghing during parliament this gov doesnt care about nuclear. More like the bare minimum with a story oh we looked at some papers once this month, and delay for another 2. “improve candian expertise after ignoring it since the 70’s 80s I read the chief engineer paper. Why am I not seeing that ? Lawrence Mcauley been in government since 1986.

slowpokes,
https://www.rmc-cmr.ca/en/chemistry-and-chemical-engineering/slowpoke-nuclear-reactors-canada
ok cool, boring..

https://atlantic.ctvnews.ca/atlantic-canada-trade-mission-hopes-to-bolster-region-s-trade-links-to-china-1.4164023?cache=yes
lol thias didnt age well build on the trust and relationships that have been established in Chinese market. Shoulda been focused on Canada. I just searched if hed have anything to do with nuclear no. Minister of VAC priorities lol. Its almost as if the chief engineer report thrown in the trash and politicians instead followed their own ambitions.
They didnt design and build the reactor so could cut every corner and rip off the tax payer. Its liek with the money involved should pay for itself, clean up wastes, wages, maintenance, unforeseen circumstances funds. CEO bonuses. Thats my opinion power generation should be a business within itself for the people not for profit. We coulda had jobs and energy, instead getting faty bureaucracy and giving CEOs massive paychecks, and cuttings all the safety and upgrades. Greed. And then these people turns around and say other countries cant have free nuclear. Man if the government was smart with that R&D would be boundless wealth.
It appears in no simple way Ontario overspent on green investments causing the cheap power to be the most overpriced. So why not invest other different money into the green energy. then its the taxpayers paying for bureaucratic errors.

Anyways more on the 60’s
___
More 60s tech.

https://www.newswire.ca/news-releases/canadian-and-uk-nuclear-industries-to-collaborate-on-advancing-nuclear-technology-for-clean-energy-825251219.html

NIA and CNA friends since the 60s.

https://www.niauk.org/event-listing/dit-civil-nuclear-showcase-2020/

https://ir.lib.uwo.ca/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1028&context=politicalsciencepub
Here I am reading about Diefenbaker, criminal defence. Stance on apartheid.
Diefenbaker interesting about the nuclear weapons and a nation we coulda had em, I think in retrospect quickly people are proud of non nuclear weapons choice. Atleast that debate. Nevertheless Bormac misssiles entered Canada 63 phased out 72
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/John_Diefenbaker

69 trudeau signs non proliferation 1970
https://www.thecanadianencyclopedia.ca/en/article/bomarc-missile-crisis

also declared non viable system. Its air defence capable of delivering missile warhead. How effective really. Funny to read these HOC statements and debate, but the rteal threat was the growing stockpile, Canada acting as middle pawm for allies. The author writes about tension, its like Kruchev and the missiles in Cuba, and pressures from allies to act in a certain way.

https://www.history.com/topics/cold-war/cuban-missile-crisis
some 62, political.

https://www.atomicarchive.com/resources/timeline/timeline1960.html
heres more timeline

Rolphton 62 Firts energy to the grid.
https://www.thecanadianencyclopedia.ca/en/article/electric-power
Here talking about some numbers of the generation between 60s if anyone cares, then some growth between 1960 – 1974 low growth 75-94.
oil crisis 73-74

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_artificial_radiation_belts

https://www.thecanadianencyclopedia.ca/en/article/technology
Aloueettee satellite and surving unexpected artificial radiation belt.

Chalk River Laboratories, the latter of which produces a large share of the world’s medical radioisotopes. Other examples of Canadian technology-based science include the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory and the Canadian Light Source in Saskatoon.

https://www.atomicarchive.com/resources/timeline/timeline1960.html
60s timeline of some other events.

Outer space treaty. 67

Start some 70s
___
Re coal and energy from the 70s
This is from a qualified reactor guy.
This author talks about funding taken from nuclear for solar.
Like i see some benefit to solar, especially that nasa solar.
https://www.ans.org/news/article-1561/return-to-the-1970s/

Note that in the 1970s, we were taught in grade school that there would be another (pollution-induced) Ice Age**** and we were told the science was settled then too-but what was the result? A policy that focused at least initially on coal power generation. The inherent contradiction is now plain today; will we see a similar process take place again? Will we face the best predictions for climate available from science-with a push to do exactly what it is we know intuitively will hurt the worst?

Anyways I get it, less corporation. It talks about conservationism, Its odd to me cause cause coal an issue here.

https://www.world-nuclear.org/information-library/current-and-future-generation/outline-history-of-nuclear-energy.aspx
Obninsk upgrade 1973, does isotopes studies decay not super important re 70s.

The first large RBMK (1,000 MW – high-power channel reactor) started up at Sosnovy Bor near Leningrad in 1973, and in the Arctic northwest a VVER with a rated capacity of 440 MW began operating. This was superseded by a 1000 MWe version which became a standard design.In Kazakhstan the world’s first commercial prototype fast neutron reactor (the BN-350) started up in 1972 with a design capacity of 135 MWe (net), producing electricity and heat to desalinate Caspian seawater. In the USA, UK France and Russia a number of experimental fast neutron reactors produced electricity from 1959, the last of these closing in 2009

Many reactor orders from the 1970s were cancelled. The uranium price dropped accordingly.

https://www.energy.gov/sites/prod/files/The%20History%20of%20Nuclear%20Energy_0.pdf
1970s and 1980s, however, growth slowed.
Demand for electricity decreased and concern
grew over nuclear issues, such as reactor
safety, waste disposal, and other environmental considerations.

1974 The first 1,000-megawatt-electric nuclear
powerplant goes into service – Commonwealth
Edison’s Zion 1 Plant.

1979 March 28. The worst accident in U.S.
commercial reactor history occurs at the
Three Mile Island nuclear power station near
Harrisburg, Pennsylvania. The accident is
caused by a loss of coolant from the reactor
core due to a combination of mechanical
malfunction and human error

https://www.eia.gov/todayinenergy/detail.php?id=30972
Some stats on the 20 yr construction time period, starting in the 70s coming online in the 90’s

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nuclear_power
Some stats on safe than coal and fossil fuels

The French La Hague reprocessing facility has operated commercially since 1976 and is responsible for half the world’s reprocessing as of 2010

A fire caused 5–10 million dollars worth of damage to New York’s Indian Point Energy Center in 1971.[312] The arsonist turned out to be a plant maintenance worker.

82 protesty at swiss reactor, theres a split between Alvin Weinburg,
Hans Bethe
Anyways bascially at this point also going with the RMK

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Atomic_Age
prior predictions were gonna have some reactors for business and home communities.

More protests in the 70’s
A large anti-nuclear demonstration was held on May 6, 1979, in Washington D.C., when 125,000 people[38] including the Governor of California, attended a march and rally against nuclear power.[39] In New York City on September 23, 1979, almost 200,000 people attended a protest against nuclear power

Ralph nader interview
https://www.pbs.org/wgbh/pages/frontline/shows/reaction/interviews/nader.html

In 1952, President Truman set up a Materials Policy Commission, which reported, made up of business, labor, and other blue ribbon people. And it recommended that the country go solar, and that by 1975 three-quarters of all homes would be solarized.

The politics of waste and disposal and evacuation plans, that government couldnt answer.
California Energy Commission announced not to approve nuclear plants further unless the utilities could specify fuel and waste disposal costs and by late 1970s, over thirty states had passed regulation legislation dealing with nuclear waste.
3 mile gave creedance to the claims.

https://www.atomicarchive.com/resources/timeline/timeline1970.html

Nice 70s link.
1971
March 30 – The first Poseidon submarine-launched ballistic missiles are introduced by the U.S.
1974
May 18 – India sets off a low-yield device (8 kilotons) under Rajasthan desert.
https://www.cbc.ca/archives/entry/1974-canada-blamed-for-indias-peaceful-bomb

South africa testing some quiet tests too.
___
70’s nuclear tech still.
https://www.atomicheritage.org/history/timeline
This one goes, 70s;
1970 nuclear non proliferation treaty signed can now share atomic tech
74 bomb
83 bomb

http://nuclearconnect.org/in-the-classroom/for-students/know-nukes
Scientists and timelines.

Some personal computers be coming out in 1975.

https://www.pbs.org/wgbh/aso/databank/entries/dh72ct.html
Some stats on CT and MRI difference between Xray,

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/X-ray
1900s xray and cathode tube experiments. 1895 Wilhelm Roentgen

Illinois energy prof. Chernobyl video https://youtu.be/bCbms6umE_o
Containment building on the ‘western reactors’ Candu Deuterium.
Sarcophagus Chernobyl.
The cost of that building/ containment.
Wow super informative.
Chance of Fission over speed of the neutron.
The moderator used to slow the neutron thats the HW
Ok so i know nothing of fission, as the prof says I know everything lol.
Hydrogen same size, cant put gas in it. It he means the 1 proton 1 electron so the neurons bump into it, and slow down.
Best moderator is the size of a neutron.
H2O good
Carbon graphite not quite as good as water.
Purpose boil water steam electricity.
I see so the fission is the chain reaction. Chance of that event drops like a log graph when the moderator is removed.

Ok next the RBMK reactor, Its rods in carbon pillar, reaction controlled by the rods placement.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/RBMK
ANyways I understand they dip the fuel rods in, they space it out and thats operating a water electricity system too.
Quite interesting actually.
Ok Chernobyl scheduled shutdown coming up for the refueling activities.
Wow this guy wanted to test out a safety system. Thats ironically bad. But basicallly when you remove thee Fuel the RBMK reactions continues is kinda what im picking up.
Fukushima, they had diesel and battery backups.
Chernobyl it was a test to see how much steam they could geenerate after turning off the reactor and see if it could still run the safety systems. Jjst in case the diese gens didnt kick in etc.
Shut down middle of the night.
Instead of going to about halfway like they wanted to it went really below that.
Talking about xenon poisoning afetr the power shiuts down its hard to get it going till those isotopes dissipate, cant turn it back on for three days.
Dampening field on the reaction, and they kept trying to get it going. Becomes uncontrolled chain reaction. Mega heat. The heat destroyed the carbon and water, Huge chemical explosion blew the roof off. And all those fission products went into country side. Human error with a wrong button on a early RBMK reactor doing experiments probably not the greatest experiments.
Scientists saw this isnt no slight detectable fallout from a nuclear blast years ago, this contents of an entire reactor. That must have been shocking to see. Wow safety systems for other reactors going off from outside substance. Firefighters fatalities. Not a nuclear exlosion, it was a chemical explosion.
Aftermath dumping sand and lead. The volunteers for sarcophaghus under reactor. Thats some heroics, get ur dose of radiation, and onto the next guy. Built the building first.
Cant happen in the world again. No one uses the graphite, now theres containment buildings.
The profs argument use the physics not humans to keep us safe. The tamper proof failsafes in essence. Worst accident ever.

Corium is substance only found during meltdown.
86 sarcophagus.

This time its the Fukushima.

MArch 11 2011
Comiung up on anniversary. (10 yrs)
Huge amount of casualties.
Massive earthquake off shore, tidal wave 40 meters high.
4 reactors at Fukushima. Prof talks about the containment building.
They take the top off the reactor vessel, bring the crane lift the fuel out, drop the spent fuel in pool, outside the containment building..
Ok surrounded by blast panels, in case of event in spent fuel pool hydrogen builds up boom the panel drop away, no damage to reactor.
Its dividing still. What is the neutrons ?
Hmm ok safety control rods, opposite of a fuel rod.
Ok the reactor shuts down; the radioactive substances still dividing there.
Gives off heat, heat not at 100%.
Spent fuel, starts draining pumps activate diesel gets washed away from tidal wave.
Water on the spent fuel and core becomes concern. Media says blow up, but the structures in a way doing what theyre supposed to with the evolving hydrogen. The Fukushima doses are clearly lower than Chernobyl.

___
Its march 11, 2021.
10 year anniversary of fukushima.
https://thebulletin.org/2021/03/fukushima-today-im-glad-that-i-realized-my-mistake-before-i-died/ Im not commenting out of respect for the persished, seems like the next article saying it was preventable. Yea clearly different than Chernobyl

I guess why is one disaster in a completely different system linked together. Three mile, chernobyl, fukushima.
Im learning more about the older one. Three mile island. Great power you gotta respect that reactor. Im hearing about how the management decline the extra reccomended wall height
https://carnegieendowment.org/2012/03/06/why-fukushima-was-preventable-pub-47361

Ok Im watching movies.
1: illinois energy prof on TMI started
https://youtu.be/kb75NS3vBB0
2: how TMI ended
https://youtu.be/AALvz5RBEZM
3: learning about Radiation dosages.
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=niFizj29h5c

4: gonna watcha 45 min doc on TMI.
Its just called the Three mile Island Documentary.
March 28 1979 middle of night.
Pensylvania Harrisburgh.
Middletown.
Electricity.
3 people in charge of unit 2.
Trying to unclog a filter.
Sci fi reference, Ray Bradbury https://www.goodreads.com/quotes/739269-oh-god-midnight-s-not-bad-you-wake-and-go-back
Often the time accident happens.
some water gets in the pipe.
The alarms start going off, the operators dont know whats happening. The reactor comp sense water, thats bad for the pressures in a complex system auto shuts, off. But thats the system thats also cooling the reactor shut down. (not a good thing). So a clog with a air filter, and trying to blow it out with compressed air hose. Caused this. Ok meanwhile the pressure building up inside reactor, drops the control rods to end reaction. Wow ok the pressure release valve safety system, opens as intended, then doesnt close properly. However the light blinks off letting the operator know its closed (error ligth) Still open. so the light says signal got send not obeyed. Compounding human errors, oh the physics will work all the time. Dont trust the humans, that how to play nuclear safely. Oh no, so the coolat supposed to stay (interior) gushing out everywhere without anyones knowledge. the perfect energy source, built 20 years prior. Back to the too cheap to meter electricity cough Ontario scam. Talk about more excitement regarding Nuclear after world events in 1973. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1973_oil_crisis
The 1973 oil crisis began in October 1973 when the members of the Organization of Arab Petroleum Exporting Countries proclaimed an oil embargo. The embargo was targeted at nations perceived as supporting Israel during the Yom Kippur War.[1] The initial nations targeted were Canada, Japan, the Netherlands, the United Kingdom and the United States with the embargo also later extended to Portugal, Rhodesia and South Africa. By the end of the embargo in March 1974,[2] the price of oil had risen nearly 300%, from US$3 per barrel to nearly $12 globally; US prices were significantly higher. The embargo caused an oil crisis, or “shock”, with many short- and long-term effects on global politics and the global economy.[3] It was later called the “first oil shock”, followed by the 1979 oil crisis, termed the “second oil shock”.

This how the Embargoes goes. Figthing a war, friend of your enemy cant have gas or toilet paper in Cubas case. Pawns getting punished in chess. Now evben pawns are combatants. In a word its attrition. So I can see the point of the USA wanting to be independent of that. Cut back on sales. Now its EV cars. Nuclear revolution. * 1974 43 total plants in USA, 104 on the way. Metropolitan edison company, were the managers. Founded 1917 still exists. Im sorry after meltdown failure, should probably be bankrupt. Consequences to nuclear market. Company went through great lengths to tell nearby residents the tech was safe. As a viewer just interesting to see these sights before I was born. There will never be an accident. because backups and backups.
Accidently still happening. None of instruments, measured the coolant in reactor. Going solid with water filling he reactor, no where to go. Lots of false indication .
5 am day one. Control room filling with workers now. After a while the workers start doubting the readings theyre getting on the panels. Ok another critical error, the turn off the reactor pumps to prevent it from going solid. It was a mistake but they were fooled by the readings and doing theyre best. Ok the reactor melting creating that corium nuclear metal lava burning through containments and earth. Just learning about what type of containment can hold corium.
https://www.osti.gov/biblio/1573134-new-method-contain-molten-corium-catastrophic-nuclear-reactor-accidents
China sydrome where the nuclear waste all the way to china cant stop it.
As operator not knowing whats happening.
Valve open 2 hours, quarte or a million pounds of coolant escaped and evaporated. No one before had ever been in situation before. New alarm radiation in contgrol room. That aint good. General emergency. Everything is under control lol. Doesnt sound like it.
10:17 am.
Press and genie outta the bottle radiation.
Met ed deceptive. –
I cant believe these fuckers, theyre liek we dont have to tell you everything were doing as the reporters taking in radiation.
15 hours later restart pumps.
Ok finally they say get water in those pumps, cool that reactor. Mega consequences with mistakes in the machine era.

March 28th 28 hrs later.
Some one has to go get a sample to measure the radioactivity in the water. No one wants to, Itds important so they can see if the chain reaction will start again. Because of some leaking by the rods area, now there radioactivity in the water. The chain reaction issue. Foreman Ed Howser.
https://www.nytimes.com/1979/04/04/archives/radiation-overdose-all-in-a-days-work-feels-a-little-tired.html

No Body Contamination

Mr. Houser said that he had been assured by various metering systems that there was no contamination of his body. He wonders what the effect of his exposure to radiation might be in 20 or 30 years, but he insists that he is “not really concerned.”

Since the accident, he has given a lot of thought to the nuclear power pro. gram and has lost no faith. “I believe in nuclear power 100 percent,” he said. He has faith in the Metropolitan Edison Company, in the Nuclear Regulatory Commission, in the people who work with him, in the regulations that say four rem is a dose of radiation he can live with.

His only concern at the moment, he said, is that the names of his two children should appear in print. His Baughter, Renee, is 4 years old. His son, Steve, turned 10 this last Saturday, celebrating his birthday on the last day of the first quarter of the calendar year.

wow.
Damn, so this guys sees the rems bouncing off the dosimeter, checking the coolant supposed to be clear instead the beaker is yellow fizzing and vibrating in his hands. They reeally knew they had issues.
Civilians get no messages. Haunting.
Vent gas into atmosphere.
Atomic commission in washington, theyre like we feel like 2 blind men making decsions in the dark, the truth of the reactor was still in a dangerous positions and still very much a threat. Its like people making critical decisions based on lack of info, misleading info, no info. Thats scary.
Evacuate or not.
March 30. Day 3.
NRC.
Leave 5 mile radius.
Well I found some cheap houses. Rigth next to reactor. Seems like you can get some Ok value for your dollar. In Ontario, next to our reactor, prices are astronomical.
Wow just hearing this guy talk about the panic in town and going to the school to pick up your kid. Is pretty scary. All the price of energy. Goldsboro abandoned. One house TV was still one, just up and left. The origional Black friday.

Fades into the public trust of TMI, lost very quickly. The radiation spiolling into the Teenage mutant ninja turtles, a childhood fave.
Day 4.
The press asking querstions about their own safety and whether they should report or run. No authority they could trust sense. Flying blind. Damn. the president is concerned hes a trained engineer. Ex president Jimmy Carter, whoa hes a Navy veteran nuclear submarine program. Thats amazing. He takes contreol of the situation and has a person on the ground reporting directly to him. Harold Denton, and Jimmy carter. The mood starts to change. NRC.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Harold_Denton
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jimmy_Carter
Harry Denton, resaasuring public figure with the accurate info.
The hydrogen pressure might burst the top.
The president on his way.
Wasnt safe for the president but he went anyways. The president a nuclear engineer im sorry thats freakin amazing!
April 1
Day 5 president landing in. They get to work right away on the Hydrogen dispute. The presidential car litterally driving across the tracks towards the reactor. Tours the plant.
Restore public confidence. So he and his wife are seen in the control room.
Meanwhile another very important meeting happening with some chemical calculations. In office trailer. They calculate find the error. They do have days to hours,days maybe weeks before the hydrogen bubble would burst.
The plan; the hydrogen can be released gradually, the reactor can be slowly shut down.
No one died.
Talking about machines changes of state, (the most likely time for accident)
OK moves to talking about Chernobyl.
This one the top blows.. Not gonna comment on it. thee test experiment, and the xenon poisonings.
The narator talking about blowing the lid off the containment building I dont think Chernobyl had the conatinment hence the sarcophagus afterwards.And thewe corium photo that cost that guy his life. If your a reactor operator you might be called for a heroic one time task. Some heroics from those people. RIP. Another ghost town. Never farm again. coulda happened at TMI.
Some scary statistics.
The buildings still there. The aftermath. Most radiation contained only partial meltdown. Changes in the NRC. tour of the new site and changes they made since TMI.
Wow and the cooling towers remain like a battlefield monument. I would visit that site, and especially if you are to study nuclear power. and wisdom and knowledge are diffferent.
Unit 1 still generating power. Lots of people moved away.

Wow that was amazing video.
Now
___
watching ‘the prof’ Illinois energy prof best youtube channel. https://youtu.be/kb75NS3vBB0
Its a geographic advantages place for a plant.
Importance of the turning point for nuclear power usa.
The plant itself, almost new, started 20 years prior no. Anything 20 years old fairly new no. Id say.
Commercial failure too. thats important. cost 4 bil to make.
My opinion again its like the finance world is broken with nuclear. I cant predict the next nuclear catastrophe. 2 extremes, “even good shit fails sometimes” plane crashes. The right to repair type shit, as in sometimes your cellphone laptops fail. Then its like household kitchen things quality diminishing compared to the 50’s like garlic cheese grater things. Also tech evolves. Nasa on the moon with nuclear things before this. So the engineering improves, im actually pretty pleased the amount of cool things learning second time through. Its liek any number of things between the engineer specs to the operation could cause catastrophic problems.
The prof; yes its a economic failure that one, so 4bn not paid yet to build, asset to -1 billion.
Talking about thte building and containment.
Defense in depth. Its like a engineering work of art masterpiece, especially if it works then. The rods melting, the vessel melting, hence meltdown. TMI is gen 2. some water over the reactor even when off.
How ?
Signing off on 1.routine maintenance. Its like yea looks good. Why bother oiling thing etc its brand new lol.
Watergun pump hammer demo; the pump breaks, thats awesome.
2. Back up pumps. TMI the valves were shut on the backup pumps, “someone” thats unfortunate.
TMI no water in reactor. Pressure ^
Pressure too high 3.relief valve. Auto shut off.
4. SCRAM acronym Safety control Rod Ax Man “Activation Mechanism”
Referring the Chicago stadium Fermi and the chain reaction. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Enrico_Fermi
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chicago_Pile-1 There you have it the ax man, to cut a manilla rope into the reaction to stop it.
Cadmium nitrate (concentrate) to pour over incase of emergency 49 Scientists present.
The Chianti fiasco all signed by the participants. Could you imagine wine at school. After some nuclear testing lol.
Norman Hillberry the original Ax man. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Norman_Hilberry
And another name coming up its Arthur Compton. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Arthur_Compton
Could do an entire Chicago Tour of these places.
.After the war, Compton became Chancellor of Washington University in St. Louis. During his tenure, the university formally desegregated its undergraduate divisions, named its first female full professor, and enrolled a record number of students after wartime veterans returned to the United States.

Some fascinating people.
Compton told Conant. (James B Conant.) https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/James_B._Conant Acid base chemistry guy. Scientific method and just some of the nuclear world legends, and most qualified people.
Gen 3 all good convection.
Gen II no. Reactor scram, going from 3000MW to 60MW again with the stuck relief valve sending wrong signal.
5.ECCS
Emergency core coolant system
2 min into accident. Water to reactor. They turn off the ECCS, indication that relief valve is closed. Why pump water in
8 mins open back up pump. tHink theyre in good shape.
They didnt know relief valve was stuck open. Cue coffee scene.
1hr 40 min later. Water running out, heat and hydrogen gas type explosions could occur. because the water running out, its gonna get dry hot melt.

___
Next video these are mega informative, and a little self research.
Im gonna watch a few more about specific things. This ends up being a .doc I could use several times.
Nuclear for tyros; which is alot less crazy than it sounds. Kinda funny.
More TMI end. https://youtu.be/AALvz5RBEZM
So yes I know a bit of what happened near the end already from the history doc but I wanna hear the Profs synopsis.
Its the tank that they thought was closed was actually still open, now overflowing.
The cold water they turn back on cracks the fuel rods.

#6. Rod crack containment.
And the fraction of gas released dillution was no major disaster.

Next vid, Radiation doses https://youtu.be/niFizj29h5c
Neat size charts comparing the actual dose its helpful to get an idea of the known guidelines. LD 50-30 50% of population die within 30 days. at the bottom of the chart
Data supports the threshold dosage.
Story about radium girls and xray skin decay from the 1920s , background radiation.
___
Gotta queue up the what we learned, https://youtu.be/d0SCf0rxX4E
____
MArch 12 2021
Its been 10 years plus a day sine Fukushima.
I have sweet thesis I got. Its about the psychohistory , and nucleics. since Psychohistory is sci-fi, but the problems to nuclear are human made, trust physics not humans.
Just gotta put that one together better. In a way that suits the content.

Ok back to the video.
Engineer on site all the time.
Simulators.
Proof positive diagnostic.
Simplification.
They did it to the air industry.

Gen 3, passive safety.
Convection of air.
Dont need the constant water.
Even without electricity can cool reactor.
___
Types of reactor and the gen IV
More after math
Ah yes had queue, so figure do as much nuclear now, next time got to revisit ill have something.

Ok learning about energy the process of re arranging bonds into a more stable state. https://youtu.be/Imy9hB36wLI
1- H2+O2->H2O
1.1 need to balance; 2H2+O2–> 2H2O
2. H-H H-H , O=O
2.1 after spark.
2.2 H2O H2O

another ex.
CH4+2O2 –> CO2 + 2H2O

Nuclear bonds,
Hydrogen, 1 proton 1 electron,
heavy water, deuterium, 1 proton 1 neutron, still heavier. isotopes/
Tritium 1 proton, 2 neutrons
wow combining D + T with alot of energy would make Helium isotope: He^4 + an extra neutron.
Makes the helium, 2 proton 2 neutron and one extra neutron bouncing off
rearrange the bonds, the helium tremendously more stable then the D or T
Sun; making helium of hydrogen. rearrangements.
Sun is a nuclear furnace. Heat is a result, also that magnetic force.

Nellis solar power plant generaters 25% power to base from wiki
Cresent dunes different tech. “solar thermal” like a 5 year failure that one still interesting.

Sun -> food lol.
photosynthis, to other things, using energy from sun. biomass

sun drive winds.

Hydro power, rain from sun. https://youtu.be/ZN5co3CrJao
___
More basics, I enjoy these videos. Bay of Fundy and some tidal forces.
Neat, this place in France that generates electricity with tide its called.
https://www.edf.fr/en/the-edf-group/industrial-provider/renewable-energies/marine-energy/tidal-power
Thats amazing, and clever. Its called Rance tidal power

Cool the binding chart, most stable is Iron and nickel fusion goes up
fission goes left.
how to get lighter elements big bang.
elements spin out, you get a solar system. Progression to the most stable elements
geothermal, Old faithfull.

_Energy from chemistry https://youtu.be/yFMEtL6qLVk
Alcohol burns to make new substances.
Then, 1 calorie brings 1 gram of water up 1 degree.
Big mac 650 cals. different kind. Kcal. 1000 chem calories = 1 food calorie.
1 cal 4.1868 J

balancing the methanol.
chart with numbers, Enthalpies
He added a + 1/2 O2 when balancing lol.
Solving it for the amount of energy used in reaction. 161.6kcal = q

_Fireworks
exploding bamboo in fires leads to fireworks
guano
with color metals

_ Nuclear fission https://youtu.be/CxCT9z5jkzA
Taking uranium and making it to more stable to Iron. releasing energy.

Thats the D+T makes helium + free neutron. , thats fusion
The well technique. Use the nucleus binding energy per nucleon.
differences between nuclear, and chemical energy. different units.
factor labor.
Theres a calc to compare em.
2 million x more powerfull
___

OK cool new day.
Just some of that quick review that table.
Average binding energy per nucleon.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nuclear_binding_energy
The table midway down there.
Fusion goes up, fission goes back.
Learning about some reaction chemical vs nuclear in Kilocalories.
_
The amount you can learn from nuclear bonds.
Moving along This be some learning slash entertainment.
Learning about sound bells especially. Bells on campus thats interesting. Bell making jobs lol. The bell song player thats cool.

_ Measure up
BTU, British Thermal Unit. 1 pound of water up 1 degree F. Then Calorie, 1 gram of water up 1 degree Celsius, food cals are Kcals.
Joule. standard 1 cal = 4.1868 Joules.
‘1 quad’ is 10^15 BTU
Electron volt. 1.6x 10^-19 Joules = 1 eV
Get ur numbers from the Enthalpies of formation at 25C . Put a number on the ‘stability’ https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Standard_enthalpy_of_formation
Is basically what Im seeing. THe well technique You got a well and the amount of energy its gonna take to get the men (*electrons) out of the well. Methanol burning.
Then the 100 proof was a nice touch.

_How is it used
Buildings, industry , transport
Thats a punchline, you heat things up or you spin it in a circle.
variable sped drive Usefull invention back in the day. I wanna learn quick about that.
Just finding ways to save energy.
Coal gas Nuclear hydro(6.5) wind 4.2 solar a couple tenths of percent.
30s great depression 70’s quadrupule oil prices, oil becoming more valuable political instability. That was in the Three mile doc.
China energy use going up in the 2000s.
_
E=MC^2 description change in mass. talking about the mass difference from beginning to end with deuterium and tritium , very small mass difference. final results you get in Electron volts thats the energy you get using E=MC^2 “disappearing mass”

_
Energy around the world

Power = Energy/time Horsepower man power. Firecracker more power.
match vs firecracker about the same energy
Joule is more common.
quad quadrillion BTU billion million.
//
dont confuse energy with power,
dynamite vs piece of wood vs loaf of bread.
Dynamitee is more power but bread or wood has twice the energy.
BTU usage.
Usa been using about same energy all the time suggesting more efficient use vs world increase, alot more energy for that standard of living. Slope increase Increased standard of living in China with that increased energy is good.
Energy use per person is maybe misleading says the prof. Its Canada with the most energy usage cold. GDP per energy use. Efficiency. Europe more efficient growing less. its a 2012 world consumption use graph im looking at.

_ where does it come from
Its all about being efficient, and improving that as a science.
Brazil Canada Germany all similar energy use.
Nuclear brings more than solar, and wind.
That solar base migth be most efficient solar thing unless its some nasa on mars panels.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Geysers
They Geysers thats pretty cool.
Whoa, so shooting water in the crevices’ was known to cause some seismic activity.
oil, Nat gas, coal, nuclear

_voice change sound proofing
Higher density of the air, is sound.
Math on music notes. octaves. can divide em out
_2 sound proofing
sounds just like a airgun.
sound barrier, oh yea the compressional waves.
Decibels calculations, logs.
A sound with 160 dB vs 150 dB 10x less power.
130dB about 1000x less power
Dazn boxing happening now I been watchin been aight.. Kyoguchi Aragon, Juan Francisco after.
Sound proofing. Sand walls in this building im seeing.
Recording room to control the outside noise.
Earth quietest place. interesting link for another day https://www.uwo.ca/nca/research/facilities/index.html
Anyways its all in R&d the material and the angle.

_what goes up.
helium goes mega fast during reaction thats where that energy goes.
Kinetic energy calc (1/2)mv^2
potential energy
pendulum
rube goldberg device machine kinetic energy

_ whats temp
Motion of molecules on average is temperature.
on average
absolute zero; no motion.
speed of molecules moving in a room calculation v = 510 m/s
lol, this isnt the speed of ‘wind’ its the molecules, a 510 meters per second wind would destroy everything. For whatever reason I find that super humorous.
differences in f (c and k) k just starts at abs 0.
Another one he got me, toucj wood vs metal in the same room youve been sitting in, body warmer than objects. metal more efficient conductor.
Put your hands in a pouch of diamonds feels like ice, cause its conducting the heat away, not electric conductor though. Interesting
Water vs air heat transfer.
Conduction thats touching.
Convection transfer of heat + motion. (hot air balloon)
Radiation, the light that bright fire light wave radiant heat.
3 ways heat is transfered motion of molecules

_Sound getting rid of it.
sounds reflectors sound barriers, Sound absorbtion turning into a little bit of heat.
Noise cancelling headphone summing cancelling out. the opposite sound. creates anti noise. thats sweet lol battery powered ear defenders..

_ Liquid nitrogen.
Thats awesome some liquid nitrogen demos, illustrating the effect on usually soft flexible items like rubber gloves or the rose and theey shatter at low temp.
Wow the baloon, sweet thats a amazing display of Gay-Lussac law, the balloon shrinks in size completely once exposed to the liquid nitrogen.
Amonton’s Law states that the pressure of an ideal gas varies directly with the absolute temperature when the volume of the sample is held constant. P1/T1 = P2/T2 or P/T = k, where k = nR/V.
Another cool link another university youtube Ivee watched recently, this comes from univ Oregon https://chemdemos.uoregon.edu/demos/Amontons-Law#

_ heat engines,
piston on a air cylinder.
auto close to 1/6 efffiency
The mosty efficient
Nicolas Leonard Sadi Carnot 1796-1832 https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nicolas_L%C3%A9onard_Sadi_Carnot
Some of his work helped define entropy.
Oh this guy was taught by Joseph Louis Gay-Lussac, he wrote a book.
Asimov (1982) came up neat.
you dont want the engine to melt
How well did you take the energy to do the work; efficiency.

Airports_
This one CMI
checking some equipment cool. Fun extra curricular thing. So this university has own airport.
All the specs of a state of the art airport fire truck.
commenting on how safe flying is, I guess compared to my opinion statement while back.

Cars_
just some cool animations and definitions.
Miles per gallon is definitely something.
oil lubricant cool protect.
seized engine.

Diesel_
rudolph diesel
compresion ratio.
Diesel added in after the air compressed.

new day ___ hybrids
Just did daylight savings wtf. I hate that.
Oil for cars.
Ok hybrids, gas motors doesn’t spin the wheels it charges it up battery.

_Octane other numbers at the pump.
Iso octane
Most stable ways to put 8 carbons together.
Octane has to do with % compression not blowing up spontaneously

_ Electricity what how.
Its the movement of electrons pretty much.
DC one direction
Alt both directions. AC
The jacobs ladder example.
Paper and holes, wow.

The Jacob’s Ladder is a high voltage climbing arc


Watching the spark travel upwards, then with a fold of paper between you can see the spots the electron travelled through the paper amazing.
Steam generator and the rotors.
Generator; is where the magic happens.
Operatees on the principle that the force on a electron, perpendicular both to direction of motion, and to the direction of magnetic field.
Need magnetic field.
Down or upstroke changes the current. wrapping wire around lengthwise around an object rotated in the magnetic field.
More tech how to get that spinning into the wires, you need that spinning contact https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Faraday_disk_generator.jpg
Gen, turbine, condenser, pump, heat source.

_Smart grid.
USA power grid, the West, texas and the rest, trying to get grid on smart grid.
2003 one squirrel substation
https://www.washingtonpost.com/news/wonk/wp/2016/01/12/a-terrifying-and-hilarious-map-of-squirrel-attacks/
https://iclsystems.com/the-squirrel-in-the-substation/
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Electrical_disruptions_caused_by_squirrels
Largest power outage in recent memory. Self healing power grid. The blackouts.
Profs comment about seeing the data for the energy consumption in your house, kinda cool but useful data for the power company.
Auto repair. The power companies already know when ur having a outage. Some of the issues in our grid, the waves mismatched, gotta go back from AC-> DC then backt o AC and match so its a bit of an issue. Same phase. And, losing energy to radiation on long distance trip through wire. Lunch time.

_Electricity and the electric grid.
Mostly fossil fuels.
The power variation. discussion about solar and wind and the daily energy consumption.
Problems of not in phase. jump skip rope demo, 1 rope vs 2. lots of fossil fuel

_coal who has it wants it, and uses it.
Coal is most abundant fossil resource.
Largest land mass.
All these countries with top 10 coal reserves. These 10 countries have 90 % of the worlds coal.
Its a very unevenly distrusted resource.
China uses most coal, 2012 you got some Russia using natural gas shows how little coal they use.
Strip mining.
Coal dust.
Haze.
Igcc.
So much coal, so dont destroy the farm to sell it.

_What is coal
That was good break. Baaaaack to it.
Most plentiful resource, industrial fuel.
Gas: 1-4 carbons in a chain.
Liquid 5-12 carbons
Tars 12+ carbon.
Hydro carbons.
The ‘muck in this lake’.
All graded by content.
Nitrogen and sulfur, components for some acid rain.
Water in coal.
remove the sulfur, nitrogen oxides.
Peat bog.
Dead plants, and animals.
decays and compresses.
peat.
https://www.britannica.com/technology/peat
peat fire.
Ireland dirt that burns.
Brown coal to anthracite
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Anthracite,_Alberta Thats when they discovered the hot springs.
Metallurgical coal for the crucibles.
Trains.
The smoke stack hitting the passengers covered in coal dust.
Graphite.
+ clay is pencil lead.
Then diamonds.
https://www.ghosttownpix.com/alberta/anthra.html
https://www.britannica.com/science/anthracite

_Shocks n Lighting
plasma ball
Wow 2 quarters you put one on top, and you make a capacitor.
Static hair when you’re going down a slide.
Hair gains a a charge, and repels itself.
Air breaks down at near 3000 volts per mm.
static or live wire shock.
Ionized charge super heated air, lighting.
Demonstration on realeasing a big charge 12000 + volts to a ground, making lighting.
Another demo of a soda can within a coil, and a discharge crushing the soda can.
Lightning.
Ice crystals go up, water goes down, you get a charge.
Bottom cloud is negative, top positive, makes it own electric field.
Cloud to cloud lightning.
stepped leader
gets the discharge closer to ground, that connects. like the electric pathway trying to find the ground.
You get a positive leader up from the ground.
tree water going thru it.
dont hide under tree.
ionized path all that charge released.

_ Whats up with the water. in a electric plant.
Taking water, you dont want buildup on the turbine.
Cooling towers nuclear.
Losing effiency power plant vs cars, and heat engines.

_ Up in smoke.
Fly ash.
electro static precipetator.
Metal sheets with a charge. Smoke gets a charge and sticks to metal.
Hammer hits the panel soot falls down into collector.
Now the sulfur.
Sulfur dioxide, turns into sulfur trioxide, SO3 sulphuric acid rain.
Dry acid precipitate, breath it in, making sulphuric acid in your lungs.
Morning dew burning the paint off the cars.
Scrubber to remove the sulfur.
CaCo3 + SO2 –> +CaSO4 +Co2
Gravel and limestone and the carbonate
GEtting rid of sulfur dioxide.
Gypsum.
Gas in contact with liquid.
separate out the precipates.

_The uni power plant.
The Abbott power plant.
100 trains.
10 trucks of coal per day.
Bring in the gravel.
the water.
they had coal, and then nat gas, then yea its cheaper them generating their own electricity.

_Burning coal through decades.
Its a combined plant, generates electricity and steam.
Basics of coal burning like the train and the soot covered passenegers.
Alotta air, its the air flow.
Walls made of pipes, water goes in steam comes out.
Air and conveyor.
With crushed coal make the cyclone burner.
Coal dust + air coming trhough a cone pipe.
Heavy parts fallsthough or spins though.
cyclone makes more sulfur tri.

_ combined cycle.
Ok simply instead of using just the gas on the turbine you also use the steam by product
https://youtu.be/MgdAxU7Xtto 1:12
Couldn’t find a good pic of that. so theres the link.
Nat gas 40% efficiency
Coal to gas, for the purpose of the combined cycle.
How to do that add steam to the coal, or make it wet, cause that will make flammable gasses.
C+H2O –> H2+ CO
How gas can e turned into liquid fuels with the Fiscer Tropsch process
SASOL plant
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Coal_liquefaction
That plant largest emiter of fossil fuel unless this other plant starts up. reading on the wiki,.
From a chemistry point of view liquifying coal.
Natural gas better.

_who produces who consumes nat gas.
Liquified nat gas, cost money.
pipeline
Canada produce more than consumes. Same with Qatar.
1/3 produced from hydraulic fracking.
Nat gas burns completely.

_ Lasers
Electrical signal.
motor, on a hairspring.
change the reflection.
change the landing reflection. dual mirrors.

_ Solar cells magic.
Semiconductor silicon.
Silicon lattice structure.
Something with light makes electricity in the lattice.
doping 1/10000
using the light.
n-type
intrinsic Si
diffusion.
electric field.
electron diffusion,
depletion region
Photon makes a bond, ntype. delpeted zone,
ooh electron feeels a force this way, the ion feeels attraction the other way., movement of charge is electricity.
(put the phosphorus on top of silica.
wow spinning fan demo from a ligth bulb.
Actual solar cell picture and description.
Carizo plain and Topaz solar farm, can see from space.

_New day Already pissed off at the teacher. Youre the reason Im fuckin mad already. Its like good fucking grief Why the fuck do you think I asked on the 10th!

Back to the ‘real’ Chem class.

_ Biofuels biomass
making fuel from Corn, add yeast.
Alcohol actually kills yeast.
Alcohol boils lower. So use your flask and coil, boils off only the alcohol.
The first vapor that comes out alcohol.
wood alcohol makes you go blind.
twice distilled 95% alcohol everclear.
Not good enough for car, still has that 5% water.
Last steps to dry out the water chemical process for the removal of the water for biofuel.
Gasohol.

_ Hydraulic fracturing Fracking
Tremendous extra amount of resources.
Trying to get methane.
Methane most friendly environment fossil gas.
Price is cheaper supply is more.
Baby ultrasound, and fracking things in common.
To position the drill precisely.
Gas is found in porous rocks. Sometimes not pourous, like shale
Getting more out of your hole.
ok I see the gist of it, its a L shaped drill hole following alog the methane layer.
Yea probably pump in the fracking fluid, the gas comes out.
Surface run off and the drinking water.
Casing and protection for the surface water.
Demo of a firecracker under 2 steel plates.
Miny explosions in the pipe.
Next put the water and sand and pressure down hole.
Hydraulic fracture.
So the sand props those fissures open and the gas and fluid is pumped back out.
8 empire state buildings deep.

_Salt ponds
Hmm learning something new solar pond.
Pond.
Liner black.
Salt water.
Super saturated salt water.
Hot water rises.
Cooler salt chunks fall to bottom with convection.
Gradually start pouring in freshwater.
Make a gradient layer freshwater on top of salt.
No convection in the gradient.
Almost boiling hot.
Run a pipe through the salt area.
Cold in hot out.
Dont mix the layers.
Dont get cloudy water.
Every year or so drain and reestablish.

_Fracking, and environment myth and reality. Gotta do math class [x]
Fracking fluid, water sand.
Emulsions in the water.
ok solution, 90% water, 9.5 % sand
0.5 %
Salt
You dont want to drink this fluid.
3 mil gallons of water to frack one well.
Its a small percentage of water all the wells.
Some places are really scarce for water, so when they bring in those resources theyre like oh you cant use that water for that could go to our crops.
Reusing fracking water.
pollution from fracking originally.
If one were to dump the water into the stream or spray on the ground.
The waste water occurrences are rare now, investigated fined shut down.
Not at the peak when fracking started.
Economics drives the new innovations.
Dont drink water that catches fire. Thanks prof lol
Has nothing to do with fracking.
Methanee in the water, one student says oh yea my water is on fire all the time. lol
Texas and pensylvania leaders in gross withdrawls from shale wells
https://www.eia.gov/tools/faqs/faq.php?id=46&t=8 Is a updated link.
Prof suggests that the explosion’s causes more seismic tremor in between fracs.
Suggests its good to have mini earthquakes instead the big release of pressure.
https://www.sciencedirect.com/topics/earth-and-planetary-sciences/microearthquake
More energy better specially for the billions in the underdeveloped world , more refrigeration more safe clean reliable electricity. Higher standard of life, more productive, more opportunity to feed their families. Nuclear and solar research can provide new sources, but fossil fuels dominate.
Try to make them available inexpensive and clean. Nat gas produces less CO2 than any other fossil fuel.
Inspections are the way and doing it properly the first time.

_Passive solar
solar thermal
Magnifying glass and fire.
Molten salt.
Run water through that you get steam.
Design a house to use the solar better.
Use the sun to stay warm.
If you live northern hemisphere have it face south.
The ratio for window and facing south and the overhang.
Cause the winter time, you want the sun to shine in the house.
Summer time you want that overhang to stay cool.
south side window.
called a trombe wall.
Absorbs during day, warms at night.
Solar water heaters.
Heating pool with solar.
solar cooking.
Solar roast lol.

_Theres always a cost// The madness continues!
Its wind power.
Starts with economics.
So ive heard Casper “landfill,” those photos are pretty bad its, dirt getting piled up on thousands of blades.
So some capital analysis.
The windmills supposed to be cheap to make.
Creating 1MW megawatt, 1 million watt
Ask for a bank loan, interest and payback, 30 yrs for the example.
5% interest on 1.2 million , 60000 $ payments
Property owner rent 8k
Maintenance, 5k.
Sum 73k each year to run the windmill.
Wind is variable
Power = k (speed)^3
Ok hes saying 25% efficiency.
Hours in a year calc.
Need a utility delivery company.
73k to run it, yearly, 77 k electricity sold if everything goes right. So thats a 4k profit per year.
Theres a USA government producer bonus, would add up to like an extra 0.022/ Kwhr, extra 49k.
It would be nice if the government took on all that risk. and the whopping 4k profits lol.
End of 2014 those tax credits were removed.(producer price bonus)
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wind_power_in_the_United_States
Each time Congress has allowed the production tax credit to expire, wind power development has slowed as investors wait for the credit to be restored. Each year it is renewed, development has expanded. The tax credit expired at the end of 2012, bringing wind power development activity to a near halt. A short term, one-year policy was enacted at the beginning of 2013 which provides a tax credit to projects under construction by the end of 2013 and completed before the end of 2014.[90] The PTC was first introduced in 1992.[91] When it was allowed to expire, development dropped 93%, 73%, and 77% the following year.

So without government subsidy the things would take 300 years to pay off. And they typically last 10-20. Prices drived down by competition.
Depending on the price of energy maybe make some more profit.

_ Blowing in the wind
Winds come from uneven solar on the earth.
Also rotation.
The wind on the surface laggin behind the rotation.
How wind would be if earth was cylinder.
Equator wind from east to west.
https://www.weather.gov/source/zhu/ZHU_Training_Page/winds/Wx_Terms/Flight_Environment.htm
Hell yea sweet link
https://earth.nullschool.net/#current/wind/surface/level/orthographic=-100.87,38.25,872
Windiest spot by San Fran.
Polar easterlies and westerlies.
Rotating windmills makes it so direction doesnt matter.
Power= (constant)(speed of wind)^3
5^3 vs 10^3
Ok cool i found some
California ridge energy center Il.
https://invenergy.com/news/invenergy-announces-commercial-operations-of-california-ridge-wind-project-in-illinois
Just looking on the google earth and taking advantage of that windy place.

_ Cost of sunshine.
Economics of the solar panels.
phosphorus on the silacate.
Amount of sun in vs energy coming out.
Holy the amount of styles of solar cells, from 1% efficiency to 46% many producers, Boeing, spire, soltec, spectro lab.
World record cells.
Midrange 20% pretty good.
More innovations by the years cheaper
$ per peak what
Duration of the solar cell panel.
How long is the guarantee waranty. 20 years.
Nice conversion calc on the video, 20 years service into $/kw per hour.
Cheapest places in USA for solar power.
Inverter.
Building types, and building code Usa Vs Germany
Basically in USA custom solar all custom more expensive.
Germany every installation the same, much faster less labor costs.

_ Growing stuff to burn
Heating your home, with wood.
Thats not the 2%, energy thats biomass, and wood remnants.
Paper
Black liquor, from paper.
Back to corn, the combine.
Growing some intentional grasses for biomass.
This particular grass http://www.invadingspecies.com/miscanthus/
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Miscanthus_x_giganteus
Yum salad.
Cellulose.
Miscanthus. cool a miscanthus bale house https://cat.org.uk/worlds-first-miscanthus-bale-house/
twice as much mass as coal.
treating biomass for different products.
Same process with corn sugar for the ethanol.

_Fuel cells Hydrogen Economy Its still wind power
20 yrs ago, hydrogen stations. Only waste was water.
Hydrogen doesnt just come outta ground gotta make it from water, and energy.
Cars that use fuel cells.
Simplest fuel cell is the permeable membrane fuel cell.
Coated with a catalyst Pd element.
Hydrogen H2, goig thru palladium 46 H2. 2H+ O reconstituting water.
Ok then as the ion goes thru the electron is captured and you get some energy as hydrogens forced through.
Watching a deme battery burning hydrogen.
the Palladium is important, its really transparent to hydrogen. can move freely.
Hydrogen walks through palladium.
One side, only hydrogen one side only air.
Splits it, the electron goes to electricity, the other side, just making water on the other side.
Electron recconects after the electrical current.
He says imagine using nat gas instead of hydrogen.
CH4 methane; solid oxide fuel cell.
Take the methan add heat you break the bondds get a carbon and 4 H’s
Adding oxygen.
CH4+O2 -> CO2+ 2H2O
Mentions the combined.
This fuel cell, no moving parts 50% efficiency.
Bloom energy. w/ nat gas.
https://www.bloomenergy.com/how-fuel-cells-work
Energy servers at ebay.

_Windmills How things work.
Demo about midwest underground technology turbines, underground power.
The base of the tower is a important factor of construction.
Whoa talk about cranes. (https://youtu.be/1AvIhZAqYcE)
One commenter: I wish this amount of effort on nuclear.
Anyways neat to see the construction foundation.
In September 2019, Northern Power Systems, Inc (NPS, Inc.) ceased commercial operations in the US…
Anyways seeing inside standing inside gotta be able to get up there to hook up the wires. The numbers arent as good.
Windmill blades be spinnning.

_Whats in windmill
Bernoullis Principle.
Pressure+ (1/2) (density of a fluid(air)) (speed)^2= constant
Thats a good one; Your in a shower, the shower curtain sucks in, because of bernoulis, cause the air gets pushed as the water comes out of the shower. lower pressure with the shower curtain.
Then a plane, and wing cross section.
Since the top surface of an airfoil is curved upwards, the air has to travel a longer distance in the same time as it travels over the wing than beneath it – so the speed has to increase and there is a decrease in pressure above the wing and that causes lift.
Flow direction gets you perpendicular lift.
Not the whole story physics are more complicated.
Change the angle of attack.
Make that the blade of the windmill.
Surface area.
In a circle the radius is gonna determine the power Pie*(r)^2 bigger the area on that blade rotation equivalent to the power.
(The speed)^3 again. in a power equation.
So the speed another huge part of that.
Maintenance im thinking again watching the insides of this.
Going up to each level tightening bolts.
Wow the inside parts of windmill super interesting lots more going on than I thought in that top part.
High speed low torque. 150 mph high fast blades.
Farm windmills Low speed high torque pump water.
Also amazing is the tech to build those structures at sea at different depths.
https://www.energy.gov/eere/wind/articles/top-10-things-you-didn-t-know-about-offshore-wind-energy
https://www.bbc.com/future/article/20201013-is-wind-powers-future-in-deep-water

_How ice rinks work
Dipole moment with the 2 hydrogens 1 oxygen, water expands when freezes.
The crystal structure water makes more space between the molecules than when frozen.
Inside the crystal all polar bonds. +/- on the outside the nano layer, where the crystal ends the molecules just float on top of that lattice structure not connected state.
Really cold ice not as slippery.
Zamboni shaves ice off, and replaces it with water. The coolant system.
Procedure for creating ice rink, graphics etc.
Frank Zamboni inventor of some cool machines.
How zamboni works.

_ Economics of biofuel.
Choices driven by economics.
25kg of corn make 2.7 gallons 100% percent ethanol.
Distill energy cost to boil water alcohol.
Interest loan for a factory for the ethanol.
Labor.
Other chemicals.
Sell the by-products.
Gas prices USA that ethanol looking pretty cheap.
Gasohol. More effective boost the energy content in your fuel.
Extra oxygen so the emissions aree water.
Extra oxygen molecule is the ethanol
Sugar cane cheaper usually, soybean and corn.
Waste oils in fryers for some biofuels.
70% of same miles before you have to refuel.
On the coast its cheaper by the refinery the gasoline cheaper. (should be) looking at vancouver.

_ What goes in Biofuel.
Biological systems.
More ethanol
most US fuels have the 10% blend
https://www.eia.gov/todayinenergy/detail.php?id=26092
Oh yea the E10 E15 gasolines.
Pure ethanol get you like 70% of the miles before you have to refuel opposed to the gasohol.
Food energy vs securities.
Diesel. Biodiesel
Corn, cant live off corn alone.
Soy bean better more nutritious.
Soybean oil with the cold press of the soybeans.
Strain your oil if you got it out of a fryer.
Watching a demo on soybean oil
pottasium hydroxide, (lye) to the oil. depending on the PH.
biodiesel calculator.
add the lye to oil. adjust the pg to just the rights amount.
Next Methyl alcohol. CH3OH (dont drink ..lol) making fuel for trucks, not distilling drinks lol
Soybean oil+ lye + heat + Methyl alcohol(add slow), exothermic reaction.
methanol
2 products; first diesel fuel second glycerin
Makes a 2 layer liquid.
Proper setup has a drain.
Top is diesel, bottom glycerin.
What is gasoline octane, C-C-C-C-C-C-C-C each of those branches Hydrogen bond.
C8H18
Diesel pretty stable, gasoline volatile
Diesels C10H22 or C12H26 heavier.
Ringed carbon molecules
Ok 6 carbons in a ring, each other is a double bond Adding some Methyl(CH3)’s to the outside ring xylene https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Xylene
Coke fuel coal.
Just many uses and desirable, did I see polyester uses.

_How beer is made
starch to sugar, enzyme reaction.
using the cusp later to filter.
soaks in hoty water seperates, just take the liquid sugary.
add hops. hydrocarbons breakk down makes complex beers.
the wort cooled down, add yeast culture.
yeast busy converting sugars to ethanol and CO2
Withtout the yeast youd just have a sugary drink that ‘didnt do anything’
Grain and water, the enzyme wash.
Then next step drain liquids, wort.
the solids have some nutritional value for pigs or cow mixed in with feed.
DDG
Boil add hops next
Next start cooling it next tank is a fermentation tank add yeast, has a venting valve to let the CO2 escape.
Its a V shaped cylindrical vessel. has a exhaust pipe at the top, hasa jacket with glycol and water, for heat transfer purposes.
Carbonation. cold room.
Make kegs.
The taxes.
Distilling in barrels that were on fire.
That was interesting.

I see the light at the end of the tunnel More nuclear stuff coming up then Ill be done this energy course can always refer back to this stockpile that ive learnt.
I justified the learning its exactly on the subject. I know some ethanol things not exactly in the project, Its important to me to have the general crash course Ive been lacking. So im taking this opportunity now. Heres some nuclear now.

_ Nuclear power and the future: how to be allowed to build.
USA power int he 60s starts ramping up almost exponentially.
73 79 oil prices gone up.
73 October Arab embargo.
79 Iran revolution shot up.
Many power plants pulled cause the need dissapated.
After TMI; there was a emphasis on more safety systems.
“EPA” birth in this era.
Also nuclear anti proliferation, and environmentalism.
Double digit interest rates of the 80s no new buildings.
Steps for a plant. Need a construction permit.
Environment Impact (2 sites) The EPA.
If its Nuclear. NRC gets involved too.
(at this point if your coal or nat gas start building.)
If your Nuclear run a preliminary safety analysis report.
Complete mega plan. And the the ASLB board.
Public hearings.
Long process, 1-2 years
if yes go ahead.
4 years construction.
During that time appeal process.
Appeal board
If they win appeal, stop constrcution.
Next is the actual safety analysis, says if you actually build it like you said.
NRC
ASLB Public hearings.
Virtually finished reactor without a license.
Can operate low power appeals still
Then can operate full power. all to say can take 8-10 years.
France does it in 4.
Standardized design.
The US process unique design the high interests.
In the 2000’s Renewal for licenses.
The industry and government in USA recognized it was kinda crazy process and with interest not helping, better process.
Founder of sierra club in favor on nuclear.
John Muir and preservation of Yosemite.
Description of the new methods, condenses it to like 5 year construction s1 single public hearing, after the environment after the safety.
Goes on to describe a power plant constructed within both processes.
Tennessee valley authority watts bar power plant unit 2
Dam, and nuclear power. Some nice spots

_ How things work grilling cooking
Nuclear fuel on the way out. ok gotta take a break.[x]
Lol. just having a moment, humans been cooking food since threes been humans.
Prof: “which makes sense cause, if you got a group eating raw everything they die off.”
70 c / 160 F
killing most bacteria. everything dead 212 F bacteria raw egg lol.
Love that Caesar salad dressing too.
Smoking salting descriptions.
Can of water in the meat smoker.
The Pit Barrel Junior Im hooked I want one for camping.
Over 160F to kill bacteria.
Carbs to sugars.
Caramelization from 110 C to 190 C or 230 F to 356F
Translates to good taste.
Sugar cube vs caramel
Too high temp becomes bitter then black.
Ok baking.
Holy crap my class is starting do class[ X]
I was at the baking.
Oh yea so the yeast in the bread eats the sugars makes carbs, and CO2.
Caramelization too, and the bubbles inside are the CO2.
Maillard reaction (complex reaction)
Proteins + carbohydrates heat em you get
Maillaird reaction chain, proteins to sugars more digestible.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Maillard_reaction Indeed complex.
egg goes liquid to solid.
When you cook the proteins falls apart usually.
The egg description is like opening a bunch of packages and those packages are able to connect as solid.
Cook anything enough returns to some elemental carbon.
___
Oooh I did class, alright light at the end of the tunnel lets go!

_ Nuclear fuel – on the way out After its all over Decommissioning.
Nuclear, operate it long enough inexpensive source of electricity.
Vessel is reactive.
At the end of the reactor life it must be decommissioned taken apart and burried as some low level waste.
Land reuse.
SaFstor
Decon
ISFSI Independent spent fuel storage Installation
License terminated.
Shippingport reactor, first commercial reactor in USA https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Shippingport_Atomic_Power_Station
closed in 1982, completely taken apart
Indian point , ended in 72 decomissioned.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Indian_Point_Energy_Center
Something about the decommissioning fund, every tenth of a penny of electricity sold every sale goes towards the decommissioning.
utilities do it. 300-400 million to take apart.
NRC monitors that, or adjustments could be made.
There was research reactor at University of Illinois. (1960)
Training research education general atomics reactor.
Looking at the water of ths particular reactor.
Decommission this reactor.
In this particular reactor there was some clause that the federal government would take the spent fuel.
Spent fuel rods are the high level waste.
https://distributedmuseum.illinois.edu/exhibit/triga-mark-ii-nuclear-reactor/
Prof talking about his experience with the dismantling.
Rubbling the concrete.
Takes several years.
Making the building a green field, has asbestos.
Asbestos problems.
No record the reactor was there.
Gets trucked away.
So in this case, it worked.
Decommissioning being paid for every watt you buy.
I guess the issue comes when something like TMI goes down.

_ Contaminated things low level waste. Nucelar fuel, out.
Just getting rid of ppe all in a barrel bury it.
Resin beads.
Attract the metal ions.
In a house you use salt crystal in a conditioning tank to soften water.
The water in a reactor dissolve small pieces of the metallic pipe, if that was to jam up a rotor with some hard water residue after time it could cause some problems.
Neutrons makes things radioactive.
Its just like the water softener for nuclear reactor, taking those ions now , the resin beads are low levels wastes.
How much is there.
Perspective.
Agriculture, makes waste 3000 million tons.
Mining/milling mill tailings, 2000 million tons.
Industry 400 million tons.
Municipal waste. 200 million
Utility coal to ash 100 millions
Radioactive waste( low level) high level is even less.
Radioactive 0.04 million tons.
Place em all in a barrells
Bury it.
4 sites.
No water in these areas.
Could be you need to store this at a water place.
Will have rain, clay barrier and roof.
slope and sod the roof.
Water run off.
Geiger counter is easy to use/measure.
easy to detect large amounts.
Next some medical radioisotopes half lifes betyween 2.6 mins (Iodine-131) to (90 years strontium) cobalt 60 mid-range 5.3 years) source this youtube video https://youtu.be/Ydj4k615wDg
Syringes.
I guess technically one day should be able to cycle it through reclaim that land if it doesnt seep in.

_ Moving waste around.
showing a truck cask for spent fuel
all these protective layers
Showing a rail cask for spent fuel.
Wow watching this vintage video its some testers testing out the design to make it safest.
Wow they crash the truck into a concrete wall with a rocket attached to it!
Wow they see theres no damage in/on the cask so they do it again at 80 mph.
lol, after that they hit it with a train. Rocket powered train colliding into the spent fuel casing.
Of course every test, Jet could crash in it, The fire could burn it.
Its the train cask in a pool of jetfuel.
Burn it for 1.5 hrs.
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Bu1YFshFuI4 train cask test 1978
Theres a 84 test but not as cool.
The present its safe.
Those were some cool engineered tests. Highlight of my day lol.

_ High level wastes
Nuclear breaking down uranium
92 heaviest naturally occurring element
U-238 isotope
U-235 fissile , it will fission with any energy neutron.
It splits conserving number of neutrons and protons.
Doesnt always go to the same thing.
goes towards middle left of staircase periodic table.
Distribution of fission products.
THose turn into radioactive elements, then into more stable elements.
Its a on going process.
Ok. So sometimes the U-238 is hit with a neutron and goes 92-Np or 94-P or 95-Am or 96-CM
How much material.
Reactor starts with
29 Ton U238
1 ton U235
After 3 years.
U235 goes to 0.35 ton
U238 28 1/2 tons left
+ 0.80 tons of fission products, mish mash of radioactive materials.
Next is Pu 0.23 tons of Pu , Pu239 is for weps , mostly another isotope.
Isotropic separation, and refining, but if you could do that, ‘youd’ be going for the fissionable stuff in the first place so the byproducts aint really what youre looking for to begin with.
Also included is 0.12 ton U236
0.1 ton NP
0.001 ton Am
0.004 ton Cm
whats left in a reactor ^ below the U235 and 0.80 is the bad stuff.
Fuel pellet, pin, rod
long halflifes.
spent fuel pool, for a few years.
Like Fukushima.
GEt rid of the typical container like the train casket.
Fill it up with grout. So if water his its.
1000 ft below surface.
1000 ft above water table. in a desert Yucca mountain nevada
https://youtu.be/H8_NwzRSOeU CBS vegas.
In Finland building a site to hold all the waste for 100 000 years.
https://www.iaea.org/newscenter/news/finlands-spent-fuel-repository-a-game-changer-for-the-nuclear-industry-director-general-grossi-says
Could send it to the sun lol.
Talking about the nuclear test site. The concerns of driving through town. Dry cask storage right there next to the reactor. Still got valuable isotopes in there to re-use.
Power since 58

_ Natural Nuclear Reactor
U235 Oklo
Whoa we think fermi is the first to create the first fission.
But this Oklo natural reactor. Today U-235=0.7% 0.7B years U-238= 99.3 $ 4.5 B years
2 billion years ago had ~3% at that spot and97% respecively.
3% important to have fission
Moderator to slow reaction down for sustained chain reaction.
Natural reator.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Natural_nuclear_fission_reactor
Learning, nature also has a reactor not just man.
Scientists looking for the fission products.
End of decay chain.
Unique isotopses.
These elements shouldnt exist in nature, unless this reaction happened.
Finding their distribution away from the spot they were created gives an idea waste migration over geologic timescales.
They didnt go far.
Okla west Africa.

Watching this Soyuz relocate maneuver live. Just confirmed the docking.
_ economics of reactor https://youtu.be/cbeJIwF1pVY
Nuclear fuel on the way in.
Nuclear competitor is the nat gas plant.
Comparing some prices, Im just listening. Maybe write down the final comparison.
AP1000 gen 3 reactor, 5 billion 6 years.
Nat gas plant numbers looking way better than nuclear. math class[X]
Profit line comparing the two.
The cost comparison, I can tell nuclear gonna cost more longer to build, after though can really sell the electricity.
Gas plant already built and accumulation of assets the
Year 13 on this display making finally making a unit, and paid off 6 billion in debt.
The nuclear up on +3 units per year, nat gas at +1 unit per year.
Year 18 Nuclear can surpass natural gas in profits.
Seems like a good idea to build the nuclear under alot of caveats.
Gotta watch out for the pass the buckers, the corner cutters.
The long potential for Nuclear is astounding.
“Many governments dont even look beyond the length of time that theyre in office”.
Gotta have that foresight.
Kinda likee the Vegas thing, at the same time its easy to be like no trains of nuclear stuff in my town, got to work around the public.
Make its own infrastructure I dont know. In the ocean, its more free for all. Or like whose gonna stop you.
And the cities and town. Anyways store the shit but not in my town right. The difference here is theyre trying to take the mountain away, and there its a nuclear test range. Its opposite.

_ football stadium.
Nice the Illinois field, 120 mil expansion for a place thats used 6x a year lol. Not tax funded.
Weddings.
Nice spot for reception lol. Premium seats can drink others no.
Private booths.
Talking about a company thats in tune with the town can use this area to meet people business, network.
Named after ww1 veterans on the columns.
lol state law changed for when the NFL bears came to town cause they were having a remodel.
When Americans want football on the weekend.

_ depleted uranium video.
Whats leftover from nuclear fuel.
Youre enriching.
take 6 units at 0.7% enrich to 1 unit of 3.2%
But what happens to the 5 units ‘leftover’ 0.2
This is for a reactor.
Oh yea uranium even denser.
to make say munitions that penetrate armor.
Wow thats crazy on the wiki page says counterweights for aircraft civilian uses. (dense metal) https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Depleted_uranium
Lead and uranium both bad. Dont eat lead or bullets or things on the battle field.
Bullet fragments.
Its like uranium is bad but so is evertyhing else on the battlefield. even the .. W.H.O. https://www.who.int/ionizing_radiation/pub_meet/en/DU_Eng.pdf
Well what I read seems pretty minor. Im thinking like a big bomb blast on a field, like a ww1 style crater or some artillery over an area, like some battlefields in France would be more scarred then they are.
https://www.iaea.org/topics/spent-fuel-management/depleted-uranium
Theres some advice there on the bottom, how it could get or prevent it from entering the food source. Says it just oxidizes away .
Could do some ion adjustments to ground if it was really bad.

_ Getting the good stuff enrichment, nuclear fuels.
U238 is pretty boring.
U235 is the reactor and sought after type. Not very much 235 naturally.
_
Reactor fuel U235 3% number, // U238 97%
_
nuclear bomb 90% u235// 10% U238
https://www.world-nuclear.org/information-library/nuclear-fuel-cycle/conversion-enrichment-and-fabrication/uranium-enrichment.aspx
the steps are power reactor, research reactor bunch of different countries run the centrifuges.
The gatekeeper is that enrichment tech. Its difficult. Difference of 3 neutrons. huge effort.
There is a USA national lab. Oakridge National lab. Cool.
https://www.ornl.gov/content/solving-big-problems
essentially involves the atomic weight difference and making it a gas.
A diffusion calculation some pressures. this takes years.(1940s)
Now the gas comes in a spinner, the middle gas in tube is lighter.
Thats what the inspectors want to see.

_ Uranium from the ground.
Is there enough.
More plentiful than gold.
not that expensive, sea water contains uranium. Russia Canada Australia.
Seeing some charts for Uranium producers in the World. Canada 2nd, Australia after. Kazahstan first.
The production, there enough. If you use, breeder reactor you get much more cause it uses 238.
U3O8 natural, its radioactive, dont rub it all oveer ur face. and say oooh yellow makeup. Gotta extract it from the sands.
Granite smaller content of uranium.
The sand as it decays, its still bad it turns into Radon.
Another thing, dont use that sand for concrete, higher concentration radiation and radon in those houses.
Mill tailing used, cutting corners.reburry in mine.

_Backstage Theatre; taking a break [X]
This quick video apparently actually relates with Chernobyl and Fukushima.
I guess could draw some comparisons, instead of the acting they produce fusion.
But they have a Seam upholstery shop, machine tool prop shop, stage, floors functionality. Office.
Variables could go wrong.
Interesting thing abut the Krannert theatre is some rehearsal rooms matching stages, so the acoustics are the same.
Costume shop, and inventory.
BAckstage curtain and pulleys above the stage out of sight.
Large backstage area.
Acoustics no speaker, chorus section removing the seats.
That was a sweet theatre tour Lots going on in the background some distance to cover.
I could see some similarities maybe.

_ Health effects Chernobyl.
Chernobyl blast all into the atmosphere.
Yea the scientists in Germany testing with the rain they’re like this is a reactor core.
I watched this one already but whatever.
In Sweden the reactor alarms going off
Cesium 137 in air. IRSN https://www.irsn.fr/EN/publications/thematic-safety/chernobyl/Pages/The-Chernobyl-Plume.aspx
And the cesium 137 content
Iodine 131
The first responders.
The Thyroid treatment for nuclear.https://www.nrc.gov/about-nrc/emerg-preparedness/about-emerg-preparedness/potassium-iodide/ki-faq.html
https://www.irsn.fr/EN/publications/thematic-safety/chernobyl/Pages/The-Chernobyl-Plume.aspx

Fukushima watched that.

Aint nothing but shitty news.

_Xenon can be a problem Nuclear
Ok from what I remember the xenon can kill the chain reaction.
Chernobyl shutting down causing some xenon poisoning in the reactor.
Its the kind of poisoning that stops a nuclear reactor.
Reactor is a giant neutron dance, the uranium gives off neutrons, the water hits the neutron, if the neutron goes slow enough its chance its chance of fission get larger It will hit another uranium it fissions and off come some more neutrons.
In a bomb is different than reactor, the bomb doesnt even need a moderator so many neutrons. Its a fast fission and the add up extremely fast tremendous release of energy.
In the reactor. Its more of a sustained chain for the energy. Some neutrons bounce outside the radiator, some neutrons absorbed in the control rods. It wouldnt work without the moderator.
Where does Xenon come from Xe 135. Is really good at absorbing neutrons. With Xenon introduced, could be difficult to stop chain reaction.
Xenon is coming from, absorbing the neutrons.
When that neutron hits N -> U235 | Fission products + extra neutrons. (0.3% of time the collision produces some Xe135) 6.35% making Iodine135
Iodine radioactive, I 135 -> Xe135+ Beta and neutrino
Beta decay .
So the Iodine 135 beta decays to Xe135 in about 6.6 hrs. http://large.stanford.edu/courses/2014/ph241/alnoaimi2/
the graphic shows the xenon waiting for the reactor to stop, to poison it. Every time theres a chain reaction making stuff that leads to xenon.
Explanation here, the Xenon 135 is also radioactive. Beta decays to CS 125 + B in 9.1 hours. Cesium 135 long lived isotopes.
Second part of explanation the Xenon 135 actually absorbing N^1 0 + Xe 135 Makes Xenon 136 stable isotope.
Yea Chernobyl the shut off, the xenon goes way up, since the chain reaction stopped, then also the Xenon neutron eaters stopped. 60 hr xenon poisoning in the reactor
If you ever turn off the reactor you cant turn it back on for another 3 days.
If you keep adding the fuel thee reactivity is going way up in the case of Chernobyl try to get back to started. Accidently turned it off and trying to start it again.
Thats the cardinal rule if you turn it off you gotta wait 3 days, at Chernobyl they waited an hour. Disastrous effect. The reactivity dip wwith xenon.
Its called the iodine pit. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Iodine_pit
Contrary to all the rules at Chernobyl they werent seeing what they wanted so they pulled all the control rods out. Tipped it over the edge , into uncontrolled run away reaction.

_ MRI
What you can do with MRI
This when you drink the chalk solution, and get scanned?
Its the university of Illinois.
Its searching for Hydrogen ions.
So basically what im hearing the hemoglobin contain Iron, surrounded by some oxygens, when the brain is thinking or doing a biological task the oxygens are busy so the Iron in Hemoglobin can be affected by the Magnetic resonance field _ into imaging MRI.
He also talked about another tesla scanner for animals. More power.
Everything from fitness to asking questions distractedness, what happens at the front of the brain trying to work on a task with no distraction.
Talking about brain slices. lol
Holy the tech, its superconductors, cooled with liquid helium.
MRI quench if the magnets get too hot. Just makes a gas plume.
Wires could melt.
Cool measure the viscosity of my brain. Pretty viscous lol.
The Beckman institute singing MRI.
Magnetic field, wow theyre showing a demo roofing nail wrapped in a foam.
Can make you dizzy too by sticking your head in there.
Hmm using the machine to switch the magnetic field, could change youre field of color if done too rapidly . So its done slowly to avoid those sensations.
Color, static, and heat.
Aluminum not attracted to field.
Watching the aluminum fall slower cool.
Its tracking the protons in the water in your brain.
2-3 mil magnets costs.
Cryo.
The MRI proof tv. No rogue transmitters.
Its a siemens machine.
The gas cryo room.
Images from animals and other things that have been imaged.

Learnt about TMI already.
_ Movie theatres in the modern age.
This is awesome that it comes up on the list.
I love movies right now.
During covid last year I seen Spongebob I was pretty stoked.
Now theatres are closed here atleast.
Everything in the digital age.
There are actual ‘film’ theatre still more of a niche thing.
70 mm film with a forklift lol.
Limited places to see that still. Might be interesting one day.
Economics of a theatre its not the ticket sale % Its the popcorn, and the soda.
The new 3d tech. Imax projector per eye.
the glasses polarize, the lens picks up the angle makes the 3d effect.
or the far away effect. If one of the projectors cut off it would be like covering one eye.
Dont wanna lose an eye then go to a 3d movie.
Wow the actual projector.
Its a trolley with wheels.
Pressurized xenon gas + anode cathode.
Most accurate representation of sunlight.
Its a plasma, the Xenon with the most filled noble gas, and the most electrons, Exciting the xenon gas will produce all the colors in the spectrum. https://laserstars.org/data/elements/
Imax 6000 watts running bulb. *pressurized Xenon.
Ok the plasma excites the electrons, and atoms. Most electrons add up all the transitions you’ll cover ever color in the color spectrum.
2x projectors.
Every morning recalibrates itself.
Movie plays with sound. I guess just automated with the double projector, and sound.
Old school movies with the film projectionist sleeping and didnt change the film.
All you gotta do is turn it out or trouble shoot. Ad viewing.
Screen is reflective type of vinyl.

_ Big bangs take a break.[‘X]
Fission the biggest bangs; the biggest hair bangs lol.
The reason for the lecture is to distinguish weapons from the reactor power.
Ok back to the U235 comes outta the ground very litte concentration, you need the 3-4% for reactor. You need to quantify that to a 90% concentration for thee weapons is a far jump from the 3-4% needed for reactor.
Takes long time to process.
Critical mass. It would automatically go off.
Sub critical pieces start separate then connect.
Trinity test from a tower.
Hot gasses rushing up mushroom cloud.
Not just nuclear, any explosion big enough will create the mushroom phenomena.
Hiroshima memorial site. Pretty horrifying if you think of those people. Well and the war in general.
Talking about the moments after blast.
Atomic Cannon.
Using the tamper is effective that neutron shell makes it so less mass is required for the reaction desired.
The plutonium and uranium logic.
Bullet style and implosion style. More engineering on the implosion style. With a more porous core then compressed.
China, France, Russia, UK, and USA.
India, Pakistan. 70s
Treaties, cold war over, some advanced countries simply say no we dont need nuclear weapons, could make em but the world polluted with enough of these.
North Korea, one of the latest in the club.
The hydrogen bomb kinda opposite from the fission bomb uses nuclear fusion (reaction in the sun)
Just as tough even tougher , need to start with that implosion. Need that for the temperatures to be high eneough for Tritium and deuterium to fuse.
Put it inside atom bomb.
This fission triggers the fusion.
Hydrogen sequence.
Bikini Atoll.
Tsar bomba.
2 completely different things, controlled fission reaction can generate that power, that uncontrolled fusion devastating.
Yup heres hoping no nuclear annihilation.

_ Whats in reactor.
I have understanding of reactor.
Fuel rod, moderator, control rod, capture.
Boron, it like neutrons, cadmium, Gadolinium first time I ever heard that one.
So the reactor, in the containment building.
The generator.
The cooling tower.
Example reactor.
Clinton Power Station central Illinois.
The resin beats absorbing those iron atoms coming off the pipes.
Theres a pressurized water reactor style, where the reactor circuit water doesn’t even touch the generator water.
Third loop. Safety boost.
Thats a simplified fission
Chance of a fission graph U235 page 7 https://www.nrc.gov/docs/ML1214/ML12142A051.pdf
The static is complicated.
Something for nuclear engineers to figure out.
The cross section show, higher chance of fission with lower speeds (eVs)
Using the moderator and the pressurized, if the moderator leaves the reaction stops.(shuts down if somehow looses coolant.

_ More fission gone fission.
Splitting up of large atoms into smaller ones.
U235 easy to split.
Neutron any speed and it hits the U235
after, splits into 2 pieces, Fission (products1) (Fission products 2) moving really fast.
E=MC^2
the pre neutron boost weights more, the after products weight less that means that difference turns into speed.
Fuel pellet gets hot.
Also making 2.45 neutrons. per reaction also fast speeds.
Fission splits up Uranium products and makes extra neutrons.
the 2-3 extra neutrons could go on to create more fissions.
That us the chain reaction.
Slow is better for the chain reaction thats why the moderator there.
Solid Uranium reactor core, thats a bomb.
Or use a moderator.
Water neutrons same kinda mass, shared momentum.
Need something same kinda size, cause bouncing a ping pong ball off a bowling ball isnt really capturing that momentum.
Thats why these types of reactors are safe.
Trust the laws of physics not the scrambling operator.
RMBK Chernobyl Graphite was the coolant.
Whose gonna go reach in and take out that graphite after the meltdown occuring.

_ Food irradiation.
Can remove some molds and mildews.
Makes industrialization of fruits more effective.
Flashlight on rock, when you turn the light off does the rock glow?
No.
Same with food radiation, puts out gamma rays that will kill what you dont want bacteria.
Doesnt turn the food radioactive.
Gamma rays cockraoches like 6-15x more resistant but not as resistant as a fruit fly.
Thats why the fruit flies getting the blast at the station focusing on the breeding. (previous chem assignement)
Basically take the gamma rays, from cesium 137.
Beta decay, emits some 0.6617 mega electron volts, as it decays to next state, emitting that gamma ray. cesium 137 that half life of about 30 years.
Cobalt to nickel. a different type.
Sterilize the bugs and longer shelf life.
chemicals , yummy that fruit looks so delicious just eat it. Wash it.
Irradiate it.
gamma ray spectrometrer https://science.nasa.gov/ems/12_gammarays
Concerns radicals, destroying proteins.
Hmm black pepper irradiated.
RADURA label, but what about processed foods. Thats fairly interesting still.
In life its best to use all tools. https://www.kitchenstewardship.com/irradiated-spices-safety/
When your importing food wouldnt you want it to have gone through a standard maybe.
Also the next thing its suggesting; its like you wouldn’t want to gamma ray your whole crop in infantile stage, unless maybe you were doing some atomic gardening.
But, the finished product, Its not growing anymore, its for shelf life.
Its like some choices you have. Some you dont.
Heres this scientist, Nice here a Canadian machine. Gammacell 220 Excel. I think hes wearing a dosimeter. Too bad cant read arabic found an article using that.
lol heres the older model;https://www.nrc.gov/docs/ML0216/ML021630449.pdf
The newer model looks really similar. Its a USA company now, a division of Soltera health.
Watching a demo.
Importance of the liquid nitrogen easy to spot differences when frozen.
Nice example of the research happening at the moment in the video is about the efficiency of the medicine after the medicine itself been irradiated. While the patient getting exposed in a radiation treatment.
Space food. Grilled steak in a bag MRE style.
People that have had organ transplant.
Back in soviet days that army irradiated its food. Theres definetly debate, I think its just a tool you could use depending on the situation.
https://www.epa.gov/radtown/food-irradiation
For example, Clostridium botulinum bacteria produce a toxin that causes botulism, a dangerous illness. Food irradiation can control the spread, growth, and survival of the C. botulinum bacteria, but cannot remove the toxin produced by C. botulinum.
Shielding and core, or the irradiation chamber. Fool proof machine.
Special room for this purpose.
Can be safe so be safe lol.

_ What makes something Radioactive.
Yea during that phase its transitioning to another element giving off rays.
What makes radioactive?
It turns into something else, and during that process emits radiation.
Radioactive substances changes to other material/atoms, when it does that emits radiation.
Half life concept.
Got a jar of green radioactive marbles.
if its half life is a year, itll take a year and half of those marbles changed to white marble.

_Background radiation, I seen Carl Sagan do this experiment. cant find it. Might have to watch cosmos again.
Anyways.
Radioactive materials turn into something else, and emit radiation, Alpha, beta gamma rays.
What kind of dose am I getting.
Dose = (Energy absorbed)/ mass
Internation unit. 1 Sv= is alot of radiaiton. 1Sv = Joule absorbed/ kg
1Sv = 100 Rem
1 mRem (natural sources) per day
10muicroSv = 1 mRem
1 micro SV= 0.1 mRem
Then Pie chart updated https://www.epa.gov/radiation/radiation-sources-and-doses
natrual and man made. Radon, 320 mRem come from nat sources.
300 mRem from man made medical procedures, stats for USA.
Prof talking about changes in nuclear medicine since the 80s.
Ground 15-20 mR from the ground uranium thorium little bits of radioactive particles.
Stone house emits more radiation.
Internal, potassium in your body 20-25 MRem
Space; cosmic rays, stars exploding. 20-25 ml MRem
Radon ~200 mRem
Mile high you get 75-100 mRem.
Other man made radiation: Ct Scans pretty high.
Then you got some specific tumor treatments, cancer treatments.
https://www.cdc.gov/nceh/features/protect-home-radon/index.html
100 mRem per year from the government excess does.
Lantern mantles radioactive.
Theres some mantles back in the day dipped in thorium and cerium nitrates.
Consumer goods.
Smoke detector. Smoke detector demo, the alpha particles discharging completes a circuit, the smoke interrupts that causes alarm. Helium nuclei with +2 charge. If smoke gets in the way the alpha particles are stopped very easily.
Dont eat the radioactive piece inside.
Lantern mantle, just wash your hands.
Ytrium Coleman is using now, instead of Thorium.
Potassium chlorids instead of sodium chloride.
Fiestaware uranium glaze.

_ ABC’s of Radiation.
This is sweet I never knew.
R substances emit radiation.
alpha ray
beta ray
gamma rays went the furthests.
alpha ray is just a helium nucleus. (stopped by clothes paper air)
lead 210 changes to mercury 206 in that process
emits a alpha particle.
Beta ray is a electron.
Cathode ray tube. Old TV shooting electon at the (coated? I think sceen)
Those are electrons.
Ok beta rays (electrons) stopped by aluminum foil,and up.
Chlorine 36, not naturally occuring I dont think, cosmogenic. Cosmogenic cool word.
Paper doees nothing.
aluminum thing stopped it.
Finally gamma rays, simply a source of light.
opposite low energy.
This is high end, ultraviolet, xray gamma ray.
So yea the cobalt 60, need lead to protect from.
Light EM radiation, high energy photons.
How to make something radioactive ?
Many radioactive elements were formed when the earth was formed.
Potassium in your body Potassium 40 a particular isotope very long half life Billion + year.
It was created when earth was created.
Other things, humans can turn to radioactive.
You can do that with neutrons.
take Cobalt, stick in reactor and lots of neutrons hit it, it can turn into the isotope cobalt 60. (Now emits more gamma rays)
do chlorine + neutrons, you get thee chlorine 36. (beta)
Do lead + neutrons, you get Lead 210
So to make something radioactive when neutrons hit them, not when radiation hits em.
Alpha ray, shortest. (helium nucleus) gets stopped by paper.
Beta ray second shortest. its electrons, gets stopped by aluminum plate.
gamma ray, stopped by lead plate. Its high energy light. ITs a high energy photon.
The neutron goes through everything but can collide with other neutron sized molecules in some water. parrafin, theyll keep going till they collide with something similar size, hydrogen nucleus. photon.
Ok more instructional: 3 cookies.
cookie alpha
cookie beta
cookies gamma.
You gotta eat one cookie, sit on one cookie, and can throw one outy the window.
ok Ill sit on the helium, eat the elctron
or sit on the electron, eat the helium, and toss out the gamma rays yea final answer.
answers:
Eat the gamma source cause 1/2 will go through you Its like taking a xray, goes right through you.
Sit on the alpha emitter cause paper stops its. Its just helium nuclei.
You wouldnt want to sit on the electron without some aluminum pants.
Throw out the electron, or send it to my nearest appliance.
a sit
b throw
g eat

_ Why is sky blue: radiation.
the prism.
Red more toward IR
Green rigth in the middle,
Purples more towards xray gamma ray.
Rainstorms shows the prism.
Droplets of water acting as a prism.
So, not only can a trianglular prism reflect the light so can a water droplet.
Nice 42, degrees answer to the universe life and everything.
Need the sunshine, 42 degrees, an observer, water droplets.
Why the sky the blue, cause the sunset is red.
interesting physics formula,scatering= 1/ (wavelenght) ^4
Blue light higher energy, ~400nm
Red light lower energy infrared, ~ 700nm
Stick figure looking at sunset.
figure in hawaii looking up you see the light thats been scattered the most.
Only at the end when the its a straight line the red light just keeps going straight through atmosphere.
Youre seeing the scattered wavelength,.
The max spectrum is green.
Maybe can see green green flash sunset. Thats cool.
After the red see maybe a bit of green.
Sunset can also act same way if you get the conditions right.

_ Walking on water.
Relates to Hydro power, geothermal energy.
1 Oxygen 2 hydrogens.
1 lone pair on the O
H+ H+
Its polar.
dipole.
The fact that its polar h+ h+—O: makes it have high surface tension.
The way to enclose that to minimal molecule on the outside is to make a sphere.
Water droplet bouncing upward on trajectory at its highest point.
Water droplets on a lily pad, thats very hydrophobic.
close up lotus leaf with tendrils, its like a water droplet on a bed of nails.
Paper clip floating on water with surface tension.
Bugs feet.
The slightest extra weight will overcome that surface tension.
Now same test with isopropyl alcohol. C3H8O
added a teaspoon of water.
It just wont.
Water bugs.
extremely light.
The bug would sink.
Basilisk can run across water.
The lizard making some big bubbles of air, that dont close up.
Skipping rocks on water.
water skiing barefoot on the water.
Guy walking on swimming pool lol. plexiglass structure.
Walking on ice.

_ home improvements, Hydro power and Geothermal energy.
Energy increases.
Depression, wars, resolution, oil embargoes.
In USA, energy use hasnt increased but GDP has.
Looking at a graph, energy use per dollar of GDP.
from the 50s, to 2010 almost reduced by half.
How does the energy use go down and product go up ?
Can the rest of the world become as efficient.
Where can we get efficiency gains.
-Green architecture.
Looking at cross section of the double paned windows.
R1 single pane. Terrible insulation.
R2 double paned glass.
Argon gas filled window.
Nice inside the window, you can use some infrared proofing.
Low-e glass.
~R3
Older buildings heater, and AC on at the same time.
Lights, have become more effective.
The non edison bulb.
You got the compact fluoresent, (1/4) energy same light,
then LEDs. Even less energy more light.
Motors. Variable speed motors, industrial improved.
Transportation.
types of vehicles.
Shift from manufacturing to service. Heavy rail to google.
The energy use kinda plateaud, but the GDP going up.

_ Heat for homes.
Some Geo thermal stuff.
Geothermal loops.
The 10 degree earth temperature.
Not super comfortable but ok way to start.
Well theres some differences on the temp but temp is at a stable temperature.
Use the coil yard system vertical or loop systems.
Frostline, permafrost.
The prof himself has loops.
Bonus in the summer.
Pics of prof energy bills.
If it freezes your in trouble.
Impermeable with clay barries similar to drilling.
Some issues using the electricity back up when its cold.
But yea in the summer time its cool.
Pros, and cons to that system.

_Hot rocks
Steam discussion , electricity.
Discussion of old faithful, and someone saying ooh take this nice geyser and were gonna make a power plant outta that.
Put down water down, turns right into steam.
But cant cool it too much or itll just be rocks.
Volcanic rock. heat it
Cant build to lava too close, if you got a stable place though.
Porous rock.
Theres actual geothermal there, geysers.
Called Geysers , thats definetly interesting never heard of that till now.
Electricity production down.
Iceland Reykjavik.
Using the hot water for the heat not just electricity run the water in the radiator.
Maybe on another planet.

_ Power of water, Hydro, and geothermal.
Tidal energies, dependable.
Gravity calcl, 1/ (distance)2
Difference between , center of moon to, center of earth, and center moon to either poles,
226000miles
218miles
222miles

So stronger pull on the closer side, weaker pull on the further side.
Planeet covered in water, watwe can move. bulge towards the moon.
However couple tides.
Bulges and pulls, you get a vacuum. he explains it better , theres rotation and also moon rotates.
Tide advances by an hour, cause the moon rotation.
Average tide is around 1m
Tide can be more dramatic, something like ballasts.
Trap that water. fill up the tanks.
La Rance France was looking at that. 1968
They dam a whole bay. You need the bottle neck.
Ocean creatures or Nutrients get trapped in the pump ?
Ocean currents.
A windmill underwater.
Wave power, like a shake flashlight.
Sea snakes.
The cons the joints really suffer,
and what happens when theres a massive storm and the waves are way crazier.
Theres shore based.
You get the waves or tides into a vaccum space then put a air turbine at the top affected by the water in that space.
Bay of fundy wave power.

_More Hydro power.
Large-scale hydro plant.
How the hydro large scale works, hoover dam.
2000 mw
Francis turbine, most commonly used water turbines today.
3 gorges damn in China thats the newest also uses the Francis turbine./
https://www.ge.com/news/reports/how-the-swiss-turned-an-alpine-peak-into-a-battery-the-size-of-a-nuclear-plant
This one is awesome too.
Three gorges massive engineering project. 22 500 mega watts. 22 or more coal power plants.
Displaced many people.
Free energy, as long as the water lasts.
reservoir takes the land that was used.
One concern is the damn could break. in 66 Hydro dam broke, also in North van the valve just released with no warning.
Wow this 1966 Italy flood.

_ Small scale Hydro.
Hydro is usefull.
small stream, and a watermill house.
Power calc. power = energy/time = ((mass)(height goiing to fall from) (g))/ time
heigth gotta be atleast 2 meters.
https://archives.library.illinois.edu/blog/boneyard-creek/
Measuring flow velocity.
volume ((l)(w)(d))/d mass/volume
density of water. water 1000kg per m^3
Lol hes in the creek.
Process to actually calculate this stream.
Damming the stream calculate the potential energy.
This particular creek has power 333 watts.
doubtfull to capture all that potential energy no loss.
Need that height for more power 2 m +
Pros, and cons.
wave power demo, make power during day, lights at night.

_Energy from garbage.
Biofuel Biomass.
How about that municipal waste incinerator. Someone took that as band name lol, clever.
Garbage incinerator air pollution.
Quality control.
Recycling.
OK getting a tour of particular waste facility at the waste transfer station University of Illinois
Recycling
Sorting
Machine to puncture plastic beverage containers, aluminum cans maybe. So they can drain before being shipped.
Cardboard, up and down.
1200 1400 lbs per bail of paper
Cardboard worth less that paper.
Weighs about the same.
Paper reduction.
This person talking from like 2009 14-15 bails per day to 5 bails a day now.
Aluminum cans in bulk worth quite a bit.
1500 $ a ton at the time of that video.
Ok gotta do the Math class [x]

_ From the well to you.
Its about natural gas. Hey im back had mega math exam
quantum chemical.
Its a story about the fireball from gas plant at quantum chemical corp
https://www.chicagotribune.com/news/ct-xpm-1989-09-13-8901120577-story.html
Natural gas isnt just methane.
Methane CH4
Ethane C2H6
Propane C3H8
Butane C4H10
String, and circular.
Its someones job to clean that gas coming through pipeline.
So its just methane.
Remove the impurities, deliver only methane.
so because that line 2 was down at the plant.
Usually you can liquify the by-product that the plant takes out of the gas, since it was down they were just burning it off.
They store it.
When Chicago needs gas for winter they take it outta storage.
Some interesting looking buildings.
Thats interesting so they store the gas underground in a old dry well.
Stripped of its thicker hydrocarbons, and pressurized in undergrounds rock formations.
Nicor gas.
Methane doesn’t smell, but gas leak.
Theres a small amount of Ethanethiol , or ethyl mercaptan for that reason so you can smell a gas leak.
High enough gas prices youll explore other optionsd like fracking etc.
Its like harvest gas in Siberia, gas prices would have to be pretty high to go harvest in frozen swamp .

_ How cell phone finds you
oil in action
recent cell phone developments around the planet.
Nokia phone.
Old phone new phone.
Calling someones ceell phone how does it know where you are.
Landline, put in all these country codes and phones.
If you phone can see a cell tower ur on the system.
Your phone has 3 numbers.
ESN number, its in the phone.,
Sim cards is your phone number.
Sid number. Your provider.
control channel.
Trying to find signals from cell towers.
Home, or roaming no service.
registration, MIN and registration.
Mobile telecommunication switching office.
MTSO
When the phone rings.
Its like a search engine of numbers of towers and satelites within seconds tracks you.
using all the numbers.
Searches database, assigns two frequencies.
Ever talk on the radio, hey JAck how you doing today, -over . lol
Your turn to talk. both cant talk.
Radios only one frequency cell is 2.
band 820-840 MHz
~1900 MHz
As your moving it communicates auto with next tower to switch you.
Phones and traffic.
Chicago traffic
Enterprising software, on data from the speeds cell phones are travelling. people walking travelling walking speed.
The decrease in speed can send signal on map for traffic.

_Oil economics.
Supply and demand.
North sea supply price drop around 1986
2008 prices higher higher crash.
production and demand.
Demand just above production the production finally exceeds the demand.
price is still high.
demand lower prices crash crash.
Saudi and production costs start of north sea, Iran Iraq war ends
Saudi Opec
This is energy course.
Russia Crimea
Just showing the supply demand data can show some interesting things on the economics.

_Pipelines and contreversy.
Cushing Oklahoma.
Thats a Hub and also Houston
The XL pipeline debate shows map.
Accidents on rail, and truck.
Pipes safest.
“It would be wonderful for Canada..”
Its controversial we dont ‘want’ oil nowadays.
It would make gas cheaper. Its for the green argument so that oil prices raise so that green energy becomes more affordable.
Less expensive domestic supply or save it.
It would be the north American supply tar sands.
Canada supposed to in theory be selling that commodity ‘best price’.
Carbon tax.
Rail car, truck, pipeline, not getting to the heart of the issue.
___
Tar sands the oil sands.
Number of carbon atoms,
1-4 Gaseous
5-13 Liquid
14 or more solid.
heat up the sand enough to make the change from solid to liquid.

_ Oil producers and consumers
Middle east lush and green has made large reserves of oil.
links in the Video Its the EIA https://www.eia.gov/
Venezuela tar sands.
Saudi production infrastructure.
Pie chart of some oil reserves, and reasons why.
The oil will continue to go up, and therefore it will be substituted.
Consumption.
Coal vs oil.
Producers.
USA imports and the effort to reduce.
Saudi Arabia mega production not that much use.
Japan oil importer not much energy resources.
Wow but the gas prices only 22 cents per liter cheaper in Van with a quick look today.
Oil could be subject to the highest bidder.
Volatile prices.

_ Gateway to the heavens
Oil
Its a video about the observatory at the Univ Illinois
Built with 15k.
Back in the day was isolate.
Light pollution.
https://astro.illinois.edu/newsroom/history-department/campus-observatory
Joel Stebbins
All telescopes built on the ground so jumping wont cause vibration, building built around it.
Rotating chair.
Observatories facing east, im guessing so they get the most exposure and be able to track something for the longest time.
Oh it has to do with weather and traditions.
Its like observing star and the high zoom, and adjustments.
What you can see with telescope.
The earth rotate mechanism.
Star twinkle from atmosphere.
The hubble.
Imagine the network of space telescopes and the radio waves communicating all that data.
The newer imprvoved detailed map of universe, or since last observation.
You’d need some wizardry to communicate that data between one end of say the galaxy to the other.

___ Refining Crude conversion.
Refineries take all the hydrocardons of any lenght and turn them into useful products.
Fractional distillation column.
crude + heat.
You get some butane & propane, petrol, kerosene, diesel, fuel oil.
lube oil parrafin wax, asphalt.
Naphtha cyclic, medium length.
Refineries want to make gasoline. Refineries want just over 50% of the barrel to go to gasoline.
So to do that gotta re-arrange the shorter hydrocarbons.
Take the shorter ones reform em, take the heavier ones break em down.
Next is Kerosene is jet fuel.
Then its Diesel. 15% of the barrel of oil.
Home heat oil.
Car oils, less than 1% becomes lubrication.
Coke from oil.
Refineries are subject to accidents.
Its important to keep oxygen out when your boiling oils way above their ignition point.
Shows a picture of the Puerto Rico plant. But that was storage facility pretty wild picture, just search up som CSB 2009
Something like this photo.
You want to do this, takes a bit of energy dont want to just use the crude in your lamp.

_ How to get even more out.
Pumping up salt water.
Settling tanks.
Water goes back in the well.
Extraction well, and the other wells you pump into.
Using steam or water to push the oil toward the extraction point.
Emulsifier, soap detergent pump it back up then seperate oil and soap.
Or pump molasses down the well.
Sugar with bacteria, as waste creates CO2.
differences between Saudi and USA production and well numbers.

_ How to get it out.
How the oil actually found underground and the story of a rig nearby.
Most wells 2-3 km deep.
Oil collecting in the cavity.
Actual fossils.
Drill through hard rock material coming out.
Mud not water.
Its a pipe, with a casing forcing mud will come out the side.
Mud also cools the drill. Theres cement too.
That porous rock in illinois, used for natural gas storage though even there was no oil.
Does oil spray out like 10 % of times maybe.
Its a pump demo. Primary extraction. YHoull get maybe 1/3 of that oil out.

_ how do you find it
the oil.
1/3 worlds energy come from oil
Plants, and animals falling into salt water environments.
fault line cavities, or traps.
Surveying trucks. Thats cools a throttled pad vibrating truck.
Making 3d map from that shockwave.
the density of rock is known so you can find the division.
Mineral rights, leases the 1/8 usual royalty.
Story about the 50 bucks lease forever.

_ How does oil form
plankton small plants dying in salt water.
Buried under time and pressure.
C8H18
Most time people see actual crude oil, sadly its on sea birds during a spill.
Gasoline evaporates.
Usually pretty thin.
Fresh water trap, that makes coal.
Natural gas formed same way just lighter hydrocarbons.,

_ what happens when you flush. Waste water.
This facility takes care of 140k people. 7 Billion gallons per year.
From 200 ppm solid waste to 4 ppm
5 steps to process.
Screening debris.
Smell gets better as you go through plant.
Next step bacteria, introduced. Oxygen. Bacteria. The Oxygen blowers is a significant cost.
Mimicking nature.
12 hr turnaround.
Settling, settling bacteria from water.
The bacteria gets recycled to the beginning.
Settling tank.
Its got like a overflow tank.
Fertilizer.
Nitrifying.
Converting ammonia to non toxic. Nitryfying bacteria its called.
Water drops down a tank the bugs use it, lots of surface area.
Fitration the R&D the engineering 10th generation.
Deep tunnel Chicago wow thats big tunnel and hole.
Its like a walking through garden hose the size of your house.

___ Effects of global warming
House insurance.
coastal waters.
Floating ice demo. Displaces same water.
Floating Ice vs land mass ice like Greenland and Antarctica. If that melts will raise the sea level.
Tectonic effects, and human effect on sea level.
Crop production up or down. Up in Canada, down in Europe if its too hot.
The Gulf stream bringing warmer temp to Western Europe.
Fresh water introduced to the conveyor belt, interrupts its heat could be a problem.

_ How to cool the planet.
Global warming abatement, reduction.
Too much CO2.
Sulfur dioxide
SO2
Block some of the incoming, lets out the heat still.
1883 Krakatowa, and the scream. The skies colored red.(Edvard Munch Norway)
Caused a mini ice age.
Its not a permanent solution.
It is a science thing thats forsure.

_ Kyoto, and Carbon Reduction
Separating the world in zones all agreeing to reduce.
Shows graph GDP, and temperature.
Some places little warmth is good.
CO2 effects on the body.
Occupational limits.
Reducing the carbon producing energy %.
More, and more.

_Earth getting warmer how do we know
temp and CO2 correlation graph.
Ice cores and checking the gasses from thousands of years ago.
General increase in CO2 and temp goes hand in hand.
How much Increase though.
How much can be tolerated, is a bit of a dangerous experiment.

___ Which gasses are bad.
Greenhouse gasses.
CO2 200 300 ppm
Methane more effective at trapping heat and reflecting.
Methane is 18%
CO2 is around half. (sources of greenhouse effects)
Cows digestion.
CFCs really bad for atmosphere.
All those fossil fuels digging it up and setting it on fire.

_ How the greenhouse works.
Trapping heat.
White hot camera.
Energy coming from the sun, = energy radiating from the earth.
Just demo from energy coming off the sun atmosphere, keeping the energy in.
Adding more insulation with CO2
Greenhouse effect made life possible on this planet.
Caused by atmosphere.
Chart about some cloud and reflections. radiating heat %s
clouds and feedback to cool and warm the planet.

_ How things work, what happens to our garbage.
Effects of coal
Its the garbage processing center.
The blue bag visual.
Its offset the budget type of operation.
Its a interesting video.
Metal recycling.
Its the same as the other video except no lecture points.
Shows a few other scenes.

_ Heres the cleaning coal out.
How to get that sulfur dioxide out, that earth cooling poisonous/toxic compound.
Ie Dropping acid.
Coal dust.
Ash gets collected
Fluidized bed modern way to burn coal.
pulverizing it to remove bigger chunk.
upgrading fuel,
fluidizing. Someone had their thinking cap on.
Taking out the ash , SO2 , NOx
Burn some nat gas alongside it.
Everyplant could be come a coal combined gas plant reburner.
Ensuring the carbons are burnt out. You dont want the ash to contain that unburned carbon.
So explanantion continues gas is burning along, still contains thee sulfur dioxide.
Limestone graphite scrubbing reaction on the gas.
CaCO3+ SO2 -> CaSO4
(+oxygen)
So then you’d get gypsum as by-product, naturally occurring.
You do that reaction on the fly.
Its called sorbent injection. https://www.sciencedirect.com/topics/engineering/furnace-sorbent-injection
The ash bin.
Then you do the exhaust water bubbler.
Thats how to get the heavy metals out.
The last part is the scrubber, another water tank with limestone slurry. When you bubble that through you convert SO2 To calcium carbonate CaCo3 im pretty sure. precipitates out as a solid, reaction happened and drained out the bottom. Gets rid epa.
Understanding the science mitigating acid rain.
https://www.britannica.com/science/acid-rain/History

_ effects of coal , trading smoke works.
EPA vs electricity.
Phasing time.
Cap and trade.
Economic incentive to produce less, than they would have otherwise.
Good example of cooperation says the prof.
Rewarding the producers to make that inveestments.
Sell the credits.
Cap it.
Get money for having credit, others have to pay for the credits.
From 1980 to 2007 reduction in half of the SO2
limit, 1-2lb / per million BTU
2012 80% reduction. EPA
Trading these credits, even environmental groups could scoop up some credits and not trade em. Thats interesting. Economic incentives.
SO2 and CO2 reduction should be the same.
Its not really fair due to the, energy use = CO2
Places like India youre like sorry cant have any more power gotta capo it and pay all this$.
Fair and equitable vs un-intended consequences.
The SO2 solution is from a waste product from the energy.
Not the energy itself.

_ acid rain
Effect of coal acid rain.
Big topic in the 70s
Forests dying, and fish dying in rivers, lung problems, sweet.
Mapping the PH or the rain around thee world.
Acids.
PH concentration of Hydronium ion. cation.
7.0 is neutral,
6.0 is 10x times more acidic
5.0 is 100x times more acidic
4.0 is 1000x times more acidic, and so on.

Higher #’s are bases.
Again goes up log scale.
8.0 is 10x more base.
9.0 is 100x more base
and so on.
Chart of PH of rain from the 80s https://pubs.usgs.gov/wsp/2249/report.pdf
Cant find the exact on the in the video this one seems newer in #s .
The PH levels on the east coast higher.
5.6 is the rainwater.
Rain turns to a carbonic acid.
Hitting CO2 in the atmosphere.
Higher the higher thee PH the rain in those areas could kill some vegetation and if you breathed in that rain could cause you some lung distress over time. Could kill marine life.
Ruining marble sculptures.
That’s why coal designed to turn Carbon dioxide.
And sulfur, to sulfur dioxide
Ash +SO2 + 0.5 02 -> SO3 sulfites on the dust surface.
Dry acid precipitate.
SO3 +H2O(on your lung tissue) –> H2SO4 youve just created sulphirc acid on your lung breating in that dust.
Nitrous oxide produced in some power plant.
Ok demo of sulphuric acid on paper towel just burns and dissolves it.
NOx x is a number 1/2 ,1, 2, 3,
These compunds will do same type of reaction
N2O, (0.5). NO, NO2, NO3 turning into nitric acid.
More on paper demo.
Showing the reaction, thats whats happening you get more acid rain at the Sulfur dioxide production.
Skeptics.
Its the calcium carbonate solution. Say you had a lake that evolved, lots of that chalk the sulfur dioxide rain wouldn’t affect it
https://ingeniumcanada.org/channel/innovation/enlightening-canada-carbide Wow I was actually at this site once. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Thomas_Willson Thats what came up when I searched calcium carbide lake.
Rare earths sciences.
“Why should I buy my coal from really far away?” the prof. Cheaper to get it next door.
Nuclear reaction analysis, you go to the coal analyse it for these rare earths. The signature coal. Then you go to the dead lake pull up some muck at the bottom of lake, analyse it.
See the same rare earth and magnitudes. Unburnt parts of that coal ending up in that lake. Clean air act was passed. Theres a # limit. Limit of sulfur dioxide per energy heat made.

_ Coal and gas plant walkthrough.
Tour of Abbot plant. Watched this one previously.
The burning room is just a room of water tubes.
Stationaries and rotaries.
Immediately connected to the generators.
The burner.
Purify the new water coming in or ruin the turbine blades with scale and buildup.
old vs new technology.
You got the coal and nat gas reburner.
This time skip the water its the hot exhausts.
Then use those gasses to also boil water.
better effieency.
Half the modern plant is dedicated to cleaning the water and scrubbing the gases.
10% of the rock cant burn. fly ash.
Electrostatic precipitators, static charge on the dust.
Heavy metals come out with that ash trap.
Heavy metal recovery goes in the scrubber building.
High sulfur coal to burn cleanly at the abbot plant.
The pollution aspect is half the plant. Just gotta learn those hard lessons.
Making Gypsum. You can touch it lol.
Talking about cant have the whole coal mine drain into the river, or say the headwaters of a river.
This abbot plant, designed to be able to be used byu train and even thaw the train, but more economical by train.
Theres the EPA limit 1.2 Lbs of SO2 per million of BTUs produced.

_Geo engineering possible? desirable?
Planes. What are contrails.
Kerosense, CO2, and water vapour.
Hes saying spraying sulphuric acid lol.
Spray out sulphuric acid as athough experiments.
shows a diameter effective for aeroesols and injection velocities, nozzles, diameter.
Staying up there for years instead of contrails.
Talking about the olympics and adjusting the weather lol.
I get what he means, need a different chemical to cool the planet.
Just to get that degree reduction.
Millions of tons of H2SO4
20 Megatons of SO2 every year. Using AC130s.
Thats the logistic, the cost would be 25-50 billion per year.
Evidence from volcanoes. what could go wrong.
The argumemenmt after developping your whole economy on fossil fuels and telling other they cant. If you dont do it well blow you up.
IF you screwed up the geoengineering you could ruin agriculture for alot of people.
Acid rain problems again. change weather
Ocean acidification.
Ozone depletion.
What if only on the poles. you dont want the ice to melt.
Making clouds from sea water.
Make algea ponds in ocean.
Eats CO2 could be a solution in ocean.
Making Co2 into seashells.

_ Inertial Confinement’s Progress.
How to make fusion ,
Need density, time.
10^14 1/cm^3 confimnet time 1 second.
I dont understand all those calcs yet.
Magnets inertia.
Its a dsicussion of hitting a solid glass globe from 2 directions at the same time.
Thats confinment.
Started with something solid, though.
Inertial confiment fusion.
Its a small sphere, filled wiht a section of frozen deuterium, and tritium.
Hit it from a lazer, hit that suspended glass ball from every direction with laser, but not just any laser most powerfully lasers in the world.
National ignition facility in USA. They can hit and compress for a nanosecond.
Cool the national lab, Livermorium.
I wonder what neat experiments happening now.

___ Computer chips.
As many cell phones as people. If not more.
First integrated circuit.
gopne from 10 cm to 10 nm
10^-1 10^-9
number of transistors on a chip.
Same people keep buying the new products.
Talking about solid state and the layers of atoms required, height of 1 layer of atoms.
Quantum computing.
Functionality of an area doubling.
Single patterning process flow.
Changes its properties only where its exposed.
Like a suntan.
Then you take away the pattern that was exposed or not.
Then its a etch. Eat away the bottom layer without touching the top layer so you get a thin strips.
Then repeat, with wires etc. Patter, etch, deposiut.
Wow showes a photo of the final product looks like some modern architecture. Gonna screen capture cause cant find.

Also electron microscope view of SEM cross section.
Thats amnazing you obviously design it with compouter, but Its just fascinating how complicated, and little it is.
https://www.researchgate.net/figure/SEM-cross-section-of-AMD-Opteron-TM-and-AMD-Athlon-TM-64-microprocessors-showing-the_fig1_221669440
Theres another one of the IBM
Complicated sandwich.
The etch part I guess is basically using a laser to etch onto the chip.
The Moores law, its basically saying the laser doesnt follow the same line as the feature size, so the laser cant continue on that size vs time graph.
MAking the lithography wavelength smaller is really difficult.
Oh they figured it out, you ionize something really high, and the light from the plasma can make that micro ligth source.
Plasma EUV thats amazing new tech.
Interference patterns.
Showing some different methods.
Using plasma to remove the resist. Changing the plasma to etch different products.
New tech atomic layering etching, using a neghative Cl wavelenght or something, and a positiv Ar pushing down in a wave.
Ok thats sweet goes, deposits, Cl, then the AR goes and picks up the Cl and the initialy silicone state.
Hmm new metal and silicon layers also require plasmas.
Pvd sputtering devices. getting that metal coating into smaller and smaller places is that purpose.
very informative.

_ Magnetic fusion.
More things i know nothing about.
fusion.
limitless fuel no harm to environment.
Wow prof went to princeton lab, its an American college chartered before the American Revolution.
President Carter again with the magnetic fusion act.
Density temperature confinment time.
PLT abd TFTR stalled aroond 1990s
This ITER https://www.iter.org/mach/Tokamak Tokamak fusion concept
some people think 30-50 years for commercial power.
Fusion device at the profs lab.
Euro project shown the own with link. Break even point, not big enough to make net power.
ITER 2017 – Dec 2025.
Tungsten.
Temperature differences.
building takes a while.
nuclear facility so has those standards.
Harnessing he power the sun.
Plasma engineering.

_ What is fusion. How do you get it to work.
Density sun denser than water.
confinment, time.
The sun is a working fusion reactor.
Deuterium, + tritium makes Helium neutron and energy.
Both positively charged. moving fast, after the conenct the neutron and HE moving waaay faster.
Thats where the energy comes from.
Needs radioactive fuel. is a con, and thats pesky neutron.
The vessel becomes radioactive.
Would havee to become robotic for some maintenance.
Shows a probably evolution of fusion reactors.
2050 no tritium or lithium required.
2100 its a boron making helium4 no radioactivity. High thermal efficiency.
Its a work in progress. The technology is the limiting in this case.
Showing like a plasma like a cathode ray, and a magnet and the interferance and confinment of the plasma.
Cylinder with no magnetic field electrons just going wherere.
Adding a direction and magnetic field the electrons are confined within that path, spin around that magnetic field path.
Doing that with a toroidal field coils.
in a real plasma cant hit the certain wall or could melt, so gotta be under control.
Adding another magnetic field, making it a minimum energy state loop.
The sun, solar flare, makes that same twisting shape.
Thats the goal get that loop in a minimum energy state just like the sun.
needs the coils and the twist.
Tokamac makes twist dfifferent.
Tokamac plasma becomes the wire, needs the Iron frame.
Dont totally undertand but theres a difference in how each creates the twist.
Wow this input power to gety it going is like 2 million watts.
its a 70 ton, research education
Its a tube of light.
Vacuum with a little hydrogen.
Methods to start heat the plasma.
then become ionized trapped by magnetic field.
Density temp and confinment.
for a sustained fusion reaction.

_ What is a plasma?
4 states of matter,
Solid, liquid, gas, keeping pumping energy into it breaks the bonds, plasma
Keep adding energy ripps that electron off the proton.
Plasma is the dominant state of matter in the universe. Thats amazing.
The property that you can switch it direction withj a magnet, then using a magnetic field is how to make the fusion reactor work.
Wow has frequency like radio wave.

_ How microwave works
Industrial processes plasmas.
Homeland security neutron probe lol.
Plasma sputtering devices for the computer chip creation.
Microwaves, drying paint, curing plastics, warming food/water.
Telecomms.
Generating plasma for different purposes.
Microwave energy channels to create a plasma.
Disassemble microwave.
Lesser power microwave say 50% microwave power.
Just reduces the signal all happens really fast anyways would barely notice.
Needs to up the volatge, transformer and capacitor.
The magnotron.
Talks about the hotspots.
Then the turntable to rotate the food around.
The grape plasma.
Low frequency light waveliengths.
The magnet in the middle, the electrons orbit.
The bars cause the bunching up of the electrons. 2.45 Ghz
Ok so it works because theres water in your food.
Tune the frequency to affect/vibrate the H2O.

_ SUper computers.
how things work the super computers.
Demo video at National Petascale Computing facility.
Bluewater supercomputers.
Building 4.5 years old built specifically for this purpose.
Researcher.
Benchmarks to measure the strengths of the supercomputers.
Cray systems.
Graphics and CPUs .. GPUs vs CPU differences.
The cooling volume, and the actual computer space.
Thats kinda like the scrubbing facilities taking up alot of volume.
Infrastructure. Power or cooling.
Hot day at summer, capacity would be 24 MW could* use that amount.
All the campus uses 80MW
Fusion device 2MW
Planning for energy use.
Passive cooling, to save that energy usage.
LEED certification- Leadership in Energy & Environmental Design. This particular design is gold.
National science foundation pays the bills.
Ok I see a large room with some metal tubes probably guessing thats some water cooling.
Cabninets with cards.
Theyres called blades. Interconnects. Multi core CPU proccesors, the copper is the heatsink, the ram in the middle.
Temp controlled room with the wires.
Makes me think of mainframe.
The other cabinets are, the tape storage. Robot arm to pick out HDS. The tubes are for the water cooling.
Floor infrastructure. Making those connections.
Simulations, for the toughest problems.
Building is semi-tornado proof, earthquake too.
tullimonstrum

_ Reactors of the future Gen IV
Today we using Gen 3, passive safe.
Convection to cool the heat, not even water. But prety sure they using the mnoderator for the reaction still.
Gen IV desires, trying to do this higher temp, better efficiency. Fixing the downtime problems.
Higher availability.
Gen IV concept instead of using water use the boiling gas already.
High temp gas cooled reactor. ITs a combined cycle on the generator shaft.
Very high temp also using a helium coolant.
Another would be moving molten metal like lead around, or sodium or salt.
Superphenix commercial reactor. sodium cooled fast breeder reactor.
Geniv includes bunch new things, the pebble bed reactor
Pebble bed the pellets have moderator inside.
continuous fuel cycle.
NEw on top cycle out the bottoms
If they all fell into a control rod bed the reaction would stop.
Liquid bed.
Pebble bed reactor scheme. thats the one https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pebble-bed_reactor
New fuels, Thorium cycle, using fuels more completely, containing wastes, the pebbles already in a contained state.

_ Dealing with used fuel. Reprocessing
When you do fission you get some by products the fission products.
The goal in Nuclear energy trying to get that waste to the level of natural radioactivity found in the natural ore.
500 years, time length for thee fission products to decay, sao humans knowledge of engineering other subjects surpasses 500 years.
The problem line is the actinide, the heavier than uranium products. Plutonium neptunium californium Amerecium, long halflifes.
That graph progresses faster. Link If it dont work search “Decay in radioactivity of high level waste.
Reproccesing in a breeder reactor is, youre gonna have to reproccess anyways cause the plutonium is the fuel rearranging that in the reactor.
Plenty of resources now, could use breeder reactors in the future.
Standard light water reactor.
You make plutonium Pu 239, 240, 241, 242 doesnt equal bomb.
Contrast to breeder reactor. That only makes 239, Can maybe = bomb.
Thats a proliferation note.
So far so good on the being able to contain plutonium on the reproccesing.
Isotopic seperation is tech.
France and Pakistan doing reprocessing.
IFR reactor, the heavy metals never leave the containment building.
Neat concept. Argonne nat lab.
Breeder reactor could be really useful later on.
Liquid metal reactor, like the phenix.
The plant demo showing some differences. ITs basically upgrading fuel rods, integral fast reactors.
Thats probably a big feature of the gen 5 reactors.
Taking out those products before they become fuel

_ New content coming soon.
Only 15 vids left.

_How solar cell works
The magic in a solar cell.
How a solar cell works.
Si4 crystal.
History, someone, placing all the elemeents in the table next to each other, or a box containing all those spots.
Trying to measure the conductivity of the silicon, researcher says its making electricity.
Day makes electriciy night not.
Light is converting something in this rock to electricity.
Something about it being next to phosphorus in the work area.
Then discovering its not the silicon by itself, its a little phosphorus with a extra bond available in the lattice. (as opposed to the 4 bonds possible from silicon)
Its called doping 1of 10000
Extra bond a free electron.
Mobile electron. It increases the conductivity.
Still electrically neutral.
n-type silicon.
negative charge type.
Children and parents demo, the parents are the positive nuclei, with that extra electron now, will have some electron diffusion.
Kids negative parent positive electric field.
They wont wander too far.
Put some n-type silicon on top.
put some on top of the regular (intrinsic)
N-type has the lattice, has the free electon its go a phosphorus somewhere in there.
More things free to fuse on top, some of the elctrons will difuse from top to bottom.
When this happens, this causes a charge imbalance and electric field at that junction.
Doping only top layer
Next step, N-type, and regular.
That region has big electric field pointing down.
This region wont have mobile charge carriers, will be depleted.
Electron diffusion, causes a depleted region
photons have enough energy to break the bond from the electron and its nucleus
Produce an electron ion pair.
Sun does same thing, ultraviolet more energy can break more bonds thats why sunscreen is good.
In the Ntype reagion photon does nothing bonds and absorbed.
The next region if it get there, the ion will feel pull up, the electron will feel pull down.
“If you produce a photon pair in the depletion zone youll get movement of charge = electricty.”
You need a wire electrode on top. another metal on the bottom, connect some wires, discovered by accident.
Solar cell, why blue. absorb all the light. All the photons.
no ligth returning/reflecting. I think i seen this before, but its nice to see again refresh.
_ Why sound sounds good.
_ Why is sky blue
_ back with new markers
11 vids left

_ Energy stats: Then and now
Wrapping up these videos, this looks liek a update on some energy usage.
This one is energy use by source, 2018-2006
The quad unit again, 1 Quad = 10^15 BTU
10^18 Joules.
#1 Oil. 2018 36.1, 2006 39.8
Nat gas.2018 31.0, 2006 22.4 Less CO then coal lowered the amount of CO2
Coal. 2018 13.2, 2006 22.5 Fracking cheaper than coal. American energy independent, if you included Canada.
Nuclear 2018 8.4, 2006 8.2
Hydro electric 2018 2.7, 2006 2.9
Wind 2018 2.5 2006 0.26 X10^ Renewables 5%
Wood (waste) 2.3 2006 2.1
Ethanol Biodiesel 2018 2.3, 2006 0.76 X3^
Solar 2018, 1.0 2006 0.07 X15^
Garbagee 2018 0.5, 2006 0.4
Geothermal 2018 0.2 2006 0.35
Another graph from 50s to preesent.
Cosumption levels off. Make more stuff with less energy.
switch from coal to nat gas.
Renewable line going up.
Rest of the world.
Its showing some data between energy use by country 2016 -2014
China taken the lead in energy use by country.
India growth.

_ Updates video, talent show lol.

_ Lithium for fusion energy.
Making fusion cheaper, with lithium.
using low atyomic numbers IE lithium to withstand the heat during fusion.
Lithium its almost as low as you can go.
Not the opnly reason (low atomic number)
The H or more like the (D,T) Say that was to hit the wall would make some LiH
Or dissolves, in the lithium.
So what, who cares?
Imagine the sun.
Whatever leaves the sun keeps going.
Because of that, any gasses that escape the confinenment, doesnt hit a wall.
But, if it was in a magnetic fusion device the wind would stick and hit a wall.
Eventually the fluix to the wall will equalk the flux going back from the wall, will get saturated with flux.
The temp will be 100 000 000 degrees.
say the wall is 300degrees.
Basically illustrating youre always returnuing cooler to the fusion device, but its ejecting really hot.
Standard fusion reactores, the fusion part in the middle, cooler around the wall.
Small amount of volume participating in the fusion.
This time with lithium is a entire volume participating in the reaction.
Using lithium to make 20times smaller device.
Still new tech.
showing the lab.
Neat. Im looking at a bunch of things no idea, id call research equipment with many warning signs.
Some vessels that look really sturdy.
The fusion device itself.
Basically the idea is your trying to get a molten flowing state.
So that its always getting hit with fresh molten lithium.
On the edge of the plasma.
TEMHD
Its a E rotated 90 degree left.
thats the cooling portion.
The top is the filled in portion, of the a metal Its a thermocouple.
therrmocouple property.
Temperature, = volt
so diff temp different volt.
So the top part heat is at 1.0 volt, the cooler is at 0.9 volt.
Voltage different.
Flowing current.
So it goes down the lithium groove, up the other groove.
Theres a force its the JxB= force
B is the magentic.
Some high tech amd some visuals of lithium flowing.
Wow more actual research they did showing the lithium movement.

_ Thorium, and Modular micro.
Thorium. Discussion.
Basic idea, mine the thorium. Th #90
Expose thorium in a nuclear reactor to create U-233
Thorium 232 isotope.
Shows a chart of the decay.
Minutes decays to Pa91.
27 days later U-233
Run another reactor on U-233 and make more U-233 than you use by surrounding the core with thorium.
This is a breeder reactor.
Not magic still using Thorium but make more U-233 on a cycle.
Once you get one get another one going.
Molten salt reactor.
Showing some graphs on the halflives differences.
Afteer its difficult to make bombs from the material in the reactor due to the U-232 the bomb poison.\
Why bother reasons includingt he bomb things.
Why not bother.
Molten salt is cool, theres passive safe ways to fission.
Maybe 50 yrs ago woulda been better economically.
60 years experience, operating the U-235 maybe technological problems were solved at competitive price.
The argument for starting over is not economically compelling.
Research yes, full scale power plants model maybe not.

_Modular micro reactors
Last video
Small to ship thicker safe.
Put em all togetehr for more power/.
Factory 15 MW thermal, vs standard 3000MW
Sealed and accidnet proof.
20 year later, its returned and facotgry buries em.
Competing with diesel at mining sites, military bases.
Remote mining.
Small enough for a truck airplane.
QA of the assembly line.
Fewer moving parts and smaller than a 737
All of the wastes stay inside never have to open it, its like a 20 year loaner.
Fuel is the key.
TRISO tri structurakl isotopic particle fuel.
Fuel size is liek a grain of sand.
Lots of advantages to this fuel; solid and stable high temp.
Fission products and gasses stay trapped inside.
Negative temp reactivety coefficient, this means if it gets too hot stops fissioning.
Press any button you want you cant hurt it.
If the fuel heats up the neutrons are absorbed by both the U-235 and U-238 before they get slowed, and the fissioning stops. No intervention needed.
Resonances in Uranium.
Even if Helium stops flowing air takes out sufficient heat to limit the temp.
Has carbon moderation, but gas cooling so no phase-change can happen in the core.
Power density is dramatically lower, and therefore passively safe.
https://www.usnc.com/
Interesting webpage.
Goes on about the molten salt cycle and the air cooled.
In space wouldnt need that cooling.
Its expensive but true.
The cons, nat gas 2 cents an hour.
Conventional Nuclear consts. 3 cents KWh
Modular~ 25 cents per KWh could be cheaper mass production.
Its just the initial r/d engineering testing first one is expensive.
He mentions 747 makes me think of the boeing 737 max
The competition is diesel for generators.
no Co2 or air polution.
Ideal for some district heating , and process heat.
Actually more economical than diesel varying on costs + CO2.
Fits together like Lego.
There is a Ultra safe Nuclear plan to build the first one in Canada 2024. Department of Energy competition to have a demo reactor.
Couple on the go USA and Canada. Sold the CANDU tech or exported I mean not even that successfully.

Lol these suggested videos, someone tasting deuterieum. lmao.
Ok well that wraps up that, need a few specific research terms but finish this off finally.

April 13 2021 some news about Fukushima. Releasing some water back in to the ocean and what goes with that.

There’s some current events about an attack on Iran centrifuge facilities.
https://www.pbs.org/newshour/show/news-wrap-slain-u-s-capitol-police-officer-honored-by-the-nations-leaders 60% It seems like an attack on the electrical grid.

Watching this STS1 this was a cool article https://world-nuclear.org/information-library/non-power-nuclear-applications/transport/nuclear-reactors-for-space.aspx
and this other one about cosmic origin of the Uranium. Thats super interesting.

https://www.kamloopsthisweek.com/five-things-about-canada-s-proposed-small-modular-nuclear-reactors-1.24307064
More than 100 environmental, anti-nuclear, community and other Canadian groups signed a statement in November declaring SMRs a “dirty, dangerous distraction” from tackling climate change. They argue the fight against global warming can’t wait for the technology to be proven and deployed and warn SMRs will cost more than other low-carbon energy alternatives, won’t create as many jobs and will result in new streams of dangerous nuclear waste.

April 14 Some debate about the SMR today. Renewables vs R/D. Im all about the upgrading diesel. I fuckin hate diesel lol especially in mouth lol.
Imagine the steam revolution smr powered bird suit or any kind of ridiculous idea, add SMR powered lol. Like a walking mech suit.
Canada’s reputation as a safe and well-regulated leader in nuclear energy.
Id a1rgue, what? maybe in the 70’s otherwise seems like on a steep decline as leaders in anything.
How many days ago I was learning about Ultra safe Nuclear building in Canada for 2024. (Seattle based) . So in that aspect cant argue with the no jobs. Go some news on it today .

___ New Illinois energy prof video.
This new SMR Small modular reactor. Gas cooled.
Last year competition for SMR.
Illinois put in a design, and they lost but here are some other 2 designs.
XE-Energy’ XE-100
Triso fuel , gets too hot, stops working.
Big truck design.
Its a high temp gas cooled
Fuel is the little small beads tri structural isotropic particle fuel.
Outer carbon layer silicon carbide, inner carbon compressiobe,
Fuel UCO and UO2 10-20 % U235. Yea thats the fuel enhancements I rememeber.
So the fuel and fission reaction happens in that little vessel. So the wastes alro remain in that pellet. Even the gasses.
So you take one of those grains of thand, x 1000 make into a liek a steel bal, with thousands of those like pellets. in One bigger ball.
And also container for the nuclear waste.
advantages, wont melt, gassses trapped inside again.
Negativer temp reactivity. coeficient this means if it gets too hot its stops fissionning.
Nuclear reaction: fast neutrons are produced and moderated slowed by the carbon blocks
These slowed neeutrons cause fissions.
N -> U-235 more neutrons really fast.
Moderator.
The explanation on the if it gets too hot, the neutrons are absorbed back into the U-238 and no fission occurs.
Whoever found the resonances of uranium gets top magician prize.
Probably Enrico Fermi top wizard lol.
70 ft long 16 ft diameter.
“pebble bed reactor”
Fuel in out, gas cooled, different liquid for the turbine.
Only helium in reactor core.
Electricity or heat.
Walk away safety.
No phase change can happen in the core
How much. 8.4 cents per kwh
X-Energy will make the fuel and 4 reactors.
Could just make heat too industrial.
Coal is around 3000 MW thermal
X-energy is 200 MW thermal range
Could put one at every coal plant.
Maybe a few. Since the infrastructure is there.

____
Heres the biblio for the latest assignement copy pasting here rather than a new post of links begins now.___

Heres a bibliography of some online searches assignment specific.

Learning more about STS, Science tech society. Has some good images. And the R&D interests me.
https://education.usask.ca/documents/profiles/aikenhead/sts05.htm

Lesson 2 Research:
What Isotope of Uranium exists.
Heres so usefull stuff on that
https://www.radioactivity.eu.com/site/pages/Uranium_Isotopes.htm
Isoptope , one of two or more species of atoms of a hemical eleement.
Same atomic number and position, nearly identical chemical behavior but with different atomic masses and physical properties. Every chemical element has one or more isotopes. Difference in neutrons. New forms of old elements.
JJ Thompson and the neon with 10 neutrons, then neon with 12 neutrons.
https://www.britannica.com/video/216564/What-are-isotopes
https://www.britannica.com/science/isotope
Anyways Its basically U-238, U-234 (descendant of U-238), And U-235 Ca be used as fuel in reactor, very high concentrated for weapons.
Those be the natural abundant, and 238 is the 99.3% natural form.
Some other artificial isotopes are 236, 233, 232 For example presence of U236 is formed from U235 fuel, after the neutrino captures that didnt cause fission. The presence of U236 in a sample concludes the sample has been in reactor.

Candu Process : Its a natural fuel U235 So basically mostly U28 0.7~0.9 % U235
What is Half life: Time it takes for a sample to decrease radioactivity by half. Radioactive decay, going from unstable form to more stable form.
https://www.britannica.com/science/half-life-radioactivity
How long is uranium 235 half life is 700 million years. U-238 4.5 billion years.
https://web.evs.anl.gov/uranium/faq/uproperties/faq5.cfm From the Argonne US national lab.
Proceses for fuel
https://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:19013875
CANDU reactors operate on a once-through, natural uranium fuel cycle. The process of turning the natural uranium into reactor fuel bundles is described. The components making up the fuel bundle are UO2 pellets, zircaloy tubes, zircaloy bearing pads and interelement spacers, zircaloy end caps for fuel element closure welds and zircaloy end plates which hold the fuel elements in a bundle. The five process steps in preparing the zircaloy components for the fuel element and the bundle assembly are described and the quality assurance system explained. Because CANDU reactors use natural, rather then enriched uranium the fuel fabrication is a much simpler process requiring smaller plant. CANDU fuel is fabricated in Argentina, South Korea and Romania as well as Canada. (UK)
Concerns about the tritium emissions.
Heres a really basic answer.
CANDU reactors use natural uranium as their nuclear fuel. Natural uranium is composed of about 0.7% uranium-235, and the remaining 99.3% is mostly uranium-238 which cannot directly be used in a fission process to obtain energy.[7] The uranium-238 is fertile and can absorb high speed neutrons and convert to plutonium-239 which is fissile and then undergoes fission; this process accounts for around half of the energy produced within the reactor.[8] CANDU reactors use about 25 to 30% less mined uranium than a comparable light water reactor (mostly because of the better use of neutrons in the reactor).
In CANDU reactors, fuel in the form of uranium oxide powder is packed into pellets and placed in the fuel rods. Thirty seven fuel rods are bunched together to complete a cylindrical fuel bundle, seen in Figure 2. The fuel bundle is approximately 50 cm in length and 10 cm in diameter.[9] A fuel bundle remains in the reactor between 6 and 24 months, depending on its location within the core.[2]
Its a Uranium oxide powder fuel rod.
http://www.nuclearfaq.ca/

How a Nuclear Reactor Works


Candu is the horizontal fuel rods.
https://web.archive.org/web/20161125110315/http://www.edmontonexaminer.com/2016/04/13/though-there-is-potential-for-nuclear-power-in-alberta-theres-more-than-just-public-opinion-holding-it-back
Article about nuclear power in AB. Lol

Finally, operating a nuclear power plant requires vast amounts of water which, if properly treated, could return to the water system, but Alberta has a “highly variable” water supply, which will be affected by climate change in the future. 
Search for Modular reactor nothing just the mega-waterside plant. Anyways just browsing thoght that was interesting.
What wastes Plutonium about half as much as another style LWR
http://nuclearsafety.gc.ca/eng/waste/high-level-waste/index.cfm
Storing some at Chalk river.
https://world-nuclear-news.org/Articles/Trio-of-organisations-collaborate-on-Candu-decommi
More details on the CANDU fuel bundle.
Storing wastes
http://nuclearsafety.gc.ca/eng/waste/high-level-waste/index.cfm
Wet storage Drystorage
The storing of waste is a hot topic, from vegas to Canadian debate. Shoudl eb stored next to usage. Dont want it touching water. Fukushima theyre releasing it.
https://www.bbc.com/news/world-asia-56728068
Uranium oxides.
Centrifuges.
Naturally occuring uranium is super interesting. Or how Uranium is formed.
Cosmic origins of uranium.
https://www.world-nuclear.org/information-library/nuclear-fuel-cycle/uranium-resources/the-cosmic-origins-of-uranium.aspx
Wow learning some things, semi conductor properties.
https://www.world-nuclear.org/nuclear-essentials/how-is-uranium-made-into-nuclear-fuel.aspx

Lesson 3
Included some naturally forming uranium.
Mining concerns:
Processing concerns:
How have uranium mining, and extraction facilities affected communities. Loaded question.
Uraninite, formally pitchblend
https://ags.aer.ca/activities/uranium
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Uraninite
Trying to find some mine news near me.
https://paherald.sk.ca/2021/05/10/could-have-been-a-whole-lot-worse-new-north-reacts-to-this-years-budget/
This one has a 11 million $ increase to clean the Gunnar mines,.
Shut down 1963
https://www.src.sk.ca/project-cleans/gunnar-mine-and-mill-site
Look at all that cleanup.
Well 1963 isnt the pinnacle of environmentalism, Just profited and left.
So in the case of this particular mine, “Gilbert Labine” Canadas Mr. Uranium. Just makes me think.
Joe Boyle to Gilbert Labine.
https://thestarphoenix.com/news/local-news/northern-mine-cleanups-continue-province-feds-still-divided-on-cost
https://patriciasandberg.com/category/gunnar-mines/
https://www.src.sk.ca/blog/gunnar-uranium-mine-cold-war-darling-ghost-town-part-1
What a time you just prospect pick a spot, dig it all up for the government get a medal and cya later. Later the government is hesitant on the cleanups. And the communities there grateful for a opportunity to clean up the site (jobs). Hes in the miners hall of fame, after they didnt decomission they just flooded the mine and threw some old rock in there. Employed a bunch of people during ‘cold war boom’.
Just interested learning about this Labine character. Thesee people didnt make their money from thin air, they dug it out of the ground. Well he had some issues too. Anyways site looks cleaned up. He got order of Canada. https://www.gg.ca/en/honours/recipients/146-2718
trying to find some ‘extraction facilities’
https://www.epa.gov/radtown/radioactive-waste-uranium-mining-and-milling
https://www.azcentral.com/story/news/local/arizona-environment/2021/05/09/quechan-tribe-prepares-new-fight-over-gold-mine-tribal-land/4067624001/
Heres a interesting story, only mentions the uranium at the very bottom, and concerns in the past with Colorado River, however its a Canadian mining company. And, theyree being negatively impacted by the neighboring mine claim.
On mines and mills
http://www.nuclearsafety.gc.ca/eng/uranium/mines-and-mills/index.cfm
Extraction, im finding mill, I found some neat things Rabbit lake and cigar lake.
https://www.cameco.com/businesses/uranium-operations/suspended/rabbit-lake
https://thestarphoenix.com/news/local-news/cameco-developing-plan-to-clean-up-contaminated-groundwater-at-key-lake
https://nuclearsafety.gc.ca/eng/uranium/mines-and-mills/nuclear-facilities/key-lake/index.cfm
Closest perspective I can find.
https://www.estevanmercury.ca/news/business-energy/saskatchewan-wants-feds-to-pony-up-its-share-of-abandoned-uranium-mine-cleanup-1.24174842

Candu High School Northern Saskatchewan. Abandoned in 1982. from saskatchewan

Saskatchewan, feds at odds over abandoned uranium mine remediation


How do you ask a ghost town what theyre perspective is. Uranium city.
Fun fact – CANDU was handed to SNC Lavalin in 2011 for pennies.
”The transaction will place Candu technology in proven, competent hands to be serviced and deployed in Canada and abroad, meeting energy needs and stimulating a supply chain located largely in Canada.”
This comment aged well didn’t it?

Abandoned uranium mine cleanup a provincial responsibility: Sohi from saskatchewan

Opinion: Small modular nuclear reactors distract from real climate solutions from saskatchewan


another year old Re: SMR
Heres a month old :

Alta., Ont., Sask. and N.B. signing agreement to explore small nuclear reactors from saskatchewan

international
Roisser mine Nambia Its profitable and sensitive to environments. Not a good combo.
Uganda profiting from increaseed nuclear.

Energy and mineral sector makes steady progress


https://thebulletin.org/2021/02/radiation-illnesses-and-covid-19-in-the-navajo-nation/
https://www.monitor.co.ug/uganda/oped/commentary/women-should-have-place-in-mining-sector-3261574
Just of interest, theyre building a crude pipeline through a neighboring country.

L4
What kind of radiation is ionizing,
Basically the Sun , anything that can remove the electron and bring about a charge. Cosmic rays.
Gamma rays, X-rays and the higher ultraviolet part of the electromagnetic spectrum are ionizing radiation, whereas the lower energy ultraviolet, visible light, nearly all types of laser light, infrared, microwaves, and radio waves are non-ionizing radiation.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ionizing_radiation
Nice chart with a graphic left and right of the visible light spectrum
Non-ionising on the left ionizing on the right.
Theres some properties of Ionizing radiation.
Distance, inverse square.
Scattering
Absorbstion. Theres a good graphic of how the distance beams
Becquerel
Smoke detectors, static eliminators. Thats a new onw.
Carbon-14 dating.
Food irridiation, sterile insect technique.
Neutron radiation is for the reactors and weapons.
X-ray gamma used for medical and NDT.

What effect does ionizing radiation have on water.
Well Radiolysis.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Radiation_damage
Different effects per different radiations.
Alpha makes Hydrogen peroxide
Beta makes beta decay can be used in reactor.
Gamma rays; Gamma radiation induces hydrogen absorption by coppper in water. Not linking that.
You can Gamma ray waster water to break down organics.
Why is there concern about changes in matter as a result of exposure to ionizing radiation.
Well basically in laymans terms you dont want the water molecule getting destroyed while its in your body and can destroy DNA molecules.
The EPA has a good page.
https://www.epa.gov/radiation/radiation-health-effects
Has some on the concerns about changes in matter,.
This one too.
https://chem.libretexts.org/Bookshelves/General_Chemistry/Map%3A_Chemistry_(Zumdahl_and_Decoste)/20%3A_The_Nucleus_A_Chemists_View/20.7%3A_Effects_of_Radiation_on_Matter
Non ionizing makes things warm.
The blue radiation glass.
The Illinois energy prof sit eat throw away exercise.

Heres a perspective around the Bruce site.https://london.ctvnews.ca/mobile/saugeen-first-nation-debates-fate-of-canada-s-nuclear-waste-1.5430208
You know A commenter wrote, the government controls everything nuclear except when its time to clean up or pay for clean up costs.
So its no wonder these people dont trust the gov. look at the record. Its like a shitty friend there for all the good times, no where to be found when its time to clean up. Doesnt that describe Seamusa and the current gov well, there for the party thats it. Pure cronyism.

The no number.
Nuclear is like a scale,

1- Its the CANDU scientific & technological perspective
First its my personal perspective. CANDU is a has been. Pildfered and sat on by governments from the 60s. Where we could have been: look at China, japan, leading the way in exports.
If we would have focused on nuclear and recommendations from Chief engineers in the 70’s wed be laughing all the way to the bank now. No, now its lobbyist have left us quite a large gap.
So if we were nuclear powerhouse in the 70s our leader have squandered our opportunities. Throwing a little miniscule investment at the SMR’s another wasted chance. In the USA they have the EPA and argonnes national lab and government benefits to energy makers. Here we have buddy deals and SNC.
Bureacrats keen on nickel and diming projects to oblivion.If its not that its proliferation India bomb, and Romanian corruption. The technology perspective is cool. I mean what im supposed to be in awe with Bruce power. The shits outdated 70s tech and havent invested in anything new since the 70s.
Did I say 70s I meant 40s and 50s. It just becomes silly I mean I read the reccomendations from chief engineer, our government obviously didnt. When youre still talking about transporting the oil by rail in the 2020s. Id say look at Uganda, using logic and reason.
I mean everyone knows a pipeline is the most effective safest way so far to move your resources.Land.
https://www.cbc.ca/archives/entry/a-candu-fiasco-in-romania
https://www.nrcan.gc.ca/energy/energy-sources-distribution/uranium-nuclear-energy/nuclear-energy/international-perspective/7717

https://www.world-nuclear.org/reactor/default.aspx/CERNAVODA-2
I guess I would say on the Cernavoda 2 83 start, and 2007 commercial.
https://www.nucnet.org/news/romania-signs-declaration-of-intent-with-france-10-3-2020
So thats 1983 to 2021. Or 2007-2021 nothing.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_commercial_nuclear_reactors
China has the mega reactor list. The 2/67 CANDU they are using. Almost a whole 3%.
France and its 0% CANDU Reactors. 0% USA CANDU reactors. UK 0% CANDU.
Whats the most important thing with a nuclear reactor, that is safe and it gives power.
So I think the tech is cool it just its not that huge of an export maybe and not top of the line.
South Korea, UK have variety of styles,
South Korea with those impressive build times.
USA went with a couple models Canada went with one.
https://world-nuclear.org/information-library/nuclear-fuel-cycle/nuclear-power-reactors/nuclear-power-reactors.aspx

2- Perspective on the nuclear power
Ok I watched the Three mile island documentary, you can like see the concern in people, and the president going down there. Id like to say I am compassionate with those people and the fear. Though its really nothing comparable to the Chernobyl. No one wants to have loved ones go through those nuclear disaster experienced at TMI, Chernobyl Fukushima or Hiroshima. That being said everyt new reactor some new technology passive safety, the gas cooled. Liquid sodium cooled, high termperature gas cooled. Molten Salt reactor, Thorium. All sorts of cool new tech to lower wastes and improve safety systems. Recycling fuels.
https://www.world-nuclear.org/information-library/safety-and-security/safety-of-plants/safety-of-nuclear-power-reactors.aspx
The weapons vs the power generation, and medical agricultural benefits.
The nuclear weapons to sit at the big table
Ok, im lookingf at more perspectives of nuclear power.
Fly ash, from coal, more dangerous.
Compare what you get for X dollars living next to coal vs next to nuclear.
No news is good news rigth.

Pickering Nuclear Incident from ontario


es_are_fear/
https://www.bbc.com/news/world-us-canada-51084859
picture

More talk on that natural reactor.
https://www.nwmo.ca/ This is on

3- Sale of Candu tech
https://www.cbc.ca/news/business/aecl-sold-for-15m-to-snc-lavalin-1.985786
What the hell you gonna do with 15 million thats not even a whole reactor
Then the Wylfa, cancelling cause 20 billion too much..
https://www.bbc.com/news/uk-wales-54158091.
https://www.bbc.com/news/uk-wales-55833186
old wylfa

4- Residents and CANDU reactor
Living next to reactor.
There is some debate in Ontario still.

Ontario anti-nuclear group with their iron-clad “facts” from ontario

New group distributing information on nuclear waste to 30,000 households in northwestern Ontario | CBC News from ontario

Anti-nuclear flyers sent to 50,000 homes are ‘fear mongering,’ says top scientist from ontario

‘Human error,’ ‘systemic issues’ led to Pickering nuclear false alarm from canada


Its like the pickering incident reminded everyone to be scared again.

Living near a nuclear power plant… what are the dangers? from NuclearPower


Cant explain it better than senior plant operator obviously living in the area.
Obviously its desirable to live next to ontario nuclear cause expensive to live there.
Would you rather live next to Nuclear or coal, diesel.

5- Nuclear exports.
Using this one again.
South Korea
https://www.world-nuclear.org/information-library/country-profiles/countries-o-s/south-korea.aspx

France wants to be world competitor.
Russia leads in Nuclear exports in 2018 China is the only competition.
That ‘test radiological’ equipment is a Canadian export.
Like a Siemens
Then the cobalt 60 therapy radioisotope “External Beam Radiotherapy”
The Iran Uranium refining in the news
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cobalt_therapy
Walt Disney was treated with the cobalt treatment 1966

-Using Nuclear tech
Simply put even if you dont like nuclear tech its still being used around.
US Navy, and Russian Ice breakers.
Space exploration outside solar system impossible without nuclear.
Has the energy and heat required for sensitive equipment. No sun for solar panels.
Alot of that nuclear anti proliferation translates to no nuclear at all.
My opinion should be using nuclear power to phase out coal, diesel.
Mining should be done sustainably.
Not this after all the resources pilfered and land destroyed theres no money for clean up.
Profits. I understand the operation costs and building say a nuclear plant, but everyone should benefit.
Not some nickel and diming customers into oblivion. The prices should be lower to benefit all.
I think I agree with the proff Its should level out (energy usage) then finding ways to get more with less. Every country wants its own industrial evolution. Using the tech for the lower carbon, space junk.
Sulfur dioxide proven to cool the planet after volcano blasts into the atmosphere.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Stratospheric_sulfur_aerosols

Using nuclear tech. Just searching.
https://www.thesun.co.uk/tech/14990543/quasicrystal-formed-after-nuclear-bomb-test/
Quasi crystals thats neat
https://www.britannica.com/science/quasicrystal
https://www.businesswire.com/news/home/20210518005604/en/Global-Baby-Monitor-Market-Outlook-and-Forecast-Report-2021-2026-Growing-Demand-For-Smart-Baby-Monitors-Increase-In-Tech-Savvy-Millennial-Parents—ResearchAndMarkets.com
(Growth In nuclear families)
https://www.manilatimes.net/2021/05/19/opinion/columnists/topanalysis/israel-americas-frankenstein-yet-valuable-monster/873964/
https://www.politico.com/newsletters/morning-energy/2021/05/18/iea-lays-out-narrow-road-to-net-zero-795360
IEA , net zero. Immediate massive deployment of all available clean, and efficient energy technologies.
IEA -USA https://www.iea.org/ https://www.eia.gov/
Whats going on in my backyard, proposed and backlashed, coal expansions and Helium Avanti energy in AB.

ISRO plans for nuclear energy use in space


Thermal nuclear propulsion.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kosmos_954
But also NASA is capable of launching nucleics over civilization.

Extrasolar Object Interceptor Would be Able to Chase Down the Next Oumuamua or Borisov and Actually Return a Sample


Thats super interesting.
And more Advance Nuclear Thermal propulsion.

Canadian researchers tout nuclear-renewable hybrid solution for shipping


Hybrid nuclear solution for shipping.
https://www.thesun.co.uk/tech/14931325/atomik-booze-radioactive-chernobyl-apples-ukranian-spies/
This just a crazy story about atomic Vodka using apples from chernobyl.
https://www.nasa.gov/press-release/nasa-invests-105-million-in-us-small-business-technology-development
Wow investing in super heat resistant cameras.

What does uranium decay into?

The half-life of uranium-238 is 4.5 billion years. It decays into radium-226, which in turn decays into radon-222. Radon-222 becomes polonium-210, which finally decays into a stable nuclide, lead.Jul. 25, 2017

Facts About Uranium | Live Science
Decay chain and Nuclear resonance thats, Enrico Fermi

https://x-energy.com/reactors/xe-100

https://nuclearsafety.gc.ca/eng/resources/news-room/feature-articles/robotic-technologies-at-nuclear-facilities.cfm

https://nuclearsafety.gc.ca/eng/resources/learning-portal/gamma-gear-game.cfm
Play the gamma game lol.

https://nuclearsafety.gc.ca/eng/resources/health/health-studies/eldorado/index.cfm#faq
Eldorado study.

That train truck transport experiment.

https://www.mdpi.com/2076-0787/7/1/5/html mostly abandoned
alex mcpherson story
https://thestarphoenix.com/news/local-news/uranium-city-trip-highlights-our-ties-to-natural-resources

1- my assignment specific Uranium and supernova
https://world-nuclear.org/information-library/nuclear-fuel-cycle/uranium-resources/the-cosmic-origins-of-uranium.aspx
Cosmic origins of uranium.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Near-Earth_supernova
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Parsec#/media/File:M87_jet.jpg Parsec and images
1987A super nova
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/SN_1987A
Archive: Double Rings of a Supernova Explosion (NASA, Chandra, 02/22/07)
The kepler supernova
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kepler%27s_Supernova
https://www.nasa.gov/audience/forstudents/5-8/features/nasa-knows/what-is-a-supernova.html
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Neutron_star
Neutron star merger https://youtu.be/sgkDoSbHHVU
https://www.e-education.psu.edu/eme444/node/264

Depending on what happens forms a black hole or a bigger neutron star.
https://www.space.com/neutron-star-crash-made-gold-uranium.html
This amazing tokamak articificial sun https://www.scmp.com/news/china/science/article/3135332/chinese-artificial-sun-hits-new-mark-fusion-energy-mission
https://www.world-nuclear.org/information-library/current-and-future-generation/nuclear-fusion-power.aspx
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Discovery_of_nuclear_fission
https://www.britannica.com/science/atom/Discovery-of-radioactivity
https://www.radioactivity.eu.com/site/pages/Neutrons_Moderators.htm
https://www.quora.com/Why-do-slower-neutrons-in-nuclear-reactors-have-a-higher-probability-of-causing-fission-with-certain-isotopes-of-uranium-unlike-fast-neutrons
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chalk_River_Laboratories
https://www.nrc.gov/reading-rm/basic-ref/students/science-101/what-are-different-types-of-radiation.html
Chicago Pile-1
Decay chain https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Radioactive_decay_chains_diagram.svg
http://large.stanford.edu/courses/2011/ph241/olson1/
sun fusion used this person photo.

https://pixabay.com/vectors/radiation-radioactivity-nuclear-5407733/
particle penetration photo.

2- More CANDU specifics.
https://www.cns-snc.ca/media/history/ZEEP/ZEEP_CNSBulletin_Fall1995.html
…Canadian Nuclear Program.
Experiments in the NRX, NRU, and WR-1 reactors, and work in AECL’s laboratories and Canadian industry, …
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/NRX
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/National_Research_Universal_reactor
https://www.cns-snc.ca/media/history/wr-1/wr-1_1.html
https://www.cns-snc.ca/media/history/wr-1/wr-1_3.html
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/WR-1
This WR-1 research reactor used water, and “The main problem with using normal water as a moderator is that it also absorbs some of the neutrons. The neutron balance in the natural isotopic mix is so close that even a small number being absorbed in this fashion means there are too few to maintain criticality.”

ZED-2 Research Reactor


Candu 6 , Candu 9
https://energyeducation.ca/encyclopedia/CANDU_reactor
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Atomic_Energy_of_Canada_Limited
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Heavy_water
Its a water molecule but instead of Hydrogens bonded to a Oxygen. Replaces the Hydrogens with Deuteriums. https://www.sciencedirect.com/topics/earth-and-planetary-sciences/deuterium
Adding a neutron to the Hydrogen atom.
https://energyeducation.ca/encyclopedia/CANDU_reactor
http://nuclearsafety.gc.ca/eng/reactors/power-plants/nuclear-power-plant-safety-systems/index.cfm

How a Nuclear Reactor Works


https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pressurized_heavy-water_reactor
CANDU vs light water and the proliferation that did occur.
Its all about the possible upgrades, upgrades in fuel cooling, passive walk away safety.
https://canteach.candu.org/Content%20Library/19980101.pdf
Differences between the CANDU6/CANDU9, and LWR pros and cons.
https://inis.iaea.org/collection/NCLCollectionStore/_Public/30/057/30057728.pdf?r=1&r=1
Talking about SEU fuels slightly enriched Uranium.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Advanced_CANDU_reactor
Advanced CANDU, its the Gen III using more light water and more enricheed fuels
https://thetyee.ca/Analysis/2021/05/26/US-Experts-Trudeau-Your-Nuclear-Dream-May-Turn-Nightmare/
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Operation_Smiling_Buddha

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nuclear_energy_in_Argentina
https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Central_Nuclear_Atucha_I_-_II.JPG

https://www.bnamericas.com/en/news/argentina-power-watch-renewables-tender-new-energy-minister-atucha-iii
https://www.world-nuclear-news.org/NN-Atucha-3-contract-signed-0409145.html

2 billion.
http://www.nucleartourist.com/type/candu2.htm
https://www.canadiangeographic.ca/article/candu-canadian-success-story Im using ur picture (Photo: Bruce Power/Cameco Corp.)
Fuel channel
https://www.energy.gov/ne/articles/5-fast-facts-about-spent-nuclear-fuel
https://inis.iaea.org/collection/NCLCollectionStore/_Public/49/101/49101472.pdf

https://www.weforum.org/agenda/2018/11/destroying-nuclear-waste-to-create-clean-energy-it-can-be-done/
https://www.ivey.uwo.ca/energycentre/blog/2019/06/a-closer-look-at-hydro-quebecs-electricity-price-advantage-over-ontario/
Prices average kWh per Canadian household
Theres so many discrepencies for kwh per hour, the statscan says 117.7 Gigajoules which makes 32685kwh per year. https://www150.statcan.gc.ca/t1/tbl1/en/tv.action?pid=2510006001 (2015 AB)
https://www.eia.gov/tools/faqs/faq.php?id=97&t=3 USA household says low 6296 kWh Hawaii to Higher Louisiana 14787 kWh average of 10649kWh
Just a personal note was much easier finding recent data about USA than it was on the statscan page, stats can was lacking- to say the least. Found some data from 6 years ago
https://world-nuclear.org/information-library/economic-aspects/economics-of-nuclear-power.aspx

Cost of Nuclear Power in Ontario


http://www.world-nuclear.org/uploadedfiles/org/info/pdf/economicsnp.pdf
https://nuclearsafety.gc.ca/eng/reactors/power-plants/regulatory-oversight-report-npp/npp-report-2014.cfm wet storage
https://www.researchgate.net/figure/Overview-of-MACSTOR-11_fig3_323524464
MACSTOR

https://www.iaea.org/newscenter/multimedia/videos/onkalo-a-solution-for-nuclear-waste
Finland, Okanlo site.

Using nuclear tech
Crookes tuber XRAY https://openclipart.org/detail/274838/illustration-of-crookes-xray-tube
HIFU ultrasound https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Diagram_showing_liver_lesioning_using_a_HIFU_transducer_2.png

Marie Curie quote
Nothing in life is to be feared, it is only to be understood. Now is the time to understand more, so that we may fear less.
https://www.pbs.org/wgbh/nova/article/first-nuclear-chain-reaction-changed-the-world-75-years-ago-today/
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/X-ray
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fluoroscopy
https://world-nuclear.org/information-library/nuclear-fuel-cycle/conversion-enrichment-and-fabrication/uranium-enrichment.aspx
https://www.wsj.com/articles/iran-nuclear-fuel-production-drops-sharply-following-natanz-explosion-11622482066
https://www.anl.gov/education/argonne-discovery-offers-new-way-to-coat-nuclear-materials
https://www.anl.gov/article/5-ways-argonne-scientists-are-powering-ahead-on-nuclear-microreactors
https://www.nrc.gov/materials/fuel-cycle-fac/ur-enrichment.html
touching on some laser excitements.
https://www.atomicheritage.org/history/nth-country-experiment
nth country experiment, its a good one.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Crookes_tube
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cathode_ray
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/X-ray_fluorescence
ultrasound
https://www.ob-ultrasound.net/hydrophone.html
https://www.ob-ultrasound.net/history.html
https://www.ob-ultrasound.net/brown-on-ultrasound.html
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hydrophone
M Richardson, in 1912 in response to the Titanic disaster, suggested both airborn and underwater echo- ranging schemes, and, in 1914, RA Fessenden experimentally demonstrated echo-ranging underwater detection of an iceberg. The transducer that Langevin used in the earlier days was a mosaic of thin quartz crystals glued between two steel plates (the composite having a resonant frequency of about 150 KHz), mounted in a housing suitable for submersion. In the underwater community the word transducer means a device that has the capability of both transmitting and receiving sound. A projector is a device that transmits sound underwater. Projectors are used in active systems. In active systems, after the sound has been generated, the sound waves travel to a target and return as echoes to be detected. Projectors are usually used near their resonance frequencies where they provide the highest acoustic output.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Robert_William_Boyle
https://labblog.uofmhealth.org/health-tech/ultrasound-technology-developed-at-u-m-now-clinical-trials-for-liver-cancer
Thats some new histotripsy focused ultrasound.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/High-intensity_focused_ultrasound
Ct scan its xray
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/CT_scan
https://www.siemens-healthineers.com/computed-tomography
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Siemens

AI triage solution for PE and aortic dissection receives FDA clearance and CE mark


https://www.med-technews.com/news/ai-and-vr-in-healthcare/emergency-ai-triage-system-receives-fda-clearance-and-ce-mar/
https://www.ctvnews.ca/health/can-we-use-radiation-to-treat-alzheimer-s-canadian-pilot-study-finds-improved-cognition-after-ct-scans-1.5449139
MRI
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Magnetic_resonance_imaging
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nuclear_magnetic_resonance
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Stern-Gerlach_experiment
https://www.techtimes.com/articles/261017/20210603/covid-19-lung-diseases-observation-better-%E2%80%94-scientists-use-xenon.htm

Mapping How the Brain Organizes Semantic Activity


funny https://www.dailystar.co.uk/real-life/doctor-spills-beans-creepy-reason-24238789
agri
https://www.mcgill.ca/oss/article/health-you-asked/food-irradiation-dangerous
https://www.iaea.org/
https://www.iaea.org/newscenter/news/new-tsetse-sorting-technology-leads-to-more-efficient-pest-control
https://www.iaea.org/newscenter/news/argentinas-newly-recognized-fruit-fly-free-areas-expedite-fresh-fruit-exports-to-china
https://www.iaea.org/topics/food-and-agriculture
https://www.iaea.org/newscenter/news/living-in-harmony-with-mother-earth-user-friendly-instant-tool-kit-helps-indian-farmers-determine-soil-organic-carbon

industrial commercial
https://www.iaea.org/services/key-programmes/nutec-plastics
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Radiocarbon_dating
https://www.iaea.org/newscenter/news/world-water-day-2021-optimizing-water-resources-with-nuclear-and-isotopic-techniques
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Arktika_(2016_icebreaker)
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nuclear-powered_icebreaker
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Electromagnetic_radiation
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Xenon_arc_lamp
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Neutron_poison
https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:%D0%9A%D1%80%D0%B8%D0%B3%D0%BE%D0%BB%D0%B0%D0%BC_%22%D0%90%D1%80%D0%BA%D1%82%D0%B8%D0%BA%D0%B0%22.jpg
icebreaker pic
Enrichments
URENCO Centrifuges

DU munitions
https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:U-238_DU_ammunition.JPG

SLEIC 6
Siemens newer MRI
Siemines wheelie CT scan https://www.fiercebiotech.com/medtech/fda-clears-siemens-wheeled-bedside-ct-scanner
Siemens CT https://www.flickr.com/photos/thirteenofclubs/5490413146
Xenon arclamp and imax
https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Xenon_IMAX_1.jpg

the texas pic

Perspectives
Chief engineer.
https://www.cns-snc.ca/media/pdf_doc/position_papers/421_RNNR_Rpt05_GR-e.pdf
https://cns-snc.ca/media/history/pioneers/g_brooks/gbrooks.html Broken links
https://www.cns-snc.ca/cns/history/
https://canteach.candu.org/Content%20Library/19720103.pdf
http://nuceng.ca/canteachvba/nDan%20Meneley.htm
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1973_oil_crisis
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Three_Mile_Island_accident
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chernobyl_disaster
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Elephant%27s_Foot_(Chernobyl)
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chernobylite
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Trinitite
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Corium_(nuclear_reactor)
https://www.bbc.com/news/world-asia-56728068

https://www.theglobeandmail.com/politics/article-internal-audit-lays-bare-problems-at-public-health-agency-of-canada/
https://www.theglobeandmail.com/canada/article-ottawa-was-told-about-potential-problems-at-public-health-agency-top/
Scientists forced to dumb down reports
https://www.history.navy.mil/our-collections/photography/numerical-list-of-images/nhhc-series/nh-series/NH-85000/NH-85526.html
Pics of former president Jimmy Carter doiung Navy things.
economics of a reactor https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=cbeJIwF1pVY
this germany info about https://www.nber.org/papers/w26598
The social cost of this shift from nuclear to coal is approximately 12 billion dollars per year. Over 70% of this cost comes from the increased mortality risk associated with exposure to the local air pollution emitted when burning fossil fuels. 

https://www.bbc.com/future/article/20210419-the-end-of-the-worlds-capital-of-brown-coal
https://nationalpost.com/news/canada/newsalertopg-says-alert-about-pickering-nuclear-plant-was-sent-in-error
https://www.cer-rec.gc.ca/en/data-analysis/energy-markets/provincial-territorial-energy-profiles/provincial-territorial-energy-profiles-ontario.html

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Steam_reforming
.
https://thestarphoenix.com/news/local-news/northern-mine-cleanups-continue-province-feds-still-divided-on-cost
https://www.mbcradio.com/2018/11/sask-says-ottawa-not-paying-for-gunnar-mine-remediation Im using your picture

https://thestarphoenix.com/news/local-news/gunnar-mine-reclamation-forging-ahead-despite-legal-battle-over-cost
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Depleted_uranium
https://www.cbc.ca/radio/thehouse/chris-hall-there-s-no-path-to-net-zero-without-nuclear-power-says-o-regan-1.5730197
https://oilprice.com/Latest-Energy-News/World-News/Tanzania-Uganda-Finalize-Oil-Pipeline-Deal.html
Even Uganda has a pipeline.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gerald_W._Brown
RC) that the fire testing used to qualify Thermo-Lag was inadequate. By the time of the disclosure, many nuclear plants had already installed the faulty product.
https://www.nei.org/fundamentals/nuclear-fuel
one fuel pellet compared to the rest.
https://www.bbc.com/news/uk-wales-55833186
https://www.bbc.com/news/uk-wales-54158091
https://tradingeconomics.com/japan/exports-by-category
Japan 121.64 billion nuclear exports 2020.
https://www.cbc.ca/news/business/aecl-sold-for-15m-to-snc-lavalin-1.985786
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/SNC-Lavalin_affair

https://www.nrcan.gc.ca/our-natural-resources/energy-sources-distribution/nuclear-energy-uranium/canadas-small-nuclear-reactor-action-plan/21183
action plans and roadmaps.
https://thetyee.ca/Analysis/2021/05/26/US-Experts-Trudeau-Your-Nuclear-Dream-May-Turn-Nightmare/
https://biv.com/article/2021/05/canadas-nuclear-ambitions-linchpin-carbon-free-future-or-path-greenwash-oilsands
https://www.world-nuclear-news.org/Articles/SMR-160-completes-first-phase-of-Canadian-review
https://world-nuclear-news.org/Articles/Report-highlights-economic-benefits-of-Canadian-SM

https://www.forbes.com/sites/arielcohen/2020/10/29/the-future-of-small-modular-reactors-department-of-energy-awards-135-billion-to-nuscale-power-for-smr-development/

https://world-nuclear-news.org/Articles/X-energy-formally-begins-SMR-partnership-with-DOE

https://x-energy.com/reactors/xe-100
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_commercial_nuclear_reactors

Home

Home


https://usnc.com/
https://www.wsj.com/articles/escape-from-yucca-mountain-biden-administration-promises-progress-on-nuclear-waste-11620984602
https://atlantic.ctvnews.ca/n-l-premier-says-ex-pm-chretien-pitched-nuclear-waste-storage-plan-in-labrador-1.5371444

cask test
Natural reactor
https://www.forbes.com/sites/startswithabang/2018/10/04/earths-first-nuclear-reactor-is-1-7-billion-years-old-and-was-made-naturally/?sh=1814fab25d94

Space Future

https://www.space.com/nuclear-power-spacecraft-after-perseverance-rover
https://www.space.com/mars-rover-perseverance-nuclear-power-source-explained.html
https://www.nbcnews.com/mach/science/stephen-hawking-says-humans-must-leave-earth-within-600-years-ncna818926
https://www.energy.gov/articles/nuclear-heart-cassini
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Enceladus
https://www.cnbc.com/2019/07/17/why-jeff-bezos-spends-billions-on-space-technology.html
https://www.vanityfair.com/news/2019/06/jeff-bezos-wants-to-move-industry-to-space-to-save-the-earth

Cosmos
pic
https://www.pbs.org/wgbh/nova/article/Sagan-Time-Travel/
Enceladus - October 2008
Enceladus
https://www.space.com/nuclear-reactor-for-mars-outpost-2022.html
Marsbase nuclear
https://www.space.com/5850-nasa-eyes-nuclear-power-moon-base.html
moonbase nuclear

Hagstone Demon 2009

Rated R for good reason, and some gross scenes.
It was good movie I thought better then what I normally watch.
Got super weird near the end, was tyring to keep up.
But, overall was interesting as a movie finished that one in a couple sittings.

Movie got me several times in cheap thrills.
I was wondering what the hell was going on and just iennjoying the chaotic dark scenes. Boiler room trapdoors and crawlspaces.
Then just weird things with the ring. Not knowing whats happening with plot.
Otherwise the black and white makes it creepy along with the building in general and the characters.
Strange movie prolly not for everyone but I enjoyed it.
___
Not even sure what t write I like the narators settings cast. The cheap thrills and wondering what the hell was going on.
Man vs supernatural and vs some characters. Funny dialogue like James Rolfe said.

The Cyclops ’57

Sierra Madre its black and white. A woman seeking her lost husband of 3 years hires rag tag group of adventurers. Film starts with her asking the governor. Its like a indiana jones style treasure hunt. how can you wear a tweed suit in the hot Mexican sun. Doing some homework on the side, do a little homework, watch a scene.
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Movie pretty short. Acting was really good. The special effects were the wort, really comical. When he grabs his wife, yea that shot, just takes the whole background. The nerd is like I didnt know you could do that then does the shot himself. That was hilarious.
And that cyclops yell, I dunno I was laughing my ass off. I guess its no different than greenscreen nowadays lol, I guess. Only an hour and 5 mins how can you go wrong.

The Omen ’76 + Running scared ’86

Actually started watching some Running scared. Its kinda like chucky in the train scene Chicago opening. Billy Crystal., Im gonna watch omen, the 80s fix must be quenched. Whoa joe Pantoliano from Goonies.Ouch hit by car as pedestrian May 2020. Goonies is the best movie. Snow foam ew.
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The theme song is what I heard first before the movie. I got Blues Bros on the list. 80’s fest officially. Yea anyways was talking about that song. Michael Macdonald Sweet Freedom. Good song. im watching the movie.
Thats a first pre-prodigy haircut. Hot tvs. Whats next hot VCRs, by the boat load. and uzis in a box. Lol this movie has its funny moments. Ordered on vacation.
Some tuna fishing changes than chicago.
Hmm Familiar caged apartment. Called the El Camino, Chicago. Movie Action Comedy. Hey its the other Kramer, with the taxi cab. Pacific mission. The cars on the train tracks. Making good time lol. OK that was pretty good movie was fun to watch takin it back to 86. Gregory Hines and Chicago and The Cubs. gotta watch the Paths of Glory again. Watchd the Kubrick doc Night of the fight with Walter Cartier. I seen paths of glory but revisit that.

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watching this omen finally, Gregory Peck , how many times have I said , is that greg peeck and been wrong ? atleast once.
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Ok Omen is hardcore, this movie like a 2 hour suspense horror with good acting. Im suprised with Gregory Peck in this rolee. Its a supernatural horror religious specifically the son of the devil came to be as a adopted kid. Not writing too much commentary enjoying watching it between problems. Graphic, and hardcore this movie some real terror and just generally creepy characters & settings.
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holy shit that was hardcore lol.
Some deep sinister looks from Mr Peck. i think that was awesome movie. Although 70’s gore to the max, falls. cringey fights yea that movie was no joke. NMo real comparison to running scared just theres no rules so why not. If I had to compare, its no contest the Omen wins. Gets you with the real horror. Its a bit cheezy at times, otherwise pretty captivating. That one still took a long time to watch on the list. Been busy with school, and life. Gl;as its over now, ill watch em when I can. The more I do, the more I do including watching these old flicks. Havent read or heard much anything bout the omen but im gonna check the wiki.

SN9 , and ten now.

Its Jan 26 14:42 UTC.
Been watching this nerdle cam for a while everyday.
Its foggy right now.
Elon could troll so many people if he wanted to is a funny idea.
Im just stoked to watch this everyday with some other people.
Theres no launch today.
Im just getting really excited for the SN9 to see.
Love me some youtube.
Theres some etsy news, and Las Vegas tunnels I wanna see more of that.
Well so Sn8 came in for a hot landing cant wait to see this new test.
The Marvin the Martian knit dog costume lol, and the world reacts.
Theres also the boring company tunnels in Vegas, where hes planning to host a Fallout themed party.
Vegas loop.
“We were very excited from the get-go,” Stephen Thayer, vice president and general manager of The Strat resort, told the council. “Very few times in someone’s lifetime you can get behind something that is transformational.”
Thats a interesting comment about the tunnels in vegas, and funded by the company and some land owners. I dont know enough about Vegas rail transport.
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17:07 UTC same day. Less fog. Some venting going on.
Lots of people been checking in.
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Jan 27 03:07 UTC
Mega fog lol. I can seee like one light, I think. Theres a couple. Rollin fog.
I seen a truck.
Been doing 80’s music night here for like a week, and just cant stop. And, I repulse my friends cause i only wanna talk about 80’s synths7
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4:28 not foggy at all.
4:55 neither
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Jan 28 20:43 UTC watching this engine chill something might happen.
Hard to speculate on what will happen eventually its gotta launch though.
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Jan 29 01:44:07 observations. 11mph winds
3 main lights then. Seen a green looking drone earlier.
Still sittting there.
Wow this GME is some volatile news.
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Jan 29 15:58
Blue skies, 12-15 mph winds. From the lab padre says potential launch waiting for some FAA clearance.
There was a spacewalk couple days ago. Wish I had some highligths cause its 8 hrs. But still what Im seeing rigth now is incredible.
V Glover and M Hopkins got some camera views.
Ok the gist I get from the article is that its a European company with a commercial venture outside the station. its a 7 hr walk. Some really clear shots of the cylinders they live in.
The day night changes very oftem then seeing how he opens the tool packs. Gotta be patient, and effective. Riding the arm, thats crazy. Maybe you just chill when your attached to arm. You can wave to the other astronaut. Thats awesome. That was awesome. Briefly looked took a couple pics lol. Ok backl to the protoype.
Seen it was The M hopkins bday. That must be interesting bday.
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29 jan 20:24 UTC.
I see 2 starships one being towed on a road.
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29 Jan 22:26 UTC there’s a RV chilling in the ditch. 2x starships chilling there.
Imagine the RV stalling the launch.
I gotta say its exciting theres 2 now at the launch pad.
Theres some traffic,Its just a cool sight.
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He called em vestigial lol
Jan 30th 18:15 UTC. Still 2x Starship on launch pad.
Some nice blue hazy skies. I like the contrast of the color of sand and shrubs.
Only one crane then probably some action Feb 1. Is what Im seeing in the chat, or soonest feb 1.
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Jan 31 16:34 UTC
Some light fog.. Couple SN’s on the launch pad. Lots of speculation, one person suggesting more testing on the second ship before seeing any flight on the first. ITs a good height. 70f, that’s like 21 c. 19mph winds
Its beachy.
Couple cranes in view. A white car is hazarding on the side of the road and buddy is taking pictures.. Its quite the sight no doubt.
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Jan 31 18:42 UTC
New crane appeared on scene.
Working on number 10 sweet. And just like that its gone.
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Feb 1 00:13 UTC
Its the sun setting, seen a coolshiny band of light on both sns
00:42 dark now.
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Feb 1 22:44 UTC
was blue skies earlier I been busy, I count 5 cranes and a cherry picker Several cars pulled over to the right. Guy in jeans with a darker blue shirt.
62 f and 18 mph winds. Cyclist, approaches and red veh drives off. Just some live observations. One of the cranes working on sn10 retracted.
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Feb 2 Gasses be flowing kinda busy ill check back in a sec.
Ok amazing Sn9 launched.. Im watching the replay.
Feb 2 20:11 UTC
The one on the left has gas cloud at its base.
There was a smoking wreck I had to rewind, just watching the events unfolding before launch. Ok its shooting steam out its bottom sides.
20:15-16 the bottom launch pad is completely obsccured by some venting. There was a bird. Ok minute till launch lol, then after the wreck ill check out the official youtube footage.
Wow mushroom cloud on that really hot landing with the overshot. Amazing though, and crazy sounds coming off the speakers.
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Feb 3 14:15 UTC
its morning debris visible beyond a sea container. A pavement ends sign, is the onluy brigh colored thing in the shot. oh couple dirt mouns I realize its a still image with the birds. lol
Well Beach cam showwing a dark ocean blue couple dpeople on the right side of beach. On walking from rigth to left. im assuming the lef direction is east or north, Left is west or south.
Watching some fishers fish by the channel. Another boat drifts in. I wonder whjat you could fish there. Yummy Boca Chica tacos.
I like the beach cam cause its snew here. Love watching the waves go by. Shore birds fly-by. Gullet mouth pelican brief.
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Fe 4 14:22 UTC
I see SN10 on the right launch platform. Its a bit foggy.
Gray skies. Then some 20 mph winds 20 C.
14:50 , seen a couple guys on a cherry picker go up and observe something on the smaller tank.
I wonder what theyre up to. Also I seen Elon post on twitter some funny things still.
Cool they have golf carts to drive around, that would be a sick job.
Beach cam nice.
Feb 5 01:38
its dark, 3 main lights one cherry picker Vehicle drives away.
Yeh its weird not much to look at, with just one starship.
Feb 5 01:49 UTS I see cranes looks like the tall one has operator, I can see the orange operation light. Its next to the ceentrer light. Looks liek theres atleast 1 occupant as seen by flashlight. The work area is center rocker center between flaps. Mid ship.
02:16 2 cranes, one moved adjacent to rocket. The other looks like you can see buddies headlight, and its retracting live. Working late
02:22 both cranes down.
02:27 one crane up in the launch platform are for a hot min.
Milk truck showed up at the parking lot. Cold milk for everyone. Oh ty he cylinder truck drives off, backed up out of the parking lot.
Ok so strange, another cylinder style milk truck now driving in .
More crane action doesnt stop.
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Feb 5 13:50 UTC
Its gray, one starship on the pad. Crane truck showing up. Looks humid. 8 mph ENE winds 19 .
heres a backhoe showing up too.
I guess there was a NS 7.2 test I missed with a pop.
Looks like it could be raining , and overcast today.
Kinda dark still .
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Feb 6 13:51
super foggy.
I can see the edge of a palm tree plant lol. Plant looks nice.
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Feb 7 01:06 UTC
A truck drives by light pickup.
Looks like a scissor lift under the rocket, and some light adjusting.
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Feb 08 07:40 UC
3 main lights, no cranes,Some venting going on wild venting dancing around with no direction it wants to go. Is it methane? that must smell nice. It looks like a ghostly apparition trying to take shape and be somewhere, always in motion.
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Feb 9 18:18 UTC
Lots of action at the site today trucks and cranes and concrete peopple, ditch people improving and raking. People working and chewing tabbaco lol. Was foggy this morning too. Still a bit foggy the top of a crane part is obscured. Infrastructure work they callin it.
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Feb 10 15:36 UTC
Similar to yesterday, got lots of vehicles on sight. Oh I just noticed camera frozen lol. Silly me. Well in my defense the weather still active. And the news scrolling. The beach cam working. Wow gets so foggy can only see one foot in front sometimes.
Today is clear and waves. Its like a little gray , little dark. 21C on the weatehr ticker.
Some synchronized bird flew by.
Its like you can see so far as to see individual rain clouds floating by. As a retiree I could see myself doing something like that one day maybe. In a convenient way. it opens the world to you and puts people in festive mood.
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Feb 11 00:42
Gray, and yellow tinge dark blue skies.
7 main ligths on the nerdle cam. Just looks like more general improvements happening.
Thats a big light
So I rewinded its like to the left of sn10 theres the one similar to the old flying tank. Looks like a miny face lol.
Steaming body.
Theres a crane in action forground and background 00:55 another night shift.
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Feb 11 16:43 UTC
Just observing some infrastructure improvements, lots of vehicles on site. Its dawn looking. Like some orangish gray. Some darker skies.
Yep rocket just sitting there lol. If it had eyes, it would knoiw its upcoming fate. Shoot up in the sky and go for a belly flop controled crash landing lol. Just engineering is sweet especially in the form of belly flopping rocketship prototype. Theres the factory cam too with a crane in sight with a mnid-ship tubular section. Its cool. Its like a yuca or a cholla and it has a bird chilling on it. Could it be like black neckjed stilt maybe ? Or more like a oyster catcher. one of the two. Imagine me birdwatching on youtube lol.
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Feb 12 16:26 UTC
Gray foggy, looks wet Missed the thuderstorms. Yea theres infrastructure going on. That concrete ditch is looking nice and completed. Concrete trucks.
The crane still holding that midship section. Theres a starship in the tall garage. No birds on the yucca this morning.
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Feb 13 15:59
Been observing 4 c day. Someone moving a pile of dirt slowly with backhoe, maybe some more infrastructure pipes going on. The SN10 definitely there still. Foggy landscape at the factory

Watching starlink on feb 15 there was some seaguls on the droneship. 3 of em right in the yellow target circle. Rip to the seagul casualties. Its so weirds the dust in the lense effect too.
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Just confirming feb 16 yesterday the starlink rocket booster actually missed only startling the birds. But i seen the flash in the sky, then immediate darkness. Those woulda been some cooked seaguls lol.
The cams are down with the winter, and power infrastructure down. TX in state of weather emergency
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Its above 5c and some cams are working the starship there. Elon saved some turtles. Feb 18 17:29 UTC. Its pretty gray.
Mars rover landing today.
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Feb 19 mars rover was sweet.
17:30 UTC Couple cranes on the SN9. One crane on the left display.. Sorry more of cherry picker. Wow first asronaut thats gonna ride that things or pilot it. 3 SN tanks visible. The top of SN9 today looks like some blued metal, liek a heated stainless steel.Thats a interesting chemistry reaction couold learn more about. I guess essentially its rusting into magnetite. A differnet type of rust. That protects against rust. Well anyways some action 4 c. 23mph winds clearer skies. here is pretty nice and mild too. Space elevator thats intereesting, even planetary elevator that would be sweet even though cant really imagine it. Mayubee like a tractor beam suspended by some stationary satellites and infrastructure. Anyways SN10 quite the view buddy way up there midship on the cherry picker no fear of heights.
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Feb 18 2021 16:38 UTC Action on the launch pad.
Some cranes,. 19 c. Some blue clouds.
Windy palm.21 mph winds surely no launch but nice to see some activity since the polar vortex. OOh beach cam back up. Mega fishing, and cars. Maybe some -5 camping. After driving and sweating and then freezing in -5 probably wouldn’t be that fun lol. Musta been some older footage not live.
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Feb 22 05:33 this time live 3 cherry pickers all the way to the top.not windy 16 C. Those cranes be up. Well when its time to do something getter done.
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Feb 22 16:46 UTC some activity scissor lift with a person inside around SN10. Blue semi, hauling something big. Another scissor lift with few people working in it on the left side. Empty launch pad on the right. Next its kinda gray/blue cloudy. Theres some dumptrucks, and skidsteers in action trucks and radio towers those are cool. I wonder if you could cook a hotdog with one lol. And, if it would scramble the waves lol.
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Feb 23 15:32 UTC
Ok heres an actual crane visible near the second empty launch platform. Gasses flowing. Crane kinda swinging in the wind 2 other cherry pickers in sight are in a grounded position. Launch pad cam looks way bluer skies.Heres a walking person couple vehicles and a concrete truck. Theres some glare on the top right of the SN10 rocket nosecone right above the left upper flap. Thats awesome there goes the little shuttle cart. I guess im curious what all those gas cylinders are doing, the painted black ones probably some kind of Charles law. THe crane is definitely moving its gone a thumbs length across the screen. Beach looks nice.
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Feb 25 01:49 UTC , there was a static fire that looked like something went wrong maybe, they said replacing engines.Anyways still there, ut missed writing that I seen a highlight it looked like a pressure thing with fire, but I didnt know was a static fire. Kidna hard to see the SN10 at night see what looks liek a couple cherry pickers and a dot of ligth on the right side. Looks cool with the dark fog and reflections of the bright lights. Especially on the road. When you look at the facility its clear lights, and visible tent structures. The engine swap. Rocket engine is such a cool thing lol. Raptor. I guess looking at a photo theres some hexagon honeycomb frame and a madd of tubes and wires and thhe business end of a rocket engine. Anyways that bang was loud and was for Feb 23rd sometime. or around that.
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Feb 26 15:31 UTC
Appears I missed a second static fire. There was like another pressure explosion I seen, not sure the time but iot would be the second static after the faulty raptor was replaced.There is a person with their head inside the lower rocket body. Someone in a skid steer doig some road or irrigation work. Theres a tractor with bucket , and ‘steam roller’ roller. IO guess its funny Brad talking about the writing, its difficult for me describing the heavy equipment sometimes its fun though. Theres actually 2 in the cherry picker. 0 mph winds, sunny light clouds, 18 C. Im sure they all have a bunker they can be in while they testy fire lol. Doesnt look like beach view is working bummer. Ok beach cam works just still hazy and early .
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Feb 27 13:46 UTC
Early observartions, its light compared to here. Its foggy 18 C 9 mph winds. I see gray skies. orange sand, very light traffic SN10 is there apparently however currently obscured by fog. Some workers on site. SN10 is definetly there.3 workers just chillin there waiting for work to begin. Beach cam died 2 am.
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Mar 2 16:30 UTC
24 mph winds, windy 13 c.
Got some cranes and cherry pickers in the shot. Theres another SN at the factory in the vertical tent. Shiny new one. beach cam windy as heel. couple fishers out.
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oooh was doing homework quiick break its march 3 local time 1:13 pm at 90 seconds countdown till SN10 launch watching live…

45 seconds.
30 seconds. Ok this thing gonna go high up and come down really fast! go spaceX!
Aborted.
That was still exciting..
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Well that about end this thread, so SN10 launched yesterday, landed, then exploded. Today is Feb 4 2021. Yea so there was a scrubbed launch and then it did launch. That was exciting, So I watched the scrubbed launch then back to homework then I missed it.